Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Neurosurgery, or neurological surgery, is the medical specialty concerned with the prevention, surgical treatment, rehabilitation of disorders which affect any portion of the nervous system including the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, extra-cranial cerebrovascular system. In different countries, there are different requirements for an individual to practice neurosurgery, there are varying methods through which they must be educated. In most countries, neurosurgeon training requires a minimum period of seven years after graduating from medical school. In the United States, a neurosurgeon must complete four years of undergraduate education, four years of medical school, seven years of residency. Most, but not all, residency programs have some component of clinical research. Neurosurgeons may pursue additional training in the form of a fellowship, after residency or in some cases, as a senior resident; these fellowships include pediatric neurosurgery, trauma/neurocritical care and stereotactic surgery, surgical neuro-oncology, neurovascular surgery, skull-base surgery, peripheral nerve and spine surgery.
In the U. S. neurosurgery is considered a competitive specialty composed of 0.6% of all practicing physicians. In the United Kingdom, students must gain entry into medical school. MBBS qualification takes four to six years depending on the student's route; the newly qualified physician must complete foundation training lasting two years. Junior doctors apply to enter the neurosurgical pathway. Unlike most other surgical specialties, it has its own independent training pathway which takes around eight years. Neurosurgery remains amongst the most competitive medical specialties in which to obtain entry. Neurosurgery, or the premeditated incision into the head for pain relief, has been around for thousands of years, but notable advancements in neurosurgery have only come within the last hundred years; the Incas appear to have practiced a procedure known as trepanation since the late Stone age. During the Middle Ages in Arabia from 936 to 1013 AD, Al-Zahrawi performed surgical treatments of head injuries, skull fractures, spinal injuries, subdural effusions and headache.
There was not much advancement in neurosurgery until late 19th early 20th century, when electrodes were placed on the brain and superficial tumors were removed. History of electrodes in the brain: In 1878 Richard Canton discovered that electrical signals transmitted through an animal's brain. In 1950 Dr. Jose Delgado invented the first electrode, implanted in an animal's brain, using it to make it run and change direction. In 1972 the cochlear implant, a neurological prosthetic that allowed deaf people to hear was marketed for commercial use. In 1998 researcher Philip Kennedy implanted the first Brain Computer Interface into a human subject. History of tumor removal: In 1879 after locating it via neurological signs alone, Scottish surgeon William Macewen performed the first successful brain tumor removal. On November 25, 1884 after English physician Alexander Hughes Bennett used Macewen's technique to locate it, English surgeon Rickman Godlee performed the first primary brain tumor removal, which differs from Macewen's operation in that Bennett operated on the exposed brain, whereas Macewen operated outside of the "brain proper" via trepanation.
On March 16, 1907 Austrian surgeon Hermann Schloffer became the first to remove a pituitary tumor. The main advancements in neurosurgery came about as a result of crafted tools. Modern neurosurgical tools, or instruments, include chisels, dissectors, elevators, hooks, probes, suction tubes, power tools, robots. Most of these modern tools, like chisels, forcepts, hooks and probes, have been in medical practice for a long time; the main difference of these tools and post advancement in neurosurgery, were the precision in which they were crafted. These tools are crafted with edges. Other tools such as hand held power saws and robots have only been used inside of a neurological operating room; as an example, the University of Utah developed a device for computer-aided design / computer-aided manufacturing which uses an image-guided system to define a cutting tool path for a robotic cranial drill. General neurosurgery involves most neurosurgical conditions including neuro-trauma and other neuro-emergencies such as intracranial hemorrhage.
Most level 1 hospitals have this kind of practice. Specialized branches have developed to cater to difficult conditions; these specialized branches co-exist with general neurosurgery in more sophisticated hospitals. To practice advanced specialization within neurosurgery, additional higher fellowship training of one to two years is expected from the neurosurgeon; some of these divisions of neurosurgery are: Vascular neurosurgery includes clipping of aneurysms and performing carotid endarterectomy. Stereotactic neurosurgery, functional neurosurgery, epilepsy surgery (the latter includes partial or total corpus callosotomy – severing part or all of the corpus callosum to stop or lessen seizure spread and activity, the surgical removal of functional, physiological and/or anatomical pieces or divisions of the brain, called epileptic foci, that are operable and th
Journal of the Norwegian Medical Association
The Journal of the Norwegian Medical Association is a biweekly peer-reviewed medical journal published by the Norwegian Medical Association. It was established in 1881, five years before the Norwegian Medical Association was established, as the Tidsskrift for praktisk Medicin; the journal changed names in 1888 to Organ for Den norske lægeforening before obtaining its current name in 1890. It includes research and review articles, news stories, debates about professional issues and education, as well as discussion of medical education; the journal has been indexed by Index Medicus, MEDLINE, PubMed since 1965. The journal accepts advertising for prescription drugs that cannot be advertised to the general public, it includes advertisements for specialist practices and private hospitals. The editor-in-chief from 2002 to 2015 was Charlotte Haug, since Are Brean. Official website
Norway the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic country in Northern Europe whose territory comprises the western and northernmost portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula. The Antarctic Peter I Island and the sub-Antarctic Bouvet Island are dependent territories and thus not considered part of the kingdom. Norway lays claim to a section of Antarctica known as Queen Maud Land. Norway has a total area of 385,207 square kilometres and a population of 5,312,300; the country shares a long eastern border with Sweden. Norway is bordered by Finland and Russia to the north-east, the Skagerrak strait to the south, with Denmark on the other side. Norway has an extensive coastline, facing the Barents Sea. Harald V of the House of Glücksburg is the current King of Norway. Erna Solberg has been prime minister since 2013. A unitary sovereign state with a constitutional monarchy, Norway divides state power between the parliament, the cabinet and the supreme court, as determined by the 1814 constitution; the kingdom was established in 872 as a merger of a large number of petty kingdoms and has existed continuously for 1,147 years.
From 1537 to 1814, Norway was a part of the Kingdom of Denmark-Norway, from 1814 to 1905, it was in a personal union with the Kingdom of Sweden. Norway was neutral during the First World War. Norway remained neutral until April 1940 when the country was invaded and occupied by Germany until the end of Second World War. Norway has both administrative and political subdivisions on two levels: counties and municipalities; the Sámi people have a certain amount of self-determination and influence over traditional territories through the Sámi Parliament and the Finnmark Act. Norway maintains close ties with both the United States. Norway is a founding member of the United Nations, NATO, the European Free Trade Association, the Council of Europe, the Antarctic Treaty, the Nordic Council. Norway maintains the Nordic welfare model with universal health care and a comprehensive social security system, its values are rooted in egalitarian ideals; the Norwegian state has large ownership positions in key industrial sectors, having extensive reserves of petroleum, natural gas, lumber and fresh water.
The petroleum industry accounts for around a quarter of the country's gross domestic product. On a per-capita basis, Norway is the world's largest producer of oil and natural gas outside of the Middle East; the country has the fourth-highest per capita income in the world on the World IMF lists. On the CIA's GDP per capita list which includes autonomous territories and regions, Norway ranks as number eleven, it has the world's largest sovereign wealth fund, with a value of US$1 trillion. Norway has had the highest Human Development Index ranking in the world since 2009, a position held between 2001 and 2006, it had the highest inequality-adjusted ranking until 2018 when Iceland moved to the top of the list. Norway ranked first on the World Happiness Report for 2017 and ranks first on the OECD Better Life Index, the Index of Public Integrity, the Democracy Index. Norway has one of the lowest crime rates in the world. Norway has two official names: Norge in Noreg in Nynorsk; the English name Norway comes from the Old English word Norþweg mentioned in 880, meaning "northern way" or "way leading to the north", how the Anglo-Saxons referred to the coastline of Atlantic Norway similar to scientific consensus about the origin of the Norwegian language name.
The Anglo-Saxons of Britain referred to the kingdom of Norway in 880 as Norðmanna land. There is some disagreement about whether the native name of Norway had the same etymology as the English form. According to the traditional dominant view, the first component was norðr, a cognate of English north, so the full name was Norðr vegr, "the way northwards", referring to the sailing route along the Norwegian coast, contrasting with suðrvegar "southern way" for, austrvegr "eastern way" for the Baltic. In the translation of Orosius for Alfred, the name is Norðweg, while in younger Old English sources the ð is gone. In the 10th century many Norsemen settled in Northern France, according to the sagas, in the area, called Normandy from norðmann, although not a Norwegian possession. In France normanni or northmanni referred to people of Sweden or Denmark; until around 1800 inhabitants of Western Norway where referred to as nordmenn while inhabitants of Eastern Norway where referred to as austmenn. According to another theory, the first component was a word nór, meaning "narrow" or "northern", referring to the inner-archipelago sailing route through the land.
The interpretation as "northern", as reflected in the English and Latin forms of the name, would have been due to folk etymology. This latter view originated with philologist Niels Halvorsen Trønnes in 1847; the form Nore is still used in placenames such as the village of Nore and lake Norefjorden in Buskerud county, still has the same meaning. Among other arguments in favour of the theor