Pardubice is a city in the Czech Republic. It is the capital city of the Pardubice Region and lies on the river Elbe, 96 kilometres east of Prague. There is a castle. Factories include the Synthesia chemical factory, an oil refinery Paramo, a heavy machinery factory and an electronic equipment plant; the city is well known for its sport events, ginger bread and air transport. The oldest extant document regarding Pardubice comes from 1295; the area had a monastery founded in 2nd half of 13th century and the city was founded c. 1340. In 1491, Pardubice was bought by William II of Pernstein, who continued to expand the town and made significant impact on its prosperity; until 1918, the town was part of the Austrian monarchy, head of the PARDUBITZ district, one of the 94 Bezirkshauptmannschaften in Bohemia. In 1845, the first train arrived to Pardubice; the town was connected to other railway lines so Pardubice could thrive more. New industrial enterprises started to emerge in the town, namely a distillery, a factory for mill machines of Josef Prokop and sons and Fanta’s Factory.
Since 1874, the Great Pardubice Steeplechase horse race has taken place every autumn. On 13 May 1911, Ing. Jan Kašpar made history by flying the first long-haul flight towards Prague. In Pardubice, industrial expansion was on the rise after the First World War. However, during the Second World War the town was damaged by air strikes of the Allies; the Fanto Werke refinery at Pardubice was bombed during the Oil Campaign of World War II, forced labor was provided by a concentration camp. Tesla electronics manufacturer operated from 1921–1989, the Foxconn factory was established in June 2000. After 1989 the town continued to flourish. Pardubice has established contacts with foreign towns. Pardubice is situated on the bank of the second longest river in the Czech Republic, the Labe River, where there is a mouth of another river called Chrudimka. Pardubice is located at 15° east longitude and 50° north longitude; the town is located 100 km east of the capital city of 150 km north-west of Brno. Pardubice is in the area of Labe Lowlands with average elevation of 225 m and its area is 78 km2.
The area is of lowland character without many hills. One exception is Kunětická hora. Pardubice is an important railway junction. From Pardubice come tracks to Prague, Hradec Králové and Jaroměř or Havlíčkův Brod. Railway station Pardubice main station is busy, all trains of Czech railways, RegioJet and LEO Express stop there. Pardubice is served by Pardubice Airport. Pardubice is called the city of industry; the dominant industries are electrical engineering and mechanical engineering. The chemical industry is represented by a company Paramo and Synthesia, founded in Pardubice-Semtín as a stock factory for explosive substances; this field of industry together with the factory went through significant development in 1960s. Synthesia is now one of the leading Czech companies manufacturing cellulose and dyes, organic compounds. Synthesia is a major exporter for the EU countries and is associated with the invention of Semtex plastic explosive. Paramo – formally known as Fanta’s Factory was until 2012 one of the major companies of its kind, but during the year a major shareholder decided to suppress its production and the future of Paramo is still uncertain.
Pardubice is dominated by the Green Gate with remains of the town’s fortifications. The Chateau, reconstructed, is located nearby; the town itself has many historical buildings, for example, Kamenná vila, Crematorium, Dům U Bílého koníčka, Wernerův dům, Dům U Jonáše, the City Hall. Churches are dedicated to St. Bartholomew. Ice hockey club Dynamo Pardubice plays in the Czech Extraliga; the team plays its home games at Tipsport Arena. The city was first represented in the top national football competition by SK Pardubice in the 1930s and 1940s. VCHZ Pardubice played in the top national league in the 1968–69 season; as of 2016, the highest-ranked team from the city is FK Pardubice, which plays in the second-tier Czech National Football League. Women's team SK; the basketball team is BK JIP Pardubice. The city is home to the Golden Helmet of Pardubice, a motorcycle speedway competition held at the Svítkov Stadium; the Golden Helmet has been run since 1929 is one of the most prestigious individual titles in world speedway outside of the Speedway World Championship or a riders national championship.
Winners of the Golden Helmet have included World Champions Ole Olsen, Erik Gundersen, Hans Nielsen and Nicki Pedersen, Ove Fundin, Per Jonsson and Tony Rickardsson, Jason Crump and 2014 winner Chris Holder. Ole Olsen holds the record for the most Golden Helmet wins with 7. In 2018 Pardubice is for the first time represented in the Czech rink bandy league. Edita Adlerová, classical mezzo-soprano Filip Bandžak, opera singer, baritone Gustav Gärtner, pathologist Dominik Hašek, former NHL goaltender for the Detroit Red Wings, Ottawa Senators, Buffalo Sabres and Chicago Blackhawks. Aleš Hemský, NHL hockey player for the Montreal Canadi
Kłodzko is a town in south-western Poland, in the region of Lower Silesia. It is situated on the Eastern Neisse river. Kłodzko is the seat of Kłodzko County, is situated in Lower Silesian Voivodeship. With 28,250 inhabitants, Kłodzko is the main commercial centre as well as an important transport and tourist node for the area. For its historical monuments it is sometimes referred to as "Little Prague". Established as a settlement in the 10th century, it is one of the oldest towns in Poland, having been granted city rights in 1233. Culturally and traditionally a part of Bohemia, administratively it has been a part of Silesia since 1763; the area of present-day Kłodzko has been populated at least since the 1st century BC. There are several archaeological sites both in and around the town that indicate that there must have been a settlement located on the ancient Amber Road that conducted extensive trade relations with the Roman Empire; the earliest mention of the town itself is in the 12th-century Chronicle of Bohemians by Cosmas of Prague.
He mentions the town of Cladzco as belonging to duke Slavník, father of Adalbert of Prague, in 981. In Bohemia, the town was claimed by the Kingdom of Poland, which led to a series of conflicts which in turn devastated the town by the beginning of the 12th century. In 1114 Bohemian prince Soběslav burnt the town to the ground, he rebuilt and strengthened the castle located on a high rock overlooking the town. After the peace treaty of 1137, Duke Bolesław III Wrymouth of Poland ceded all claims to the Kłodzko Land to the Bohemian Duchy. In 1241, Klodzko became the site of a Mongol raid during the Mongolian Invasion of Europe. However, King Wenceslaus I managed to rally his troops and drove the Mongols out, saving much of Bohemia from Mongolian conquest; the town was granted German city rights under Magdeburg Law between 1253 and 1278, though the exact date is unknown. In 1278 it was taken over by the Silesian duke Henry Probus who claimed entire Bohemian Kingdom after death of Ottokar II of Bohemia.
In 1290 it was sold to the Dukes of Świdnica and in 1301, it was sold to the Dukes of Ziębice. However, in 1334, Duke Boleslav II sold the town back to the Kingdom of Bohemia; the same year Bohemian king John of Luxembourg, relocated the town, which led to a period of fast growth, bringing German settlers to the town. A city hall was built in 1341, in the following year a brick factory was opened. From 1366, the town has been protected by a group of professional firemen; the town gained significant profits from its location on the ancient road from Bohemia to Poland through mountain passes in the Sudetes. German Augustinian monks were invited to the city and, in 1376, most streets were paved with stone setts; the Augustinian abbey became one of the most important centres of culture in the region – for example, in 1399 one of the earliest texts in the Polish language, the St. Florian's Psalter, was written here. In 1390 a Gothic stone bridge over the Młynówka River was built by the local lord. Kladsko developed until the start of the Hussite Wars in the 15th century.
The wars left the town depopulated by plagues burnt, demolished by several consecutive floods. In 1459 whole Kłodzko Land was elevated by Bohemian king George of Poděbrady to the status of county – thus the city became a seat of Count and local Diet – but still remained integral part of Bohemia as "outer region", was not counted as part of Silesia. In 1526 the Habsburgs were enthroned as the kings of Bohemia, thus the County of Kladsko became a part of the Habsburg Monarchy. It was not until the 16th century. In 1540 the sewer system was built. In 1549 the remaining streets were paved and the city hall was refurbished. Most of the houses surrounding the town square were rebuilt in a pure Renaissance style. In 1617 the first census was organised in the County of Glatz; the city itself had 1,300 houses and over 7,000 inhabitants. However, two years after the census took place. Between 1619 and 1649 the fortress was besieged several times. Although the fortress was never captured, the city itself was destroyed.
Over 900 out of 1,300 buildings were destroyed by fire and artillery and the population dropped by more than a half. After the war the Austrian authorities put an end to all local self-government, the County of Glatz existed in name only; the city was converted into a small garrison town attached to the ever-growing fortress. The Kingdom of Prussia annexed Glatz during the 18th century Silesian Wars, although Austrian influence is still evident in the architecture and culture of the region; the construction of the fortress was continued and the town had to bear the costs of the fortress expansion. In 1760 the town was captured by Austrian forces in the Siege of Glatz, but was subsequently returned to Prussia. Unlike most of Prussian Silesia, Glatz resisted French bombardment during the War of the Fourth Coalition. Glatz became part of the German Empire in 1871 during the Prussian-led unification of Germany; the restrictions in the city's growth were not withdrawn until
Roudnice nad Labem
Roudnice nad Labem is a town on the left bank of the Elbe River. It has a population of 13 500 and covers an area of 16,67 km²; the town is situated near the site of Říp, notable for its connection with the legend of Praotec Čech. A steel road bridge dating from the early 20th century spans the Elbe in Roudnice nad Labem, its medieval predecessor was the third oldest stone bridge in Bohemia and the first bridge to connect both banks of the river. Roudnice nad Labem features a castle of late Romanesque origin, now reconstructed in Baroque architectural style. Civic amenities include a post office, several shopping centres, pharmacies and municipal libraries, swimming pool, ice hockey arena, football stadium and athletic stadium; the Roudnice airport is located near the southwestern edge of the city and hosts the Memorial Air Show every other year. Roudnice nad Labem has a long and rich history, it is one of the oldest Czech towns. The first appearances of the city in written records are dated to 1167 and 1176, but the first signs of settlement are from the prehistoric ages.
Roudnice nad Labem received a statute as a city near the end of the 12th century. In the same period a Romanesque castle was built, becoming the second private building made of stone in Bohemia. In 1333, bishop Jan IV ordered, it was the third stone bridge in Bohemia. At the end of the 14th century, the New City of Roudnice nad Labem was built and, along with the Old City of Roudnice nad Labem, surrounded by walls. In the 15th century, during the Hussite wars, the city was the target of several Hussite raids; the city was conquered by Jan Žižka in 1421, by Jan Roháč of Dubá in 1425, by Václav Carda of Petrovice in 1428. After the Hussite wars, the city was sold several times. During his rule, the city was expanded. During the Thirty Years' War, the city of Roudnice nad Labem was burned down and demolished by the Swedish army in 1634 and 1639 In the 19th century, Roudnice nad Labem became the industrial and economical centre of the Podřipský region, due to several new factories and the railway from Prague to Dresden.
Until 1918, ROUDNICE - RAUDNITZ was part of the Austrian monarchy, in the district of the same name, one of the 94 Bezirkshauptmannschaften in Bohemia. A post-office was opened in September 1850, named RAUDNITZ; the first football match in the Austro-Hungarian Empire as well as what is now modern day Czech Republic took place on the islet in the middle of the Labe River, located within the city limits, in 1887. In 1910, the old stone bridge was rebuilt into a new steel road bridge; the same island, referred to most as Ostrov Claudie Stublera, is the subject of an award-winning poetry anthology entitled "Obcházení ostrova" written by local poet Milan Děžinský, who won the Magnesia Litera Moleskine Litera for Poetry award for his work and highlights that the real name of the island is not known. Roudnice Castle was built in the 12th century by Bishop Jindřich Břetislav, the nephew of the Czech king Vladislav I, to protected an important trade route from Prague to Upper Lusatia along the Elbe.
The castle complex included several farm buildings, protected by a fortified wall. In the mid-14th century, it was rebuilt in a Gothic style and became a favorite summer residence for Prague bishops, it is said. In 1421, the Catholic Church sold the castle to Jan Smiřický. George of Poděbrady, king of Bohemia, captured Roudnice from Smiřický in 1467, it passed into the ownership of William Rožumberk, the Supreme Burgrave and one of the wealthiest men in Bohemia. After Rožumberk’s death, his widow Polyxena Pernštejn married Zdenek Vojtěch of Lobkowicz, Chancellor of the Czech Kingdom and 1st Prince Lobkowicz, bringing Roudnice into the Lobkowicz family’s possessions. In 1652 their son Václav Eusebius, 2nd Prince Lobkowicz, embarked upon an ambitious project to transform the castle into an early baroque palace. From 1657 until the Second World War the Lobkowicz Collection's library was stored in Roudnice Castle, leading to the library being named the Roudnice Lobkowicz Library. Václav Eusebius of Lobkowicz hired two Italian architects, Francesco Caratti and Antonio della Porta, to renovate Roudnice Castle.
Between 1652 and 1684, they demolished most of the original structure, creating a 200-room baroque residence that included a clock tower, a chapel decorated with elaborate frescoes, a theater, large formal gardens. For two and a half centuries Roudnice served as a repository for the Lobkowicz family's collections of artwork, religious objects, musical instruments, books and manuscripts; the palace was confiscated by the Communist government in 1948. After 1989, the palace was restored to the Lobkowicz family, who continued to rent the palace to Vít Nejedlý until the school closed in 2008. In 2009 the palace underwent major renovations, it was opened to the public in 2012. Emanuele d'Astorga Arthur Breisky Max Dvořák, art historian Kurt Epstein Seligmann Heller Georg Wilhelm Pabst Cola di Rienzo - medieval Italian politician
Náchod is a town in the Czech Republic, in the Hradec Králové Region. Náchod is located in the valley of the river Metuje, in an upland area between the mountain ranges of Krkonoše and Orlické hory, it is the seat of a district court, the office of district prosecuting attorney and a number of district chapters of other government agencies, several primary and secondary level schools, a hospital and other social facilities. Sights include other places in and around the town; the area offers a variety of natural opportunities for outdoor activities. Knight Hron of Načeradec founded a castle in mid-13th century to protect a tract of an old trade road from Prague to Breslau, the town below at the same time; the first record of its name is dated in 1254. An earlier settlement was located in the area known as Staré Město, with 13th-century St. John the Baptist’s Church; the town was fortified with bastions early in the 14th century. Owners of the castle included kings John the George of Poděbrady. Over time the castle grew into a large fortress.
Powerful and rich Smiřický family acquired the domain in 1544, had the castle rebuilt into a comfortable Renaissance château. The town bought a manor at nearby Slané in the County of Kladsko in 1601, which remained its property till 1945; the Thirty Years' War put an end to the prosperity of the town. The properties of the Smiřickýs, loyal to King Frederick of the Palatinate, were seized by the imperial treasury after the Battle of the White Mountain and sold to the Trčkas of Lípa in 1623; when Adam Erdman Trčka was assassinated in Cheb in 1634, the domain was seized again and donated by the Emperor to his general Ottavio Piccolomini Duke of Amalfi. Thus the town fell into the hands of an Italian family, suffered from military operations and forced re-catholicization, but enjoyed some development: the château was grandly rebuilt in the Baroque style, the first street in the town was paved in 1638, a new town hall was built and St. Lawrence’s Church on the square renovated after the fire of 1663.
The burgesses were granted some privileges. The Piccolominis extinct in 1783, the herrschaft of Náchod including the manors of Ratibořice and Chvalkovice, was inherited by the Desfours family and sold in 1792 to Duke Peter von Biron of Courland and Sagan, successful administrator of his property and lover of art and music. Náchod was the second place in Bohemia after Prague where Mozart’s Don Giovanni was staged in 1797; when the duke died in 1800, his eldest daughter Katharina Wilhelmine inherited Náchod and the Duchy of Sagan. She kept a palace in Vienna and had close contacts with many political figures of the time, her palace was one of the favourite venues of the Congress of Vienna. After the death of the Duchess of Sagan, the princes of Schaumburg-Lippe bought Náchod and held the castle till 1945, though the herrschaft system was abolished in the reform of 1849 and succeeded by public administration districts. Beside the district administration and district court, the reform brought about an elected town council, fast development of businesses and schools, a building boom that included the neo-renaissance town hall and art-nouveau theatre.
Middle-class national awareness and cultural level were on the increase. Náchod was connected to the railway network in 1875. Home weaving and other crafts evolved into full-fledged industries. Town brewery started operation in 1872, beginning in 1882, cotton mills emerged one by one at a fast pace, making Náchod one of important centres of cotton and linen spinning, weaving and dyeing mills. Industrial development includes a foundry, a rubber factory, an electrical engineering plant. Extensive border fortifications were built in and around Náchod in the years prior to World War II to protect the territory of Czechoslovakia against the threat of German invasion; the border in the area of Náchod did not shift after the Munich Agreement, as no German speakers lived next to the border. As Náchod had no ethnic German population, it did not suffer from the massive deportations of 1945–46, it became a somewhat peripheral town during the Communist era as cross-border contacts in the Soviet-dominated bloc were not encouraged.
The situation changed in the 1990s and when both Czech Republic and Poland became part of the Schengen area in 2007. The 1990s saw a rapid decay of local cotton industry, while some new manufacturing businesses were established; the opening of the border gave a new boost to the traditional tourist industry in the attractive hilly country, as outdoor activities now extend across to the Polish Góry Stolowe National Park. Hron of Náchod founded the castle in the mid 13th century, it consisted of a palace, typical of the bergfried type. In 1544 Zikmund Smiricky rebuilt the castle in the Renaissance style; when Ottavio Piccolomini got the herrschaft of Náchod in 1634, he had the castle renovated in the Baroque style to the design of a
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Georg Gottfried Julius Dehio, was a Baltic German art historian. In 1900, Dehio started the "Handbuch der deutschen Kunstgeschichte", published by Ernst Wasmuth; the project is managed by the'Dehio - Vereinigung', Munich. He is the namesake of the Georg Dehio Prize, he was laureate of the Pour le Mérite order, the Eagle Shield of the German Empire and the Bavarian Maximilian Order for Science and Art. He held honorary doctor titles in Göttingen, Tübingen and Darmstadt; the 1987 discovered. Karl Gottfried Konstantin Dehio, cousin Ludwig Dehio, his son Erhard Dehio, last German mayor of Reval, Georg's younger brother Georg Dehio Book Prize Georg Dehio Cultural Prize Works by Georg Dehio at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Georg Dehio at Internet Archive Céline Trautmann-Waller: Alois Riegl. In: Michel Espagne und Bénédicte Savoy. Dictionnaire des historiens d'art allemands. CNRS Editions, Paris 2010, ISBN 978-2-271-06714-2, S. 217-228. Georg Dehio in: Baltic Biographic Lexicon Newspaper clippings about Georg Dehio in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics
Charles University, known as Charles University in Prague or as the University of Prague, is the oldest and largest university in the Czech Republic. Founded in 1348, it was the first university in Central Europe, it is one of the oldest universities in Europe in continuous operation and ranks in the upper 1.5 percent of the world’s best universities. Today, the university consists of 17 faculties located in Hradec Králové and Pilsen, its academic publishing house is Karolinum Press. The university operates several museums and two botanical gardens, its seal shows its protector Emperor Charles IV, with his coats of arms as King of the Romans and King of Bohemia, kneeling in front of St. Wenceslas, the patron saint of Bohemia, it is surrounded by Sigillum Universitatis Scolarium Studii Pragensis. The establishment of a medieval university in Prague was inspired by Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV, he asked Pope Clement VI, to do so. On 26 January 1347 the pope issued the bull establishing a university in Prague, modeled on the University of Paris, with the full number of faculties, including theological.
On 7 April 1348 Charles, the king of Bohemia, gave to the established university privileges and immunities from the secular power in a Golden Bull and on 14 January 1349 he repeated that as the King of the Romans. Most Czech sources since the 19th century—encyclopedias, general histories, materials of the University itself—prefer to give 1348 as the year of the founding of the university, rather than 1347 or 1349; this was caused by an anticlerical shift in the 19th century, shared by both Germans. The university was opened in 1349; the university was sectioned into parts called nations: the Bohemian, Bavarian and Saxon. The Bohemian natio included Bohemians, southern Slavs, Hungarians. Ethnically Czech students made 16–20% of all students. Archbishop Arnošt of Pardubice took an active part in the foundation by obliging the clergy to contribute and became a chancellor of the university; the first graduate was promoted in 1359. The lectures were held in the colleges, of which the oldest was named for the king the Carolinum, established in 1366.
In 1372 the Faculty of Law became an independent university. In 1402 Jerome of Prague in Oxford copied out the Trialogus of John Wycliffe; the dean of the philosophical faculty, Jan Hus, translated Trialogus into the Czech language. In 1403 the university forbade its members to follow the teachings of Wycliffe, but his doctrine continued to gain in popularity. In the Western Schism, the Bohemian natio took the side of king Wenceslaus and supported the Council of Pisa; the other nationes of the university declared their support for the side of Pope Gregory XII, thus the vote was 1:3 against the Bohemians. Hus and other Bohemians, took advantage of Wenceslaus' opposition to Gregory. By the Decree of Kutná Hora on 18 January 1409, the king subverted the university constitution by granting the Bohemian masters three votes. Only a single vote was left for all other three nationes combined, compared to one vote per each natio before; the result of this coup was the emigration of foreign professors and students, founding the University of Leipzig in May 1409.
Before that, in 1408, the university had about 200 doctors and magisters, 500 bachelors, 30,000 students. In the autumn of 1409, Hus was elected rector of the now Czech-dominated rump university. Thus, the Prague university lost the largest part of its students and faculty. From on the university declined to a regional institution with a low status. Soon, in 1419, the faculties of theology and law disappeared, only the faculty of arts remained in existence; the faculty of arts became a centre of the Hussite movement, the chief doctrinal authority of the Utraquists. No degrees were given in the years 1417–30. Emperor Sigismund, son of Charles IV, took what was left into his personal property and some progress was made; the emperor Ferdinand I called the Jesuits to Prague and in 1562 they opened an academy—the Clementinum. From 1541 till 1558 the Czech humanist Mattheus Collinus was a professor of Greek language; some progress was made again. In 1609 the obligatory celibacy of the professors was abolished.
In 1616 the Jesuit Academy became a university. Jesuits were expelled 1618–1621 during the early stages of the Thirty Years' War, started in Prague by anti-Catholic and anti-Imperial Bohemians. By 1622 the Jesuits had a predominant influence over the emperor. An Imperial decree of 19 September 1622 gave the Jesuits supreme control over the entire school system of Bohemia and Silesia; the last four professors at the Carolinum resigned and all of the Carolinum and nine colleges went to the Jesuits. The right of handing out degrees, of holding chancellorships and of appointing the secular professors was granted to the Jesuits. Cardinal Ernst Adalbert von Harrach opposed union of the university with another institution and the withdrawal of the archepiscopal right to the chanc