Ferrari N. V. is an Italian sports car manufacturer based in Maranello. Founded by Enzo Ferrari in 1939 as Auto Avio Costruzioni, the company built its first car in 1940, however the companys inception as an auto manufacturer is usually recognized in 1947, when the first Ferrari-badged car was completed. Ferrari is the worlds most powerful according to Brand Finance. In May 2012 the 1962 Ferrari 250 GTO became the most expensive car in history, Fiat S. p. A. acquired 50 percent of Ferrari in 1969 and expanded its stake to 90 percent in 1988. In October 2014 Fiat Chrysler Automobiles announced its intentions to separate Ferrari S. p. A. from FCA, through the remaining steps of the separation, FCAs interest in Ferraris business was distributed to shareholders of FCA, with 10 percent continuing to be owned by Piero Ferrari. The spin-off was completed on 3 January 2016, Ferrari road cars are generally seen as a symbol of speed and wealth. Enzo Ferrari was not initially interested in the idea of producing road cars when he formed Scuderia Ferrari in 1929, Scuderia Ferrari literally means Ferrari Stable and is usually used to mean Team Ferrari.
Ferrari bought and fielded Alfa Romeo racing cars for gentlemen drivers, in September 1939 Enzo Ferrari left Alfa Romeo under the provision that he would not use the Ferrari name in association with races or racing cars for at least four years. A few days he founded Auto Avio Costruzioni, headquartered in the facilities of the old Scuderia Ferrari, the new company ostensibly produced machine tools and aircraft accessories. In 1940 Ferrari did in fact produce a race car – the Tipo 815 and it was the first Ferrari car and debuted at the 1940 Mille Miglia, but due to World War II it saw little competition. In 1943 the Ferrari factory moved to Maranello, where it has remained ever since, the factory was bombed by the Allies and subsequently rebuilt including a works for road car production. The first Ferrari-badged car was the 1947125 S, powered by a 1.5 L V12 engine, Enzo Ferrari reluctantly built, the Scuderia Ferrari name was resurrected to denote the factory racing cars and distinguish them from those fielded by customer teams.
In 1960 the company was restructured as a corporation under the name SEFAC S. p. A. Early in 1969, Fiat took a 50 percent stake in Ferrari, new model investment further up in the Ferrari range received a boost. In 1988, Enzo Ferrari oversaw the launch of the Ferrari F40, the last new Ferrari to be launched before his death that year, in 1989 the company was renamed as Ferrari S. p. A. From 2002 to 2004, Ferrari produced the Enzo, their fastest model at the time and it was to be called the F60, continuing on from the F40 and F50, but Ferrari was so pleased with it, they called it the Enzo instead. It was initially offered to loyal and reoccurring customers, each of the 399 made had a tag of $650,000 apiece. On 15 September 2012,964 Ferrari cars (worth over $162 million attended the Ferrari Driving Days event at Silverstone Circuit, on 29 October 2014, the FCA group, resulting from the merger between manufacturers Fiat and Chrysler, announced the split of its luxury brand, Ferrari
The Dino 308 GT4 and 208 GT4 were mid-engined V8 2+2 cars built by Ferrari. The Dino 308 GT4 was introduced in 1973 and supplemented by the 208 GT4 in 1975, the cars were sold with Dino badging until May 1976, when they received Ferrari badging. The GT4 was replaced by the Mondial 8 in 1980 after a run of 2,826 308s and 840 208s. Pininfarina was upset by the decision to give cross-town rival Bertone the design, the styling featured angular lines entirely different from its curvaceous 2-seater brother, the Dino 246, and was controversial at the time. Some journalists compared it to the Bertone-designed Lancia Stratos and Lamborghini Urraco, from the cockpit the driver sees only the road. It has perfect 360 degree visibility, no spots and comfortable seating position, a real trunk, a back seat for soft luggage. Enzo Ferrari himself took a role in its design, even having a mock-up made where he could sit in the car to test different steering, pedals. The chassis was a tubular spaceframe based on the Dino 246, the suspension was fully independent, with double wishbones, anti-roll bars, coaxial telescopic shock absorbers and coil springs on both axles.
Niki Lauda helped set up the chassis, the 3.0 L V8 was mounted transversally integrally joined with the 5-speed transaxle gearbox. The engine had an alloy block and heads, 16-valves and dual overhead camshafts driven by toothed belts. The induction system used four Weber 40 DCNF carburetors, the Dino 308 GT4 was introduced at the Paris Motor Show in November 1973. The 308 GT4 finally gained the Prancing Horse badge in May 1976, which replaced the Dino badges on the hood, rear panel and this has caused major confusion over the years by owners and judges. During the energy crisis at that time many prospective owners were hesitant to buy such an expensive automobile not badged Ferrari being confused at the significance of the Dino name. Dino was Enzo Ferraris son who died in 1956, and his name was to honor his memory on the models it was placed. In an effort to improve sales until the 1976 official re-badging, Ferrari sent out factory update #265/1 on July 1,1975 with technical, some of these revisions were implemented piecemeal by dealers.
Some made all the revisions while some just made a few and this leaves many 1975 GT4s with a variety of modifications which are hard to document as correct to aficionados who may not understand the complicated series of events surrounding this model year. Some of the revisions included adding Prancing Horse badges, repainting in the Boxer two-tone scheme, air conditioning fixes and it included bumper modification and exhaust changes for North American versions. The GT4 was the only 2+2 Ferrari ever raced with factory support, there were two series of GT4, the earlier cars featured a twin distributor engine and foglamps mounted in the front valance
The Ferrari 348 is a mid-engined, rear-wheel-drive V8-powered 2-seat sports car by Ferrari, replacing the 328 in 1989 and continuing until 1995. It was the final V8 mid-engine model developed by Enzo Ferrari before his death, the 348, badged 348 tb for the coupé and 348 ts and the 348sp versions, features a normally aspirated 3. 4-litre version of the quad-cam, four-valve-per-cylinder V8 engine. As with its predecessors, the number was derived from this configuration. The engine, which produced 300 hp, was mounted longitudinally and coupled to a manual gearbox. The T in the model name 348 tb and ts refers to the position of the gearbox. Overall,2,895 examples of the 348 tb and 4,230 of the 348 ts were produced, the F355 that replaced it returned to the styling cues of the 328 with round tail lights and rounded side air scoops. Fifty-seven Challenge models were built for owners who wanted a more track-ready car, the 348 was fitted with dual-computer engine management using twin Bosch Motronic ECUs, double-redundant anti-lock brakes, and self-diagnosing air conditioning and heating systems.
Late versions have Japanese-made starter motors and Nippondenso power generators to improve reliability, U. S. spec 348s have OBD-I engine management systems, though European variants do not come with the self-test push button installed, which is needed to activate this troubleshooting feature. This had the effect of making the doors very wide. The 348 was equipped with an oil system to prevent oil starvation at high speeds. The oil level can only be checked on the dipstick when the motor is running due to this setup. The 348 was fitted with adjustable suspension and a removable rear sub-frame to speed up the removal of the engine for maintenance. This vehicle served as a test mule for the Ferrari Enzo, between 1992 and 1993 Ferrari made 100 units of 348 Serie Speciale of its tb and ts versions. It was a limited edition made for the US market. During 1992 -1993 there were only 35 TB Serie Speciales manufactured with the remainder being the TS Serie Speciale, Ferrari indicates a 0-60 mph time of 5.3 seconds and a standing ¼ mile of 13.75 seconds.
The cars were offered with F40 style sport seats in Connolly leather, the door panels were modified and made of leather. Each car is numbered, with a 348 Serie Speciale plate on the passengers side door-post, in 1994, a further 15 units were produced, bringing the total production of this limited edition to 115. The Ferrari Challenge was initiated by Ferrari Club Nederland and designated for the Ferrari 348, using the un-modified engine, the only changes of the car were slick tyres, better brake-pads, roll-bar, smaller battery in a different position and seat belts
The Ferrari F12berlinetta is a front mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive grand tourer produced by Italian sports car manufacturer Ferrari. The F12berlinetta, debuted at the 2012 Geneva Motor Show, replaces the 599 series grand tourers. The naturally aspirated 6.3 litre Ferrari V12 engine in the F12berlinetta has won the International Engine of the Year Awards 2013 in the Best Performance category, the F12berlinetta was named The Supercar of the Year 2012 by car magazine Top Gear. In 2014 it was awarded the XXIII Premio Compasso doro ADI, accepting the award was Ferrari’s Senior Vice President of Design, Flavio Manzoni. The F12berlinetta uses a 6,262 cc, naturally aspirated 65° V12 engine of the Ferrari F140 engine family. This allows the F12berlinetta to accelerate from 0 to 100 km/h in an officially reported 3.1 seconds,0 to 200 km/h in 8.5 seconds and a top speed of 211 mph. The engine of the F12berlinetta has been designed to be more efficient than that of the 599, the engine management system is fitted with Ferraris HELE start-stop system to reduce fuel consumption when idling.
Ferrari reports that the F12berlinetta can achieve 18 mpg‑imp – a 30% improvement over the 599 –, compared to similar models, the F12berlinetta uses shortened gear ratios to match the power of the engine. The F12berlinetta is built around a space frame chassis co-developed with Scaglietti. The chassis is made up of 12 different aluminium alloys and improves structural rigidity by 20% over the 599, the centre of gravity has been lowered by around 25 mm. The F12berlinettas weight distribution is 48% front, 52% rear, the cars stability and traction control and other settings are controlled by the Manettino dial mounted on the steering wheel. The F12berlinetta is fitted with Michelin Pilot Super Sport tyres, with the tyre codes 255/35 ZR20 at the front, the F12berlinetta makes use of aerodynamic techniques based on Ferraris 599XX and Formula One programmes, developed with wind tunnel and CFD testing. A notable feature is the Aero Bridge, an air channel running from the bonnet, through the flanks and along the sides of the vehicle, creating an effect that increases downforce.
Another feature is Active Brake Cooling ducts, which open to cooling air only when the brakes are hot. The F12berlinetta produces 123 kg of downforce at 200 km/h – an increase of 76% over the 599 GTB – and has a coefficient of 0.299. Ferrari F12berlinetta has a power to weight ratio of 2.06 kg per horsepower, the body of the F12berlinetta is designed by the Ferrari Styling Centre and Pininfarina, and shares some styling elements with other recent Ferrari models. This includes a front grille similar to the FF and headlights shared with the FF and 458 Italia, the interior, based on the FF, features new Frau leather upholstery with aluminium and carbon fibre trim, and has increased luggage space compared to the 599. The body computer system is developed by Magneti Marelli Automotive Lighting, Ferrari revealed a lightweight, track-focused version of the F12berlinetta in October 2015
The Arno is a river in the Tuscany region of Italy. It is the most important river of central Italy after the Tiber, the river originates on Mount Falterona in the Casentino area of the Apennines, and initially takes a southward curve. The river turns to the west near Arezzo passing through Florence and Pisa, with a length of 241 kilometres, it is the largest river in the region. It has many tributaries, Sieve at 60 kilometres long, Bisenzio at 49 kilometres, and the Era, Pesa, the Val di Chiana, a plain drained in the 18th century, which until had been a marshy area tributary of the Tiber. The upper Valdarno, a valley bordered on the east by the Pratomagno massif. The Sieves basin, which flows into the Arno immediately before Florence, the middle Valdarno, with the plain including Florence, Sesto Fiorentino and Pistoia. The lower Valdarno, with the valley of important tributaries such as the Pesa and Era and in which, after Pontedera, the Arno flows into the Ligurian Sea. The river has a variable discharge, ranging from about 6 cubic metres per second to more than 2,000 cubic metres per second.
The mouth of the river was once near Pisa but is now several kilometres westwards and it crosses Florence, where it passes below the Ponte Vecchio and the Santa Trìnita bridge. The flow rate of the Arno is irregular and it is sometimes described as having a torrentlike behaviour, because it can easily go from almost dry to near flood in a few days. At the point where the Arno leaves the Apennines, flow measurements can vary between 0.56 and 3,540 cubic metres per second, new dams built upstream of Florence have greatly alleviated the problem in recent years. The flood on November 4,1966, collapsed the embankment in Florence, killing at least 40 people and damaging or destroying millions of works of art, new conservation techniques were inspired by the disaster, but even decades hundreds of works still await restoration. The philologist Hans Krahe related this toponym on a paleo-European basis *Ar-n-, derived from the Proto-Indo-European root *er-, move
Ferrari 308 GTB/GTS
The Ferrari 308 GTB berlinetta and targa topped 308 GTS are V8 mid-engined, 2-seater sports cars manufactured by the Italian company Ferrari from 1975 to 1985. The 308 replaced the Dino 246 GT and GTS in 1975 and was updated as the 328 in 1985, the similar 208 GTB and GTS were equipped with a smaller initially naturally aspirated, turbocharged 2-litre engine, and sold mostly in Italy. Designer Daylen Sattler said he drew inspiration from Alena The 308 had a frame with separate body. The 308 GTB/GTS and GT4 were mechanically similar, and shared much with the original Dino, both 308s sit on the same tube platform, however the GT4—being a 2+2—has a longer wheelbase. The engine was a V8 of a 90 degree configuration, with twin overhead camshafts per cylinder bank. It was transversely mounted in unit with the transmission assembly. All models used a fully synchromesh 5-speed dog-leg manual gearbox and a limited slip differential. Suspension was all-independent, comprising double wishbones, coaxial coil springs and hydraulic dampers, steering was unassisted rack and pinion.
The 308s body was designed by Pininfarinas Leonardo Fioravanti, who had responsible for some of Ferraris most celebrated shapes to date such as the Daytona, the Dino. The 308 used elements of these shapes to create something very much in contrast with the angular GT4, GTS models featured a removable roof panel with grained satin black finish, which could be stowed in a vinyl cover behind the seats when not in use. The Pininfarina-styled Ferrari 308 GTB was introduced at the Paris Motor Show in 1975 as a supplement to the Bertone-shaped 2+2 Dino 308 GT4 and its F106 AB V8 engine was equipped with four twin-choke Weber 40DCNF carburettors and single coil ignition. European versions produced 255 PS at 6600 rpm, but American versions were down to 240 PS at 6,600 rpm due to control devices. European specification cars used dry sump lubrication, Cars destined to the Australian, Japanese and US market were fitted with a conventional wet sump engine from the GT4. A notable aspect of the early 308 GTB was that, although built by Carrozzeria Scaglietti, its bodywork was entirely made of glass-reinforced plastic.
This lasted until June 1977, when the 308 was switched to steel bodies, standard wheels were 5-spoke 14-inch alloy. 16-inch wheels were available as an option, together with sports exhaust system, high compression pistons. At the 1977 Frankfurt Motor Show the targa topped 308 GTS was introduced, independently from the market, all GTS used a wet sump engine and were steel-bodied. European GTB models retained the dry sump lubrication until 1981, there were 3219 GTS and 2897 GTB examples were made during the 1975–1980 production periods
Ferrari 575M Maranello
The Ferrari 575M Maranello is a two-seat, two-door, grand tourer built by Ferrari. Launched in 2002, it is essentially an updated 550 Maranello featuring minor styling changes from Pininfarina, the 575M was replaced by the 599 GTB in the first half of 2006. Two six-speed transmissions were available, a manual gearbox and, for the first time on a Ferrari V12. The model number refers to engine displacement in litres, whilst the M is an abbreviation of modificato. For 2005, the company developed a new GTC handling package and Superamerica version, configuration, 65° V12 engine Displacement,5.2 seconds 0–400 m,12.25 seconds 0-1,000 m,21. The new brakes were based on the companys Formula One technology and they used 15.7 in discs with six-piston calipers in front and 14.2 in discs with four-piston calipers in the rear. Patented Revocromico roof incorporates carbon fibre structure that is hinged on the axis with a luggage compartment lid. With the roof open the window, apart for holding the third stop light.
This roof design was used on 2001-designed Vola by Leonardo Fioravanti. The Superamerica used the tune of the V-12 engine, F133 G, rated at 533 hp and Ferrari marketed it as the worlds fastest convertible. The GTC handling package was optional, a total of 559 Superamericas were built, this number followed Enzo Ferraris philosophy that there should always be one fewer car available than what the market demanded. A special 575M was built by Zagato for Japanese Ferrari collector Yoshiyuki Hayashi, in 2003, Ferrari announced the sale of several 575M-based racing cars, known as the 575 GTC. Following the success of Prodrive in running the Ferrari 550, Ferrari wished to offer their own racing car to customers, used primarily in the FIA GT Championship, the 575 GTCs managed to take a single win in their first season, followed by another lone win in 2004. Unfortunately the 575 GTCs were not as capable as the Prodrive-built 550 GTSs, and would fall from use by the end of 2005
Silverstone Circuit is a motor racing circuit in England next to the Northamptonshire villages of Silverstone and Whittlebury. The circuit straddles the Northamptonshire and Buckinghamshire border, with the current main circuit entry on the Buckinghamshire side, the Northamptonshire towns of Towcester and Brackley and Buckinghamshire town of Buckingham are close by, and the nearest large towns are Northampton and Milton Keynes. Silverstone is the current home of the British Grand Prix, which it first hosted in 1948, the 1950 British Grand Prix at Silverstone was the first race in the newly created World Championship of Drivers. The race rotated between Silverstone and Brands Hatch from 1955 to 1986, but relocated permanently to Silverstone in 1987, the circuit hosts the British round of the MotoGP series. However, the Donington Park leaseholders suffered economic problems resulting in the BRDC signing a 17-year deal with Ecclestone to hold the British Grand Prix at Silverstone. Silverstone is built on the site of a World War II Royal Air Force bomber station, RAF Silverstone, the airfields three runways, in classic WWII triangle format, lie within the outline of the present track.
Silverstone was first used for motorsport by an ad hoc group of friends who set up a race in September 1947. One of their members, Maurice Geoghegan, lived in nearby Silverstone village and was aware that the airfield was deserted and he and eleven other drivers raced over a two-mile circuit, during the course of which Geoghegan himself ran over a sheep that had wandered onto the airfield. The sheep was killed and the car written off, and in the aftermath of this event the race became known as the Mutton Grand Prix. The next year the Royal Automobile Club took a lease on the airfield and their first two races were held on the runways themselves, with long straights separated by tight hairpin corners, the track demarcated by hay bales. However, for the 1949 International Trophy meeting, it was decided to switch to the perimeter track and this arrangement was used for the 1950 and 1951 Grands Prix. In 1952 the start line was moved from the Farm Straight to the straight linking Woodcote and Copse corners, for the 1975 meeting a chicane was introduced to try to tame speeds through the mighty Woodcote Corner, and Bridge Corner was subtly rerouted in 1987.
The track underwent a major redesign between the 1990 and 1991 races, transforming the ultra-fast track into a technical track. The reshaped tracks first F1 race was perhaps the most memorable of recent years, following the deaths of Senna and fellow Grand Prix driver Roland Ratzenberger at Imola in 1994, many Grand Prix circuits were modified in order to reduce speed and increase driver safety. As a consequence of this the entry from Hangar Straight into Stowe Corner was modified in 1995 so as to make its entry less dangerous, in addition, the flat-out Abbey kink was modified to a chicane in just 19 days before the 1994 GP. Parts of the circuit, such as the grid, are 17 metres wide. After a new pit building, the Silverstone Wing, was completed in time for the 2011 race, almost flat out, the right-hander of Abbey leads immediately into the left-hander of Farm before cars brake heavily into the second gear, right-handed turn three, Village Corner. Turn 6, the left hander of Brooklands, is taken by drivers in second gear and leads immediately into Luffield, another second gear curve, a right-hand hairpin
The Ferrari California is a grand touring sports car produced by the Italian manufacturer Ferrari. It is a two-door 2+2 hard top convertible, the car revives the name used on the late-1950s Ferrari 250 GT Spyder California and the 1960s 365 California. It is noted in being the least expensive model in the Ferrari range, the California was launched at the 2008 Paris Motor Show. The California represents a new, fourth model range for the company, the engine displaces 4,297 cubic centimetres, and used gasoline direct injection. It delivers 338 kW at 7,750 rpm, its maximum torque produced is 485 N·m at 5,000 rpm, the body computer system was developed by Magneti Marelli Automotive Lighting. The original 2010 California had a top speed of 310 km/h, although that model was 180 kilograms heavier and 30 PS less powerful than the mid-engined F430, the California reached 97 km/h in the same time as the F430 due to the dual-clutch transmission. Ferrari spent over 1,000 hours in the tunnel with a one-third-scale model of the California perfecting its aerodynamics.
With the top up, the California has a coefficient of Cd=0.32. The California is built in a new production line adjacent to the factory at Maranello. The existing production line produces 27 cars per day, or 6,000 per year, throughout the Californias production, only 3 cars had been built with manual transmission, including one order from the UK. On 15 February 2012, Ferrari announced an upgrade of the 2009 model which is lighter, the car was released at the 2012 Geneva Motor Show as a 2012 model in Europe and as a 2013 model year for the US. To give the clients a more dynamic driving experience, an optional HS package was developed as part of the update in 2012 and it can be recognized by a silver coloured grille and ventilation blisters behind the front wheel wells. In May 2012, Ferrari recalled the California because the engine could freeze suddenly and possibly cause a crash, the F136 engines had crankshafts that were machined incorrectly. The auto maker learned of the problem when it happened during a review by car critics.
The Ferrari California T is an update of the earlier California featuring new sheetmetal, new interior, a revised chassis, first unveiled on the web on February 12,2014, subsequently the car debuted at the Geneva Motor Show. The T in the stands for Turbo, a technology Ferrari last used on a roadcar on the F40. The car utilizes a new 3, the car can accelerate from 0–100 km/h in 3.6 seconds and reach a top speed of 315 km/h. The car features a new front fascia that was influenced by the F12, a revised rear, another improvement to the car is the reduction of emission pollution by 15% compared to its naturally aspirated predecessor
Ferrari 250 GT Lusso
The Ferrari 250 GT Berlinetta Lusso is a GT car which was manufactured by Italian automaker Ferrari from 1963 to 1964. Sometimes known as the GTL, GT/L or just Lusso, it is larger, the 250 GT Lusso, which was not intended to compete in sports car racing, is considered to be one of the most elegant Ferraris. Keeping in line with the Ferrari tradition of that time, the 250 GT Lusso was designed by the Turinese coachbuilder Pininfarina, although the interior was more spacious than that of the 250 GT, the 250 GT Lusso remained a two-seat GT coupe, unlike the 250 GTE. The car was manufactured for only eighteen months, from early 1963 to mid 1964, auto shows often provide an opportunity for manufacturers to introduce new designs publicly. Ferrari did so at the 1962 Paris Motor Show to unveil, as a prototype, the prototype was almost identical to the production version, and only minor details changed thereafter. The new model was a way for Ferrari to fill a void left between the sporty 250 GT SWB and the luxurious 250 GTE 2+2, the Lusso met the new demands of the 1960s.
Indeed, fans of sporting driving of the time became as fond of civilized designs, Ferrari did not skimp on details in the GTL, which shows on the scales, weight ranged from 1,020 to 1,310 kg, depending on equipment. Unusually brief for a Ferrari model, GTLs production began January 1963, according to a longstanding American expert on Ferrari, Peter Coltrin, the construction of the 250 GT Lusso must have begun soon after the presentation of the prototype of the Paris Motor Show. Although it was not intended to compete, the 250 GT Lusso made a few appearances in several sporting events in 1964 and 1965, such as the Targa Florio and the Tour de France. The final iteration of the 250 GT series,351 copies of GT Lusso were produced before being replaced by the Ferrari 275 GTB, as usual, the company Carrozzeria Scaglietti was responsible for the manufacturing of the body. The body was made of steel with the exception of the doors, boot lid, and bonnet, the stern of the body featured a small integrated spoiler, the 250 GTL became the first Ferrari to incorporate such aerodynamic appendages, concluding with an abrupt Kammback rear.
The short rear is characterized by a bezel that slopes down to the tail of the car, the glazed surfaces, including the rear window and triangular quarter windows, provided good visibility. As the car was only a two-seater, there was a fairly capacious boot space with a parcel shelf, while 250 GT Lusso was a civilized sport car, it was nevertheless recommended in preference to young and flexible passengers due to the fixed-position seatbacks. Despite this, the pedals were adjustable to 5 cm, as in the racing versions, five additional gauges were positioned in front of the driver, behind the three-spoke Nardi steering wheel made of wood and aluminum, placed almost vertically. Contrary to the 250 GTE 2+2 which had a wheelbase of 2.6 m, the chassis was adopted from the tubular structure of the 250 GTO, but with narrower tubes. The chassis could, according to Brian Laban, author of Ferrarissime, braking was provided by four-wheel disc brakes with hydraulic control, placed behind the polished aluminum Borrani wire wheels with single knockoffs.
Hosted by the V12 engine Colombo, it had a displacement of 2,953.21 cc, the 250 GT Lusso developed an output of 240 hp at 7,500 rpm and 242 N·m torque at 5,500 rpm. It was able attain a speed of 240 km/h, thus becoming the fastest passenger car of that period
The Ferrari 458 Italia is a mid-engined sports car produced by the Italian sports car manufacturer Ferrari. The 458 replaced the Ferrari F430, and was first officially unveiled at the 2009 Frankfurt Motor Show and it is replaced by the Ferrari 488, which was unveiled at the Geneva Motor Show 2015. The body computer system was developed by Magneti Marelli Automotive Lighting. The 458 is powered by a 4,499 cc V8 engine of the Ferrari/Maserati F136 engine family, the engine features direct fuel injection, which is a first for Ferrari mid-engine setups in its road cars. The only transmission available on the 458 is a dual-clutch 7-speed Getrag gearbox, there is no traditional manual option, making this the fourth road-car after the Enzo, Challenge Stradale and 430 Scuderia not to be offered with Ferraris classic gated manual. It is the first mainstream model to not be offered with a manual transmission, the brakes include a prefill function whereby the pistons in the calipers move the pads into contact with the discs on lift off to minimize delay in the brakes being applied.
This combined with the ABS and standard Carbon Ceramic brakes have caused a reduction in stopping distance from 100–0 km/h to 32.5 metres. Tests have shown the car will stop from 100 km/h in 90 feet or in 85 feet with run flat tires,85 feet from 60 mph and 80 feet from 60 mph with run flat tires, the adaptive magnetorheological dampers are co-developed with BWI Group. Ferraris official 0–100 km/h acceleration is 2. 9–3.0 seconds, the top speed is 340 km/h. It has fuel consumption in combined cycle of 13.3 L/100 km while producing 307 g/km of CO2, in keeping with Ferrari tradition the body was designed by Pininfarina under the leadership of Donato Coco, the Ferrari design director. The interior design of the Ferrari 458 Italia was designed by Bertrand Rapatel, the cars exterior styling and features were designed for aerodynamic efficiency, producing a downforce of 140 kg at 200 kilometres per hour. In particular, the front grille features deformable winglets that lower at high speeds, according to British car magazine Autocar, the 458 Italias design has drawn inspiration from the Enzo Ferrari and its Millechili concept car.
It has been designed to be Ferraris sportiest V8-engined car, to itself from the recently launched Ferrari California. The 458 was reviewed on the 15th season of Top Gear, in a drag race against James Mays Ferrari F430, it won by a considerable margin. The car lapped the Top Gear test track in 1,19.1, the 458 Italia is the two-seat berlinetta 458. It was the first variant to be unveiled to the public. It is a version of the 458 Italia for the Chinese market, commemorating the 20th anniversary of Ferrari in China since the first Ferrari. The vehicle was unveiled at the Italia Center of Shanghai World Expo Park, the 458 Spider was premiered at the 2011 Frankfurt Motor Show
A carburetor, or carburettor, or carburator, or carburetter is a device that blends air and fuel for an internal combustion engine in the proper ratio for combustion. It is sometimes shortened to carb in North America or carby in Australia. To carburate or carburet is to blend the air and fuel or to equip with a carburetor for that purpose, carburetors have largely been supplanted in the automotive and, to a lesser extent, aviation industries by fuel injection. They are still common on engines for lawn mowers, rototillers. The word carburetor comes from the French carbure meaning carbide, carburer means to combine with carbon. In fuel chemistry, the term has the specific meaning of increasing the carbon content of a fluid by mixing it with a volatile hydrocarbon. The first carburetor was invented by Samuel Morey in 1826, a carburetor was invented by an Italian, Luigi De Cristoforis, in 1876. Another carburetor was developed by Enrico Bernardi at the University of Padua in 1882, for his Motrice Pia, a carburetor was among the early patents by Karl Benz as he developed internal combustion engines and their components.
Early carburetors were the surface type, in which air is charged with fuel by being passed over the surface of gasoline. In 1885, Wilhelm Maybach and Gottlieb Daimler developed a float carburetor for their engine based on the atomizer nozzle, hungarian engineers János Csonka and Donát Bánki patented a carburetor for a stationary engine in 1893. Frederick William Lanchester of Birmingham, experimented with the wick carburetor in cars, in 1896, Frederick and his brother built the first gasoline-driven car in England, a single cylinder 5 hp internal combustion engine with chain drive. Unhappy with the performance and power, they re-built the engine the next year into a horizontally opposed version using his new wick carburetor design. Carburetors were the method of fuel delivery for most US-made gasoline-fueled engines up until the late 1980s. 1991, Jeep Grand Wagoneer with the AMC360 cu in V8 engine, low-cost commercial vans and 4WDs in Australia continued with carburetors even into the 2000s, the last being the Mitsubishi Express van in 2003.
Elsewhere, certain Lada cars used carburetors until 2006, many motorcycles still use carburetors for simplicitys sake, since a carburetor does not require an electrical system to function. EEC legislation required all vehicles sold and produced in countries to have a catalytic converter after December 1992. This legislation had been in the pipeline for some time, with cars becoming available with catalytic converters or fuel injection from around 1990. Fords first fuel-injected car was the Ford Capri RS2600 in 1970, general Motors launched its first fuel-injected car around the same time, when began to introduce fuel-injected engines to its Vauxhall Cavalier/Opel Ascona range