Freising is a town in Bavaria and the capital of the Freising district, with a population of 45,227. Freising is north of Munich, near Munich International Airport, on the Isar river and two hills, the cathedral hill with the bishop's castle and Freising cathedral, Weihenstephan Hill with Weihenstephan Abbey, the oldest working brewery in the world, it was the first recorded place of a European tornado. The city is 448 meters above sea level. Freising is located on the Isar halfway between Landshut in Upper Bavaria. Freising is one of the oldest settlements in Bavaria, becoming a major religious centre in the early Middle Ages, it is the centre of an important diocese. Some important historical documents were created between 900 and 1200 in its monastery: Freising manuscripts written in Slovenian, being the first Roman-script continuous text in a Slavic language Chronicle or history of the two cities by Otto of FreisingThe above and other scripts from that time can be found in the "Bayerische Staatsbibliothek" in Munich.
Though archaeological finds show that the area was settled in the Bronze Age, no proof has been found yet to suggest a continuous settlement until the 8th century AD Frigisinga. Saint Corbinian settled at a shrine that existed at Freising in 724, he was the forerunner of the diocese of Freising, established after his death by Saint Boniface. According to his Vita by Bishop Arbeo he ordered a bear to carry his luggage over the Alps after it had killed his packhorse; the saddled bear is still the symbol of the city, displayed in the coat of arms. Though the seat of the diocese was moved to Munich in 1821, including the elevation to an arch-diocese, Freising has remained the seat of diocese administration until today. Between 764-783, Bishop Arbeo founded a scriptorium at the abbey; the settlement started to become a religious centre. The earliest recorded tornado in Europe struck Freising in 788; the mortal remains of Pope Alexander I are said to have been transferred to Freising in 834. In 996, Freising received city rights from Emperor Otto III.
However, after the " destruction of the episcopal bridge, custom houses and salt works near Oberföhring by Duke Henry the Lion, who transferred the custom houses and bridge site to the upper part of Oberföhring, placing them in the village of Munich on the Isar" in 1158, Freising started to lose its economic significance. In 1159, the romanesque cathedral was constructed. In the secularization of 1803, the Roman Catholic Church lost most of its properties and authority over the city; the Lord Mayor of Freising is Tobias Eschenbacher. The majority of seats in the city council are held by the so-called "Free Voters"; the distribution of seats in Freising's city council can be seen in the following diagram: Schools include: Camerloher-Gymnasium Freising Dom-Gymnasium Freising Josef-Hofmiller-GymnasiumUniversities include: Hochschule Weihenstephan-Triesdorf TU-München Weihenstephan Prince-Bishopric of Freising Freising is twinned with: Obervellach, since 1963 Innichen, since 1969 Maria Wörth, since 1978 Waidhofen an der Ybbs, since 1986 Arpajon, since 1991 Škofja Loka, since 2004 Otto of Freising, bishop.
Mair von Landshut, late 15th-century artist, was a citizen and born in Freising. The Bavarian General and War Minister Benignus Ritter von Safferling was born in Freising. Georg Eder and historian Martin Ruland the Elder and alchemist Johann Stadlmayr, court music director and composer Benignus von Safferling, Bavarian General and Minister of War Ludwig Prandtl, physicist Ernst Kraus, a German geologist Karl Maria Demelhuber, SS-Obergruppenführer and General of the Waffen-SS Karl Lederer, 1933 to 1942 mayor of Freising. Karl Gustav Fellerer, a German musicologist Albrecht Obermaier, German naval officer, last deputy naval officer of the Bundesmarine Pope Benedict XVI, Pope from 2005-2013 Karl Huber, German painter and sculptor Heinrich Reinhardt, Roman Catholic priest and professor of philosophy Peter Neumair, wrestler Joseph Weiss, German diplomat Hans Pflügler, former clubs: Bayern Munich - World champion 1990 Alexander Kutschera, footballer Stefan Diez, German industrial designer Ferdinand Bader, ski jumper Brigitte Wagner, wrestler Maximilian Haas, footballer Maximilian Wittek, footballer Veit Arnpeck, Bavarian chronicler Benignus von Safferling, General of the Bavarian Army and War Minister Ludwig Petuel, Munich businessman Oskar Knight of Niedermayer and adventurer Simone Blum Show jumper Freising cathedral Sichtungsgarten Weihenstephan, a notable horticultural garden Freising travel guide from Wikivoyage Official website Bavarian state library Pictures of Freising
In Christianity, an archbishop is a bishop of higher rank or office. In some cases, such as the Lutheran Church of Sweden and the Church of England, the title is borne by the leader of the denomination. Like popes, metropolitans, cardinal bishops, diocesan bishops, suffragan bishops, archbishops are in the highest of the three traditional orders of bishops and deacons. An archbishop may be granted the title or ordained as chief pastor of a metropolitan see or another episcopal see to which the title of archbishop is attached. Episcopal sees are arranged in groups in which one see's bishop has certain powers and duties of oversight over the others, he is known as the metropolitan archbishop of. In the Catholic Church, canon 436 of the Code of Canon Law indicates what these powers and duties are for a Latin Church metropolitan archbishop, while those of the head of an autonomous Eastern Catholic Churches are indicated in canon 157 of the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches; as well as the much more numerous metropolitan sees, there are 77 Roman Catholic sees that have archiepiscopal rank.
In some cases, such a see is the only one in a country, such as Luxembourg or Monaco, too small to be divided into several dioceses so as to form an ecclesiastical province. In others, the title of archdiocese is for historical reasons attributed to a see, once of greater importance; some of these archdioceses are suffragans of a metropolitan archdiocese. Others are subject to the Holy See and not to any metropolitan archdiocese; these are "aggregated" to an ecclesiastical province. An example is the Archdiocese of Hobart in Australia, associated with the Metropolitan ecclesiastical province of Melbourne, but not part of it; the ordinary of such an archdiocese is an archbishop. Until 1970, a coadjutor archbishop, one who has special faculties and the right to succeed to the leadership of a see on the death or resignation of the incumbent, was assigned to a titular see, which he held until the moment of succession. Since the title of Coadjutor Archbishop of the see is considered sufficient and more appropriate.
The rank of archbishop is conferred on some bishops. They hold the rank not because of the see that they head but because it has been granted to them personally; such a grant can be given when someone who holds the rank of archbishop is transferred to a see that, though its present-day importance may be greater than the person's former see, is not archiepiscopal. The bishop transferred is known as the Archbishop-Bishop of his new see. An example is Gianfranco Gardin, appointed Archbishop-Bishop of Treviso on 21 December 2009; the title borne by the successor of such an archbishop-bishop is that of Bishop of the see, unless he is granted the personal title of Archbishop. The distinction between metropolitan sees and non-metropolitan archiepiscopal sees exists for titular sees as well as for residential ones; the Annuario Pontificio marks titular sees of the former class with the abbreviation Metr. and the others with Arciv. Many of the titular sees to which nuncios and heads of departments of the Roman Curia who are not cardinals are assigned are not of archiepiscopal rank.
In that case the person, appointed to such a position is given the personal title of archbishop. They are referred to as Archbishop of the see, not as its Archbishop-Bishop. If an archbishop resigns his see without being transferred to another, as in the case of retirement or assignment to head a department of the Roman Curia, the word emeritus is added to his former title, he is called Archbishop Emeritus of his former see; until 1970, such archbishops were transferred to a titular see. There can be several Archbishops Emeriti of the same see: The 2008 Annuario Pontificio listed three living Archbishops Emeriti of Taipei. There is no Archbishop Emeritus of a titular see: An archbishop who holds a titular see keeps it until death or until transferred to another see. In the Anglican Communion, retired archbishops formally revert to being addressed as "bishop" and styled "The Right Reverend", although they may be appointed "archbishop emeritus" by their province on retirement, in which case they retain the title "archbishop" and the style "The Most Reverend", as a right.
Archbishop Desmond Tutu is a prominent example, as Archbishop Emeritus of Cape Town. Former archbishops who have not received the status of archbishop emeritus may still be informally addressed as "archbishop" as a courtesy, unless they are subsequently appointed to a bishopric, in which case, the courtesy ceases. While there is no difference between the official dress of archbishops, as such, that of other bishops, Roman Catholic metropolitan archbishops are distinguished by the use in liturgical ceremonies of the pallium, but only within the province over which they have oversight. Roman Catholic bishops and archbishops are styled "The Most Reverend" and addressed as "Your Excellency" in most cases. In English-speaking countries, a Catholic archbishop is addressed as "Your Grace", while a Catholic bishop is addressed as "Your Lordship". Before December 12, 1930, the title "Most Reverend" was only for archbishops, while bishops were styled as "Right Reverend"; this practice is still followed by Catholic bishops in the United Kingdom to mirror that of
The pallium is an ecclesiastical vestment in the Roman Catholic Church peculiar to the Pope, but for many centuries bestowed by him on metropolitans and primates as a symbol of the jurisdiction delegated to them by the Holy See. In that context, it has remained connected to the papacy; the pallium, in its present Western form, is a narrow band, "three fingers broad", woven of white lamb's wool from sheep raised by Trappist monks, with a loop in the centre resting on the shoulders over the chasuble and two dependent lappets and behind. It is decorated with six black crosses, one on each tail and four on the loop, is doubled on the left shoulder, sometimes is garnished and front, with three jeweled gold pins; the two latter characteristics seem to survive from the time when the Roman pallium was a simple scarf doubled and pinned on the left shoulder. In origin, the pallium and the omophor are the same vestment; the omophor is a wide band of cloth, much larger than the modern pallium, worn by all Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic bishops of the Byzantine Rite.
A theory connects its origin with the figure of the Good Shepherd carrying the lamb on his shoulders, so common in early Christian art. The ceremonial connected with the preparation of the pallium and its bestowal upon the pope at his coronation, suggests some such symbolism; the lambs whose wool is destined for the making of the pallia are solemnly presented at the altar by the nuns of the convent of Saint Agnes. The Benedictine nuns of Santa Cecilia in Trastevere weave the lambs' wool into pallia. At present, only the pope, metropolitan archbishops, the Latin Rite Patriarch of Jerusalem wear the pallium. Under the 1917 Code of Canon Law, a metropolitan had to receive the pallium before exercising his office in his ecclesiastical province if he was metropolitan elsewhere, but these restrictions were absent in the revised 1983 Code of Canon Law. No other bishops non-metropolitan archbishops or retired metropolitans, are allowed to wear the pallium unless they have special permission. An explicit exception is made for the realised scenario in which a person not yet a bishop is elected pope, in which case the bishop ordaining the new pope wears the pallium during the ceremony.
When a pope or metropolitan dies, he is buried wearing the last pallium he was granted, the other pallia are rolled up and placed in the coffin. It is unknown when the pallium was first introduced. Although Tertullian wrote an essay no than 220 AD titled De Pallio, according to the Liber Pontificalis, it was first used when Pope Marcus conferred the right to wear the pallium on the Bishop of Ostia, because the consecration of the pope appertained to him, it seems that earlier, the pope alone had the absolute right of wearing the pallium. We hear of the pallium being conferred on others, as a mark of distinction, no earlier than the sixth century; the honour was conferred on metropolitans those nominated vicars by the pope, but it was sometimes conferred on simple bishops. The use of the pallium among metropolitans did not become general until the eighth century, when a synod convened by St Boniface laid an obligation upon Western metropolitans of receiving their pallium only from the pope in Rome.
This was accomplished by journeying there or by forwarding a petition for the pallium accompanied by a solemn profession of faith, all consecrations being forbidden them before the reception of the pallium. The oath of allegiance which the recipient of the pallium takes today originated in the eleventh century, during the reign of Paschal II, replaced the profession of faith; the awarding of the pallium became controversial in the Middle Ages, because popes charged a fee from those receiving them, acquiring hundreds of millions of gold florins for the papacy and bringing the award of the pallium into disrepute. It is certain that a tribute was paid for the reception of the pallium as early as the sixth century; this was abrogated by Pope Gregory I in the Roman Synod of 595, but was reintroduced as partial maintenance of the Holy See. This process was condemned by the Council of Basel in 1432, which referred to it as "the most usurious contrivance invented by the papacy"; the fee was abandoned amid charges of simony.
There are many different opinions concerning the origin of the pallium. Some trace it to an investiture by Constantine I. Others declare that its origin is traceable to a mantle of St. Peter, symbolic of his office as supreme pastor. A fourth hypothesis finds its origin in a liturgical mantle, used by the early popes, which over time was folded into the shape of a band. There is no solid evidence tracing the pallium to an investiture of the emperor, the ephod of the Jewish High Priest, or a fabled mantle of St. Pe
Wilhelm von Giesebrecht
Friedrich Wilhelm von Giesebrecht was a German historian. He was born in Berlin, the son of Karl Giesebrecht, a nephew of the poet Ludwig Giesebrecht, he studied under Leopold von Ranke, his first important work, Geschichte Ottos II. was contributed to Ranke's Jahrbücher des deutschen Reichs unter dem sächsischen Hause. In 1841 he published his Jahrbücher des Klosters Altaich, a reconstruction of the lost Annales Altahenses, a medieval source of which fragments only were known to be extant, these were obscured in other chronicles; the brilliance of this performance was shown in 1867, when a copy of the original chronicle was found, it was seen that Giesebrecht's text was correct. In the meantime he had been appointed Oberlehrer in the Joachimsthaler Gymnasium in Berlin. In 1851 appeared his translation of the Historiae of Gregory of Tours, the standard German translation. Four years appeared the first volume of his great work, Geschichte der deutschen Kaiserzeit, the fifth volume of, published in 1888.
This work was the first in which the results of the scientific methods of research were thrown open to the world at large. Largeness of style and brilliance of portrayal were joined to an absolute mastery of the sources in a way hitherto unachieved by any German historian. Giesebrecht's history appeared when the new German empire was in the making, became popular owing both to its patriotic tone and its intrinsic merits. In 1857 he went to Königsberg as professor ordinarius, in 1862 succeeded Heinrich von Sybel as professor of history in the University of Munich; the Bavarian government honoured him in various ways, he died at Munich on 17 December 1889. In addition to the works mentioned, Giesebrecht published a good monograph on Arnold of Brescia, a collection of essays under the title Deutsche Reden, was an active member of the group of scholars who took over the direction of the Monumenta Germaniae historica in 1875. In 1895 Bernhard von Simson added a sixth volume to the Geschichte der deutschen Kaiserzeit, thus bringing the work down to the death of Emperor Frederick I in 1190.
This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Giesebrecht, Wilhelm von". Encyclopædia Britannica. 12. Cambridge University Press. P. 3
Carolingian art comes from the Frankish Empire in the period of 120 years from about 780 to 900—during the reign of Charlemagne and his immediate heirs—popularly known as the Carolingian Renaissance. The art was produced by and for the court circle and a group of important monasteries under Imperial patronage; the art was produced in several centres in what are now France, Austria, northern Italy and the Low Countries, received considerable influence, via continental mission centres, from the Insular art of the British Isles, as well as a number of Byzantine artists who appear to have been resident in Carolingian centres. There was for the first time a thoroughgoing attempt in Northern Europe to revive and emulate classical Mediterranean art forms and styles, that resulted in a blending of classical and Northern elements in a sumptuous and dignified style, in particular introducing to the North confidence in representing the human figure, setting the stage for the rise of Romanesque art and Gothic art in the West.
The Carolingian era is part of the period in medieval art sometimes called the "Pre-Romanesque". After a rather chaotic interval following the Carolingian period, the new Ottonian dynasty revived Imperial art from about 950, building on and further developing Carolingian style in Ottonian art. Having established an Empire as large as the Byzantine Empire of the day, rivaling in size the old Western Roman Empire, the Carolingian court must have been conscious that they lacked an artistic style to match these or the post-antique art still being produced in small quantities in Rome and a few other centres in Italy, which Charlemagne knew from his campaigns, where he was crowned Holy Roman Emperor in Rome in 800; as symbolic representative of Rome he sought the renovatio of Roman culture and learning in the West, needed an art capable of telling stories and representing figures with an effectiveness which ornamental Germanic Migration period art could not. He wished to establish himself as the heir to the great rulers of the past, to emulate and symbolically link the artistic achievements of Early Christian and Byzantine culture with his own.
But it was more than a conscious desire to revive ancient Roman culture. During Charlemagne's reign the Byzantine Iconoclasm controversy was dividing the Byzantine Empire. Charlemagne supported the Western church's consistent refusal to follow iconoclasm. With no inhibitions from a cultural memory of Mediterranean pagan idolatry, Charlemagne introduced the first Christian monumental religious sculpture, a momentous precedent for Western art. Reasonable numbers of Carolingian illuminated manuscripts and small-scale sculptures in ivory, have survived, but far fewer examples of metalwork and frescoes and other types of work. Many manuscripts in particular are copies or reinterpretations of Late Antique or Byzantine models, nearly all now lost, the nature of the influence of specific models on individual Carolingian works remains a perennial topic in art history; as well as these influences, the extravagant energy of Insular art added a definite flavour to Carolingian work, which sometimes used interlacedecoration, followed more cautiously the insular freedom in allowing decoration to spread around and into the text on the page of a manuscript.
With the end of Carolingian rule around 900, high quality artistic production declined for about three generations in the Empire. By the 10th century with the Cluny reform movement, a revived spirit for the idea of Empire, art production began again. New Pre-Romanesque styles appeared in Germany with the Ottonian art of the next stable dynasty, in England with late Anglo-Saxon art, after the threat from the Vikings was removed, in Spain; the most numerous surviving works of the Carolingian renaissance are illuminated manuscripts. A number of luxury manuscripts Gospel books, have survived, decorated with a small number of full-page miniatures including evangelist portraits, lavish canon tables, following the precedent of the Insular art of Britain and Ireland. Narrative images and cycles are rarer, but many exist of the Old Testament Genesis; the oversized and decorated initials of Insular art were adopted, the historiated initial further developed, with small narrative scenes seen for the first time towards the end of the period—notably in the Drogo Sacramentary.
Luxury manuscripts were given treasure bindings or rich covers with jewels set in gold and carved ivory panels, and, as in Insular art, were prestige objects kept in the church or treasury, a different class of object from the working manuscripts kept in the library, where some initials might be decorated, pen drawings added in a few places. A few of the grandest imperial manuscripts were written on purple parchment; the Bern Physiologus is a rare example of a secular manuscript illustrated with painted miniatures, lying in between these two classes, produced for the private library of an important individual, as was the Vatican Terence. The Utrecht Psalter, stands alone as a heavily illustrated library version of the Psalms done in pen and wash, certainly copied from a much earlier manuscript. Other liturgical works were sometimes produced in luxury manuscripts, such as sacramentaries, but no Carolingian Bible is decorated as as the Late Antique examples that sur
The Carolingian Empire was a large empire in western and central Europe during the early Middle Ages. It was ruled by the Carolingian dynasty, which had ruled as kings of the Franks since 751 and as kings of the Lombards of Italy from 774. In 800, the Frankish king Charlemagne was crowned emperor in Rome by Pope Leo III in an effort to revive the Roman Empire in the west during a vacancy in the throne of the eastern Roman Empire. After a civil war following the death of Emperor Louis the Pious, the empire was divided into autonomous kingdoms, with one king still recognised as emperor, but with little authority outside his own kingdom; the unity of the empire and the hereditary right of the Carolingians continued to be acknowledged, preceding the Holy Roman Empire, which lasted until 1806. In 884, Charles the Fat reunited all the kingdoms of Francia for the last time, but he died in 888 and the empire split up. With the only remaining legitimate male of the dynasty a child, the nobility elected regional kings from outside the dynasty or, in the case of the eastern kingdom, an illegitimate Carolingian.
The illegitimate line continued to rule in the east until 911, while in the western kingdom the legitimate Carolingian dynasty was restored in 898 and ruled until 987 with an interruption from 922 to 936. The size of the empire at its inception was around 1,112,000 square kilometres, with a population of between 10 and 20 million people. To the south it bordered the Emirate of Córdoba and, after 824, the Kingdom of Pamplona. In southern Italy, the Carolingians' claims to authority were disputed by the Byzantines and the vestiges of the Lombard kingdom in the Principality of Benevento. Use of the term "Carolingian Empire" is a modern convention; the language of official acts in the empire was Latin. The empire was referred to variously as universum regnum, Romanorum sive Francorum imperium, Romanum imperium or imperium christianum. Though Charles Martel chose not to take the title king he was absolute ruler of all of today's continental Western Europe north of the Pyrenees. Only the remaining Saxon realms, which he conquered and the Marca Hispanica south of the Pyrenees were significant additions to the Frankish realms after his death.
Martel was the founder of all the feudal systems and merit system that marked the Carolingian Empire, Europe in general during the Middle Ages, though his son and grandson would gain credit for his innovations. Further, Martel cemented his place in history with his defense of Christian Europe against a Muslim army at the Battle of Tours in 732; the Iberian Saracens had incorporated Berber light horse cavalry with the heavy Arab cavalry to create a formidable army that had never been defeated. Christian European forces, lacked the powerful tool of the stirrup. In this victory, Charles earned the surname Martel. Edward Gibbon, the historian of Rome and its aftermath, called Charles Martel "the paramount prince of his age". Pepin III accepted the nomination as king by Pope Zachary in about 751. Charlemagne's rule began in 768 at Pepin's death, he proceeded to take control of the kingdom following his brother Carloman's death, as the two brothers co-inherited their father's kingdom. Charlemagne was crowned Roman Emperor in the year 800.
The Carolingian Empire during the reign of Charlemagne covered most of Western Europe, as the Roman Empire once had. Unlike the Romans, who ventured to Germania beyond the Rhine only for vengeance after the disaster at Teutoburg Forest, Charlemagne decisively crushed all Germanic resistance and extended his realm to the Elbe, influencing events to the Russian Steppes. Charlemagne's reign was one of near-constant warfare leading many of his campaigns, he seized the Lombard Kingdom in 774, led a failed campaign into Spain in 778, extended his domain into Bavaria in 788, ordered his son Pepin to campaign against the Avars in 795, conquered Saxon territories in wars and rebellions fought from 772 to 804. Prior to the death of Charlemagne, the Empire was divided among various members of the Carolingian dynasty; these included son of Charlemagne, who received Neustria. Pepin died with an illegitimate son, Bernard, in 810, Charles died without heirs in 811. Although Bernard succeeded Pepin as King of Italy, Louis was made co-Emperor in 813, the entire Empire passed to him with Charlemagne's death in the winter of 814.
Louis the Pious had to struggle to maintain control of the Empire. King Bernard of Italy died in 818 in imprisonment after rebelling a year earlier, Italy was brought back into Imperial control. Louis' show of penance for Bernard's death in 822 reduced his prestige as Emperor to the nobility. Meanwhile, in 817 Louis had established three new Carolingian Kingships for his sons from his first marriage: Lothar was made King of Italy and co-Emperor, Pepin was made King of Aquitaine, Louis the German was made King of Bavaria, his attempts in 823 to bring his fourth son, Charles the Bald into the will was marked by the resistance of his eldest sons, the last years of his reign were plagued by civil war. Lothar was stripped of his co
Pope Leo III
Pope Leo III was pope from 26 December 795 to his death in 816. Protected by Charlemagne from his enemies in Rome, he subsequently strengthened Charlemagne's position by crowning him Holy Roman Emperor and "Augustus of the Romans". Leo was assaulted in Rome by partisans of the late Pope Adrian I, fled to Charlemagne at Paderborn; the King of the Franks arbitrated the dispute. Leo subsequently crowned Charlemagne as Roman Emperor, not approved in Constantinople, although the Byzantines, occupied with their own defenses, were in no position to make much opposition. Leo was of a modest family in southern Italy, the son of Elizabeth. At the time of his election he was Cardinal-Priest of Santa Susanna, also vestiarius, or chief of the pontifical treasury, or wardrobe, he was elected on the day his predecessor, Adrian I, was buried, consecrated on the following day. It is quite possible that this haste may have been due to a desire on the part of the Romans to anticipate any interference of the Franks with their freedom of election.
With the letter informing Charlemagne that he had been unanimously elected pope, Leo sent him the keys of the confession of St. Peter, the standard of the city, requested an envoy; this he did to show. In return he received from Charlemagne letters of congratulation and a great part of the treasure which the king had captured from the Avars; the acquisition of this wealth enabled Leo to be a great benefactor to the churches and charitable institutions of Rome. While Charlemagne's letter is respectful and affectionate, it exhibits his concept of the coordination of the spiritual and temporal powers, nor does he hesitate to remind the pope of his grave spiritual obligations. Charlemagne's reply stated that it was his function to defend the Church, the function of the pope to pray for the realm and for the victory of his army. Prompted by jealousy or ambition, or the thought that only someone of the nobility should hold the office of pope, a number of the relatives of Pope Adrian I formed a plot to render Leo unfit to hold his sacred office.
On the occasion of the procession of the Greater Litanies, when the pope was making his way towards the Flaminian Gate, he was attacked by a body of armed men. He was dashed to the ground, an effort was made to root out his tongue and tear out his eyes which left him injured and unconscious, he was rescued by two of the king's missi dominici. The Duke of Spoleto sheltered the fugitive pope, who went to Paderborn, where the king's camp was, he was received by the Frankish king with the greatest honour at Paderborn. This meeting forms the basis of the epic poem Karolus Leo Papa, his enemies had accused Leo of perjury. Charlemagne ordered them to Paderborn, he had Leo escorted back to Rome. In November 800, Charlemagne himself went to Rome, on 1 December held a council there with representatives of both sides. Leo, on 23 December, took an oath of purgation concerning the charges brought against him, his opponents were exiled. Charlemagne's father, Pepin the Short, defended the papacy against the Lombards and issued the Donation of Pepin, which granted the land around Rome to the pope as a fief.
In 754 Pope Stephen II had conferred on Charles's father the dignity of Patricius Romanus, which implied the protection of the Roman Church in all its rights and privileges. Two days after Leo's oath, on Christmas Day 800, he crowned Charlemagne as emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. According to Charlemagne's biographer, Charles had no suspicion of what was about to happen, if informed would not have accepted the imperial crown. On the other hand, there seems no reason to doubt that for some time previous the elevation of Charles had been discussed, both at home and at Rome in view of two facts: the scandalous condition of the imperial government at Constantinople, the acknowledged grandeur and solidity of the Carolingian house; the coronation offended Constantinople, which had seen itself still as the rightful defender of Rome, but the Eastern Roman Empress Irene of Athens, like many of her predecessors since Justinian, was too weak to offer protection to the city or its much reduced citizenry.
In 808, Leo committed Corsica to Charlemagne for safe-keeping because of Muslim raids, originating from Al-Andalus, on the island. Nonetheless, along with Sardinia, would still go on to be occupied by Muslim forces in 809 and 810. On Christmas Day in 800, Leo crowned Charlemagne Holy Roman Emperor at Old St. Peter's Basilica in Rome. Under Charlemange's leadership there arose a cultural enrichment still known as the Carolingian Renaissance. Charlemagne gathered to his court the cream of available intellect, centered on the scholar Alcuin, whom he brought from York in England. Monks and other copyists were set to transcribing ancient manuscripts, both classical and Christian, for the preservation and extension of learning. Schools were established at the forerunners of the great universities. Myriad hymns and poems were composed, along with commentaries on Holy Scripture, treatises on music, theological works, numerous chronicles of history. Leo helped restore King Eardwulf of Northumbria and settled various matters of dispute between the Archbishops of York and Canterbury.
He reversed the decision of his predecessor