Melbourne is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of Victoria, the second most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Its name refers to an urban agglomeration of 9,992.5 km2, comprising a metropolitan area with 31 municipalities, is the common name for its city centre. The city occupies much of the coastline of Port Phillip bay and spreads into the hinterlands towards the Dandenong and Macedon ranges, Mornington Peninsula and Yarra Valley, it has a population of 4.9 million, its inhabitants are referred to as "Melburnians". The city was founded on 30 August 1835, in the then-British colony of New South Wales, by free settlers from the colony of Van Diemen’s Land, it was incorporated as a Crown settlement in 1837 and named in honour of the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne. In 1851, four years after Queen Victoria declared it a city, Melbourne became the capital of the new colony of Victoria. In the wake of the 1850s Victorian gold rush, the city entered a lengthy boom period that, by the late 1880s, had transformed it into one of the world's largest and wealthiest metropolises.
After the federation of Australia in 1901, it served as interim seat of government of the new nation until Canberra became the permanent capital in 1927. Today, it is a leading financial centre in the Asia-Pacific region and ranks 15th in the Global Financial Centres Index; the city is home to many of the best-known cultural institutions in the nation, such as the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the National Gallery of Victoria and the World Heritage-listed Royal Exhibition Building. It is the birthplace of Australian impressionism, Australian rules football, the Australian film and television industries and Australian contemporary dance. More it has been recognised as a UNESCO City of Literature and a global centre for street art, live music and theatre, it is the host city of annual international events such as the Australian Grand Prix, the Australian Open and the Melbourne Cup, has hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. Due to it rating in entertainment and sport, as well as education, health care and development, the EIU ranks it the second most liveable city in the world.
The main airport serving the city is Melbourne Airport, the second busiest in Australia, Australia's busiest seaport the Port of Melbourne. Its main metropolitan rail terminus is Flinders Street station and its main regional rail and road coach terminus is Southern Cross station, it has the most extensive freeway network in Australia and the largest urban tram network in the world. Indigenous Australians have lived in the Melbourne area for an estimated 31,000 to 40,000 years; when European settlers arrived in the 19th-century, under 2,000 hunter-gatherers from three regional tribes—the Wurundjeri and Wathaurong—inhabited the area. It was an important meeting place for the clans of the Kulin nation alliance and a vital source of food and water; the first British settlement in Victoria part of the penal colony of New South Wales, was established by Colonel David Collins in October 1803, at Sullivan Bay, near present-day Sorrento. The following year, due to a perceived lack of resources, these settlers relocated to Van Diemen's Land and founded the city of Hobart.
It would be 30 years. In May and June 1835, John Batman, a leading member of the Port Phillip Association in Van Diemen's Land, explored the Melbourne area, claimed to have negotiated a purchase of 600,000 acres with eight Wurundjeri elders. Batman selected a site on the northern bank of the Yarra River, declaring that "this will be the place for a village" before returning to Van Diemen's Land. In August 1835, another group of Vandemonian settlers arrived in the area and established a settlement at the site of the current Melbourne Immigration Museum. Batman and his group arrived the following month and the two groups agreed to share the settlement known by the native name of Dootigala. Batman's Treaty with the Aborigines was annulled by Richard Bourke, the Governor of New South Wales, with compensation paid to members of the association. In 1836, Bourke declared the city the administrative capital of the Port Phillip District of New South Wales, commissioned the first plan for its urban layout, the Hoddle Grid, in 1837.
Known as Batmania, the settlement was named Melbourne in 1837 after the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, whose seat was Melbourne Hall in the market town of Melbourne, Derbyshire. That year, the settlement's general post office opened with that name. Between 1836 and 1842, Victorian Aboriginal groups were dispossessed of their land by European settlers. By January 1844, there were said to be 675 Aborigines resident in squalid camps in Melbourne; the British Colonial Office appointed five Aboriginal Protectors for the Aborigines of Victoria, in 1839, however their work was nullified by a land policy that favoured squatters who took possession of Aboriginal lands. By 1845, fewer than 240 wealthy Europeans held all the pastoral licences issued in Victoria and became a powerful political and economic force in Victoria for generations to come. Letters patent of Queen Victoria, issued on 25 June 1847, declared Melbourne a city. On 1 July 1851, the Port Phillip District separated from New South Wales to become the Colony of Victoria, with Melbourne as its capital.
The discovery of gold in Victoria in mid-1851 sparked a
Electoral district of Bendigo West
Bendigo West is an electoral district of the Legislative Assembly in the Australian state of Victoria. It is a 1,524 square kilometres electorate centred on the city of Bendigo west of the Yungera railway line, including surrounding rural towns to the west and south-west, it encompasses the localities of Bendigo City, California Gully, Harcourt, Long Gully, Marong and West Bendigo. It includes parts of the Bendigo suburbs of Eaglehawk, Golden Square and Kangaroo Flat, it lies within the Northern Victoria Region of the Legislative Council. Bendigo West has been a safe seat for the Labor parties throughout its history, it was created in 1904. Smith was re-elected several times, but was expelled from the party in 1911 over his support for introducing scripture lessons into state schools, he sat as an independent until the Labor Party split of 1917, when he joined Billy Hughes' rival National Labor Party, which subsequently became the Nationalist Party of Australia. Smith did not contest the 1924 election, the seat returned to the Labor fold, being won by Arthur Cook.
The seat was merged with Bendigo East in 1927, with Cook going on to serve as the member for Bendigo. The electorate was recreated as a separate district in 1985, when it was won by former federal MP David Kennedy. Kennedy was defeated by Liberal Max Turner amidst the Liberal landslide win at the 1992 state election, but Turner lasted only one term before being defeated by Labor candidate Bob Cameron in 1996. Cameron was comfortably re-elected in 1999, 2002, 2006, left a margin of more than 10% for Maree Edwards to defend at the 2010 election, he served as Minister for Emergency Services in the Brumby government. Electorate profile: Bendigo West District, Victorian Electoral Commission
Fentons Creek, Victoria
Fentons Creek is a small town in Victoria, Australia. It is located near Wedderburn in the Loddon Shire. A creek with the same name runs along the edge of the township. At the 2006 census, the suburb had a population of 115; the town covers a large area. At a central spot there is a Country Fire Authority station/shed, a chapel and an old schoolhouse, no longer used; the chapel is struggling to stay open but still holds services with a priest from Heathcote because of supportive locals
Inglewood is a township in Victoria, located on the Calder Highway in the Shire of Loddon. At the 2011 census Inglewood had a population of 1058. Inglewood was an important gold mining centre during the Victorian Gold Rush of the 1860s. Gold was first discovered in 1859 by Alexander and Thomas Thompson and Joseph Hanny. On notification of the discovery some 16,000 diggers flocked to the area. By January 1860 a new field a few miles south of the original was opened up by Potter, Irvine and McKean and dubbed "New Inglewood"; this is the site of the present township. By mid-1860 the population on the field was estimated to be greater than 40,000, ranking among the biggest rushes in Victoria’s history; the population soon dwindled as the won alluvial deposits became exhausted but, as early as 1859, quartz reefs had been discovered which resulted in the permanent settlement of a few thousand miners and businessmen. The initial returns from the quartz reefs were significant. From the Columbian, 22 tons of stone crushed gave a return of over 2300 ounces of gold, one of the richest patches of gold recorded in the colony of Victoria.
Numerous other reefs, including the Maxwell’s, Jersey and Morning Star, gained renown for their rich yields. In November 1860 there were 4,500 men employed in quartz mining, more than any other field at that time. In 1861 the town was proclaimed a municipality and in 1863 the Borough of Inglewood was established. Self-government continued for 100 years. In December 1862 one of the most destructive fires recorded in the colony to that time occurred in the town’s main thoroughfare. A greater portion of the commercial precinct was burned to the ground, with damages estimated at over £100,000; the ultimate result of the fire was a transition from bark and canvass establishments to more substantial brick and iron structures, many of which remain today. Around the turn of the 20th century, gold production began to diminish and a new form of employment was sought; the eucalyptus oil industry took hold when it was discovered that the leaves of the Blue Mallee, which grows abundantly around Inglewood but in few other places, produced some of the best quality eucalyptus oil in the world.
In the early 20th century Inglewood became the centre for eucalyptus oil production in Victoria. The Valvoline Oil Company of the United States had a distillery close to the town; the Inglewood district still produces the greater portion of Victoria’s eucalyptus oil. Post offices opened at Inglewood on 12 March 1860 and at New Inglewood soon after on 15 May 1860; the Inglewood post office was renamed Old Inglewood around 1865 and closed in 1882. The New Inglewood post office was renamed Inglewood around 1870. From 6 December 1861 until 1 February 1961, Inglewood was managed by a borough council. Inglewood is now the demographic centre and main service town for the Loddon Shire, with its hospital, community bank and various retail outlets providing services for the surrounding agricultural district. Inglewood is a notable example of a Victorian gold rush town, with its 19th-century architecture attracting many visitors; the main street, Brooke Street, is noted for its narrowness and concentration of double-story buildings.
No less than seven hotel buildings and four bank buildings are found in Brooke Street. Several buildings were designed by prominent Bendigo architects Vahland and Getzmann, including the Charlie Napier Hotel. Inglewood is notable for the collection of public and religious buildings located away from the main thoroughfare, unusual for a town of its size; the town hall features chiming clock. The town is gaining a reputation amongst treasure hunters, with a number of old wares and antique stores starting business in Brooke Street. Gold-seekers still converge on the surrounding bushland in search of gold. Since the million dollar "Hand of Faith" nugget was discovered 11 km west at Kingower in 1980, gold detectors have brought fresh discoveries left behind by the early prospectors. Inglewood forms part of the "Golden Triangle" which encompasses some of the richest alluvial goldfields in the world, including Kingower, Dunolly and Moliagul, where the biggest gold nugget unearthed, the "Welcome Stranger", was discovered.
Quartz mining is still present, with MG Gold operating the Maxwell's Mine to the north of the township. The Eucalyptus Distillery Museum is open on weekends on the site of the historic Jones Eucy Distillery at the northern entrance to the town, providing an insight into the history of the eucalyptus oil industry. Features include the old distillery and an interpretive centre with historic displays, artefacts and a working distillery model. Inglewood is the gateway to Kooyoora State Park. Located a short distance west of the town, the park is a popular camping and recreation location and home to Melville’s Caves where the bushranger Captain Melville is rumoured to have based himself during the 1850s; the town is central to the Bridgewater On Loddon and Kingower wineries, producing quality red and white wines. The town has an Australian Rules football team, the "Blues", competing in the Loddon Valley Football League; the Inglewood Football Club was formed around 1873 and was a foundation member of the Victorian Football Association in 1877.
Golfers play at the course of the Inglewood Golf Club on the Calder Highway. Sir Reginald Ansett and founder of Ansett Airlines, was born in Inglewood in 1909; the runner Jack Donaldson who held every professional sprint world record in the early part of the 1900s grew up in Inglewood. E. G. Carji Greeves, first winner of the Brownlow Medal, was Inglewood Football Club’s first paid coach in 1931
Postcodes in Australia
Postcodes are used in Australia to more efficiently sort and route mail within the Australian postal system. Postcodes in Australia are placed at the end of the Australian address. Postcodes were introduced in Australia in 1967 by the Postmaster-General's Department and are now managed by Australia Post, are published in booklets available from post offices or online from the Australia Post website. Australian envelopes and postcards have four square boxes printed in orange at the bottom right for the postcode; these are used. Postcodes were introduced in Australia in 1967 by the Postmaster-General's Department to replace earlier postal sorting systems, such as Melbourne's letter and number codes and a similar system used in rural and regional New South Wales; the introduction of the postcodes coincided with the introduction of a large-scale mechanical mail sorting system in Australia, starting with the Sydney GPO. By 1968, 75% of mail was using postcodes, in the same year post office preferred-size envelopes were introduced, which came to be referred to as “standard envelopes”.
Postcode squares were introduced in June 1990 to enable Australia Post to use optical character recognition software in its mail sorting machines to automatically and more sort mail by postcodes. Australian postcodes consist of four digits, are written after the name of the city, suburb, or town, the state or territory: Mr John Smith 100 Flushcombe Road BLACKTOWN NSW 2148When writing an address by hand, a row of four boxes is pre-printed on the lower right hand corner of an envelope, the postcode may be written in the boxes. If addressing a letter from outside Australia, the postcode is recorded before'Australia'. Australian postcodes are sorting information, they are linked with one area. Due to post code rationalisation, they can be quite complex in country areas; the south-western Victoria 3221 postcode of the Geelong Mail Centre includes twenty places around Geelong with few people. This means that mail for these places is not sorted until it gets to Geelong; some postcodes cover large populations, while other postcodes have much smaller populations in urban areas.
Australian postcodes range from 0200 for the Australian National University to 9944 for Cannonvale, Queensland. Some towns and suburbs have two postcodes — one for street deliveries and another for post office boxes. For example, a street address in the Sydney suburb of Parramatta would be written like this: Mr John Smith 99 George Street PARRAMATTA NSW 2150But mail sent to a PO Box in Parramatta would be addressed: Mr John Smith PO Box 99 PARRAMATTA NSW 2124Many large businesses, government departments and other institutions receiving high volumes of mail had their own postcode as a Large Volume Receiver, e.g. the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital has the postcode 4029, the Australian National University had the postcode 0200. More postcode ranges were made available for LVRs in the 1990s. Australia Post has been progressively discontinuing the LVR programme since 2006; the first one or two numbers show the state or territory that the postcode belongs to Sometimes near the state and territory borders, Australia Post finds it easier to send mail through a nearby post office, across the border: Some of the postcodes above may cover two or more states.
For example, postcode 2620 covers both a locality in NSW as well as a locality in the ACT, postcode 0872 covers a number of localities across WA, SA, NT and QLD. Three locations straddle the NSW-Queensland border. Jervis Bay Territory, once an exclave of the ACT but now a separate territory, is geographically located on the coast of NSW, it is just south of the towns of Huskisson, with which it shares a postcode. Mail to the Jervis Bay Territory is still addressed to the ACT; the numbers used to show the state on each radio callsign in Australia are the same number as the first number for postcodes in that state, e.g. 2xx in New South Wales, 3xx in Victoria, etc. Radio callsigns pre-date postcodes in Australia by more than forty years. Australia's external territories are included in Australia Post's postcode system. While these territories do not belong to any state, they are addressed as such for mail sorting: Three scientific bases in Antarctica operated by the Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions share a postcode with the isolated sub-Antarctic island of Macquarie Island: Each state's capital city ends with three zeroes, while territorial capital cities end with two zeroes.
Capital city postcodes were the lowest postcodes in their state or territory range, before new ranges for LVRs and PO Boxes were made available. The last number can be changed from "0" to "1" to get the postcode for General Post Office boxes in any capital city: While the first number of a postcode shows the state or territory, the second number shows a region within the state. However, postcodes with the same second number are not always next to each other; as an example, postcodes in the range 2200–2299 are split between the southern suburbs of Sydney and the Central Coast of New South Wales. Postcodes with a second number of "0" or "1" are always located within the metropolitan area of the state's capital city. Postcodes with higher secon