Jay and Kai + 6
Jay and Kai + 6 is the fifth album by jazz trombonists J. J. Johnson and Kai Winding, credited on this album as The Kai Trombone Octet; the title refers to the six trombonists who accompany Winding on the recording. Columbia Records released the album as a monaural LP record in 1956. In December 1956, Jay and Kai + 6 reached the № 3 position on the Billboard jazz chart; the following track listing refers to the original LP configuration. J. J. Johnson – trombone, arranger Kai Winding – trombone, arranger Urbie Green – trombone Bob Alexander – trombone Eddie Bert – trombone Jimmy Cleveland – trombone Tom Mitchell – bass trombone Bart Varsalona – bass trombone Hank Jones – piano Milt Hinton – bass Ray Brown – bass Osie Johnson – drums Candido Camero – conga, bongo
The Wayback Machine is a digital archive of the World Wide Web and other information on the Internet. It was launched in 2001 by the Internet Archive, a nonprofit organization based in San Francisco, United States. Internet Archive founders Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat launched the Wayback Machine in 2001 to address the problem of website content vanishing whenever it gets changed or shut down; the service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a "three dimensional index". Kahle and Gilliat created the machine hoping to archive the entire Internet and provide "universal access to all knowledge."The name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the "WABAC machine", a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. In one of the animated cartoon's component segments, Peabody's Improbable History, the characters used the machine to witness, participate in, more than not, alter famous events in history.
The Wayback Machine began archiving cached web pages in 1996, with the goal of making the service public five years later. From 1996 to 2001, the information was kept on digital tape, with Kahle allowing researchers and scientists to tap into the clunky database; when the archive reached its fifth anniversary in 2001, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. By the time the Wayback Machine launched, it contained over 10 billion archived pages. Today, the data is stored on the Internet Archive's large cluster of Linux nodes, it archives new versions of websites on occasion. Sites can be captured manually by entering a website's URL into the search box, provided that the website allows the Wayback Machine to "crawl" it and save the data. Software has been developed to "crawl" the web and download all publicly accessible World Wide Web pages, the Gopher hierarchy, the Netnews bulletin board system, downloadable software; the information collected by these "crawlers" does not include all the information available on the Internet, since much of the data is restricted by the publisher or stored in databases that are not accessible.
To overcome inconsistencies in cached websites, Archive-It.org was developed in 2005 by the Internet Archive as a means of allowing institutions and content creators to voluntarily harvest and preserve collections of digital content, create digital archives. Crawls are contributed from various sources, some imported from third parties and others generated internally by the Archive. For example, crawls are contributed by the Sloan Foundation and Alexa, crawls run by IA on behalf of NARA and the Internet Memory Foundation, mirrors of Common Crawl; the "Worldwide Web Crawls" have capture the global Web. The frequency of snapshot captures varies per website. Websites in the "Worldwide Web Crawls" are included in a "crawl list", with the site archived once per crawl. A crawl can take months or years to complete depending on size. For example, "Wide Crawl Number 13" started on January 9, 2015, completed on July 11, 2016. However, there may be multiple crawls ongoing at any one time, a site might be included in more than one crawl list, so how a site is crawled varies widely.
As technology has developed over the years, the storage capacity of the Wayback Machine has grown. In 2003, after only two years of public access, the Wayback Machine was growing at a rate of 12 terabytes/month; the data is stored on PetaBox rack systems custom designed by Internet Archive staff. The first 100TB rack became operational in June 2004, although it soon became clear that they would need much more storage than that; the Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage in 2009, hosts a new data center in a Sun Modular Datacenter on Sun Microsystems' California campus. As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month. A new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and a fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing in 2011. In March that year, it was said on the Wayback Machine forum that "the Beta of the new Wayback Machine has a more complete and up-to-date index of all crawled materials into 2010, will continue to be updated regularly.
The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a little bit of material past 2008, no further index updates are planned, as it will be phased out this year." In 2011, the Internet Archive installed their sixth pair of PetaBox racks which increased the Wayback Machine's storage capacity by 700 terabytes. In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs. In October 2013, the company announced the "Save a Page" feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL; this became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries. As of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained 435 billion web pages—almost nine petabytes of data, was growing at about 20 terabytes a week; as of July 2016, the Wayback Machine contained around 15 petabytes of data. As of September 2018, the Wayback Machine contained more than 25 petabytes of data. Between October 2013 and March 2015, the website's global Alexa rank changed from 163 to 208. In March 2019 the rank was at 244.
Wayback Machine has respected the robots exclusion standard in determining if a website would be crawled or not. Website owners had the option to opt-out of Wayback M
Sports Illustrated is an American sports magazine owned by Meredith Corporation. First published in August 1954, it has over 3 million subscribers and is read by 23 million people each week, including over 18 million men, it was the first magazine with circulation over one million to win the National Magazine Award for General Excellence twice. It is known for its annual swimsuit issue, published since 1964, has spawned other complementary media works and products. There were two magazines named Sports Illustrated before the current magazine began on August 16, 1954. In 1936, Stuart Scheftel created Sports Illustrated with a target market for the sportsman, he published the magazine from 1936 to 1938 on a monthly basis. The magazine was a life magazine size and focused on golf and skiing with articles on the major sports, he sold the name to Dell Publications, which released Sports Illustrated in 1949 and this version lasted 6 issues before closing. Dell's version focused on major sports and competed on magazine racks against Sport and other monthly sports magazines.
During the 1940s these magazines were monthly and they did not cover the current events because of the production schedules. There was no large-base, weekly sports magazine with a national following on actual active events, it was that Time patriarch Henry Luce began considering whether his company should attempt to fill that gap. At the time, many believed sports was beneath the attention of serious journalism and did not think sports news could fill a weekly magazine during the winter. A number of advisers to Luce, including Life magazine's Ernest Havemann, tried to kill the idea, but Luce, not a sports fan, decided the time was right; the goal of the new magazine was to be a magazine, but with sports. Many at Time-Life scoffed at Luce's idea. Launched on August 16, 1954, it was not profitable and not well run at first, but Luce's timing was good; the popularity of spectator sports in the United States was about to explode, that popularity came to be driven by three things: economic prosperity and Sports Illustrated.
The early issues of the magazine seemed caught between two opposing views of its audience. Much of the subject matter was directed at upper-class activities such as yachting and safaris, but upscale would-be advertisers were unconvinced that sports fans were a significant part of their market. After more than a decade of steady losses, the magazine's fortunes turned around in the 1960s when Andre Laguerre became its managing editor. A European correspondent for Time, Inc. who became chief of the Time-Life news bureaux in Paris and London, Laguerre attracted Henry Luce's attention in 1956 with his singular coverage of the Winter Olympic Games in Cortina d'Ampezzo, which became the core of SI's coverage of those games. In May 1956, Luce brought Laguerre to New York to become assistant managing editor of the magazine, he was named managing editor in 1960, he more than doubled the circulation by instituting a system of departmental editors, redesigning the internal format, inaugurating the unprecedented use in a news magazine of full-color photographic coverage of the week's sports events.
He was one of the first to sense the rise of national interest in professional football. Laguerre instituted the innovative concept of one long story at the end of every issue, which he called the "bonus piece"; these well-written, in-depth articles helped to distinguish Sports Illustrated from other sports publications, helped launch the careers of such legendary writers as Frank Deford, who in March 2010 wrote of Laguerre, "He smoked cigars and drank Scotch and made the sun move across the heavens... His genius as an editor was that he made you want to please him, but he wanted you to do that by writing in your own distinct way."Laguerre is credited with the conception and creation of the annual Swimsuit Issue, which became, remains, the most popular issue each year. In 1990, Time Inc. merged with Warner Communications to form the media conglomerate Time Warner. In 2014, Time Inc. was spun off from Time Warner. In November 2017, Meredith Corporation announced that it would acquire Time Inc. and the acquisition was completed in January 2018.
However, in March 2018, Meredith stated that it would explore selling Sports Illustrated and several other former Time properties, arguing that they did not properly align with the company's lifestyle brands and publications. From its start, Sports Illustrated introduced a number of innovations that are taken for granted today: Liberal use of color photos—though the six-week lead time meant they were unable to depict timely subject matter Scouting reports—including a World Series Preview and New Year's Day bowl game round-up that enhanced the viewing of games on television In-depth sports reporting from writers like Robert Creamer, Tex Maule and Dan Jenkins. Regular illustration features by artists like Robert Riger. High school football Player of the Month awards. Inserts of sports cards in the center of the magazine 1994 Launched Sports Illustrated Interactive CD-ROM with StarPress Multimedia, Incorporates player stats and highlights from the year in sports. In 2015 Sports Illustrated purchased a group of software companies and combined them to create Sports Illustrated Play, a platform that offers sports league management software as a service.
In 1965, offset printing bega
The Sunday comics or Sunday strip is the comic strip section carried in most western newspapers always in color. Many newspaper readers called this section the Sunday funnies, the funny papers or the funnies; the first US newspaper comic strips appeared in the late 19th century allied with the invention of the color press. Jimmy Swinnerton's The Little Bears introduced sequential art and recurring characters in William Randolph Hearst's San Francisco Examiner. In the United States, the popularity of color comic strips sprang from the newspaper war between Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer; some newspapers, such as Grit, published Sunday strips in black-and-white, some print their Sunday strips on Saturday. Subject matter and genres have ranged from adventure and humor strips to dramatic strips with soap opera situations, such as Mary Worth. A continuity strip employs a narrative in an ongoing storyline. Other strips offer a gag complete in a single episode, such as Mutt and Jeff; the Sunday strip is contrasted with the daily comic strip, published Monday through Saturday in black and white.
Many comic strips appear both daily and Sunday, in some cases, as with Little Orphan Annie, telling the same story daily and Sunday, in other cases, as with The Phantom, telling one story in the daily and a different story in the Sunday. Some strips, such as Prince Valiant appear only on Sunday. Others, such as Rip Kirby, have never appeared on Sunday. In some cases, such as Buz Sawyer, the Sunday strip is a spin-off, focusing on different characters than the daily. Famous full-page Sunday strips include Alley Oop, Barney Google and Snuffy Smith, Bringing Up Father, Buck Rogers, Captain Easy, Flash Gordon, Thimble Theatre; such classics have found a new home in book collections of recent years. On the other hand, numerous strips such as Bob Gustafson's Specs and Virgil Partch's The Captain's Gig are completely forgotten today, other than a brief display in the Stripper's Guide site run by comics historian Allan Holtz. Many of the leading cartoonists drew an accompanying topper strip to run above or below their main strip, a practice which began to fade away during the late 1930s.
Holtz notes, "You'll hear historians say that the topper strip was a victim of World War II paper shortages. Don't believe a word of it—it's the ads that killed full-page strips, that killed the topper. World War II only exacerbated an bad situation." After the publisher of the Chicago Inter-Ocean saw the first color press in Paris at the offices of Le Petit Journal, he had his own color press operating late in 1892. At the New York Recorder, manager George Turner had R. Hoe & Co. design a color press, the Recorder published the first American newspaper color page on April 2, 1893. The following month, Pulitzer's New York World printed cartoonist Walt McDougall's "The Possibilities of the Broadway Cable Car" as a color page on May 21, 1893. In 1894, Pulitzer introduced the Sunday color supplement; the Yellow Kid is credited as one of the first US newspaper comic strips. However, the artform combining words and pictures evolved and there are many examples of proto-comic strips. In 1995, King Features Syndicate president Joseph F. D'Angelo wrote: It was in Joseph Pulitzer's New York World that cartoonist Richard Outcault's legendary Yellow Kid made his newspaper debut in 1895, but it was Hearst's New York Journal that cannily snatched the Kid away from the rival sheet and deployed him as a key weapon in the historic newspaper circulation wars.
The Kid led the charge in Hearst's trailblazing American Humorist comic supplement, with its famous motto: "Eight Pages of Iridescent Polychromous Effulgence That Makes The Rainbow Look Like A Lead Pipe!" Pulitzer fought back by hiring another artist to draw Outcault's character for the World. The publishers' fierce battle over the bald urchin in the yellow nightshirt led bystanders to refer to sensational, screaming-headline style newspaper combat as "yellow journalism." The popularity of that expression tainted the early comics as a less-than-genteel entertainment, but it made it clear that the "funnies" had become serious business overnight. In 1905, Winsor McCay's Little Nemo in Slumberland began. Stephen Becker, in Comic Art in America, noted that Little Nemo in Slumberland was "probably the first strip to exploit color for purely aesthetic purposes. By 1906, the weekly Sunday comics supplement was commonplace, with a half-dozen competitive syndicates circulating strips to newspapers in every major American city.
In 1923, The Commercial Appeal in Memphis, became among the first in the nation to acquire its own radio station, it was the first Southern newspaper to publish a Sunday comic section. For most of the 20th century, the Sunday funnies were a family tradition, enjoyed each weekend by adults and kids alike, they were read by millions and produced famous fictional characters in such strips as Flash Gordon, Little Orphan Annie, Prince Valiant, Dick Tracy and Terry and the Pirates. Leading the lists of classic humor strips are Bringing Up Father, Gasoline Alley, Li'l Abner, Pogo and Smokey Stover; some newspapers added their own local features, such as Our Own Oddities in the St. Louis Post-Dispatch. There were educational strips, such as King Features' Heroes of American History. In addition to the comic strips, Sunday comics sections carried advertisements in a comics format, single-panel features, paper dolls and cut-and-paste activities; the World Museum gave readers instructions for cutting pictures apart and assembling them into a diorama with a subject from nature, such a
Help! is an American satire magazine, published by James Warren from 1960 to 1965. It was Harvey Kurtzman's longest-running magazine project after leaving Mad and EC Publications, during its five years of operation it was chronically underfunded, yet innovative. In starting Help!, Kurtzman brought along several artists from his Mad collaborations, including Will Elder, Jack Davis, John Severin and Al Jaffee. Kurtzman's assistants included Terry Gilliam and Gloria Steinem. Among the little-known performers in the fumetti were John Cleese, Woody Allen and Milt Kamen; some of the fumetti were scripted by Bernard Shir-Cliff. At Help!, Gilliam met Cleese for the first time, resulting in their collaboration years on Monty Python's Flying Circus. Cleese appeared in a Gilliam fumetto written by David Crossley, "Christopher's Punctured Romance"; the tale concerns a man, shocked to learn that his daughter's new "Barbee" doll has "titties". Gilliam appeared on two covers of Help! and along with the rest of the creative team, appeared in crowd scenes in several fumetti.
The magazine introduced young talents who went on to influential careers in underground comix as well as the mainstream: among them Robert Crumb, Gilbert Shelton and Jay Lynch. Algis Budrys and other science fiction writers were regular contributors of prose and scripts to the magazine. Working with a minimal budget, Kurtzman relied on a combination of cheap up-and-coming talent, favors called in to "name" friends and inexpensive page-fillers. Somewhat more adult and risque than Mad, Help! was nonetheless less sexually explicit or taboo-breaking than the contemporaneous The Realist or the underground comix and National Lampoon were or would be. Nonetheless, it served as a locus and starting point for a wide range of talent. A total of 26 issues were printed before the magazine folded in 1965. Volume one had 12 issues, 14 issues comprised the second volume. Help! Cover gallery
Punch. It was most influential in the 1840s and 1850s, when it helped to coin the term "cartoon" in its modern sense as a humorous illustration. After the 1940s, when its circulation peaked, it went into a long decline, closing in 1992, it was revived in 1996, but closed again in 2002. Punch was founded on 17 July 1841 by Henry Mayhew and wood-engraver Ebenezer Landells, on an initial investment of £25, it was jointly edited by Mark Lemon. It was subtitled The London Charivari in homage to Charles Philipon's French satirical humour magazine Le Charivari. Reflecting their satiric and humorous intent, the two editors took for their name and masthead the anarchic glove puppet, Mr. Punch, of Punch and Judy. Mayhew ceased to be joint editor in 1842 and became "suggestor in chief" until he severed his connection in 1845; the magazine struggled for readers, except for an 1842 "Almanack" issue which shocked its creators by selling 90,000 copies. In December 1842 due to financial difficulties the magazine was sold to Bradbury and Evans, both printers and publishers.
Bradbury and Evans capitalised on newly evolving mass printing technologies and were the publishers for Charles Dickens and William Makepeace Thackeray. The term "cartoon" to refer to comic drawings was first used in Punch in 1843, when the Houses of Parliament were to be decorated with murals, "cartoons" for the mural were displayed for the public. Punch humorously appropriated the term to refer to its political cartoons, the popularity of the Punch cartoons led to the term's widespread use; the illustrator Archibald Henning designed the cover of the magazine's first issues. The cover design varied in the early years, though Richard Doyle designed what became the magazine's masthead in 1849. Artists who published in Punch during the 1840s and 50s included John Leech, Richard Doyle, John Tenniel and Charles Keene; this group became known as "The Punch Brotherhood", which included Charles Dickens who joined Bradbury and Evans after leaving Chapman and Hall in 1843. Punch authors and artists contributed to another Bradbury and Evans literary magazine called Once A Week, created in response to Dickens' departure from Household Words.
In the 1860s and 1870s, conservative Punch faced competition from upstart liberal journal Fun, but after about 1874, Fun's fortunes faded. At Evans's café in London, the two journals had "Round tables" in competition with each other. After months of financial difficulty and lack of market success, Punch became a staple for British drawing rooms because of its sophisticated humour and absence of offensive material when viewed against the satirical press of the time; the Times and the Sunday paper News of the World used small pieces from Punch as column fillers, giving the magazine free publicity and indirectly granting a degree of respectability, a privilege not enjoyed by any other comic publication. Punch shared a friendly relationship with not only The Times but journals aimed at intellectual audiences such as the Westminster Review, which published a fifty-three page illustrated article on Punch's first two volumes. Historian Richard Altick writes that "To judge from the number of references to it in the private letters and memoirs of the 1840s...
Punch had become a household word within a year or two of its founding, beginning in the middle class and soon reaching the pinnacle of society, royalty itself". Increasing in readership and popularity throughout the remainder of the 1840s and 1850s, Punch was the success story of a threepenny weekly paper that had become one of the most talked-about and enjoyed periodicals. Punch enjoyed an audience including Elizabeth Barrett, Robert Browning, Thomas Carlyle, Edward FitzGerald, Charlotte Brontë, Queen Victoria, Prince Albert, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Emily Dickinson, Herman Melville, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, James Russell Lowell. Punch gave several phrases to the English language, including The Crystal Palace, the "Curate's egg". Several British humour classics were first serialised in Punch, such as the Diary of a Nobody and 1066 and All That. Towards the end of the nineteenth century, the artistic roster included Harry Furniss, Linley Sambourne, Francis Carruthers Gould, Phil May. Among the outstanding cartoonists of the following century were Bernard Partridge, H. M. Bateman, Bernard Hollowood who edited the magazine from 1957 to 1968, Kenneth Mahood and Norman Thelwell.
Circulation broke the 100,000 mark around 1910, peaked in 1947–1948 at 175,000 to 184,000. Sales declined thereafter. Punch was emulated worldwide and was popular in the colonies; the colonial experience in India, influenced Punch and its iconography. Tenniel's Punch cartoons of the 1857 Sepoy Mutiny led to a surge in the magazine's popularity. Colonial India was caricatured in Punch and was an important source of knowledge of India for British readers. Punch material was collected in book formats from the late nineteenth century, which included Pick of the Punch annuals with cartoons and text features and the War, A Big Bowl of Punch –, republished a number of times. Many Punch cartoonists of the late 20th century published collections of their own bas
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti