Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner
Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner, was a British statesman and colonial administrator who played an influential leadership role in the formulation of foreign and domestic policy between the mid-1890s and early 1920s. From December 1916 to November 1918, he was one of the most important members of David Lloyd George's War Cabinet. Milner's partial German ancestry dates to his paternal grandmother, married to an Englishman who settled in the Grand Duchy of Hesse, their son, Charles Milner, educated in Hesse and England, established himself as a physician with a practice in London and became Reader in English at Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen in the Kingdom of Württemberg. His wife was a daughter of Major General John Ready, former Lieutenant Governor of Prince Edward Island and the Isle of Man, their only son, Alfred Milner, was born in the Hessian town of Giessen and educated first at Tübingen at King's College School and, from 1872 to 1876, as a scholar of Balliol College, studying under the classicist theologian Benjamin Jowett.
Having won the Hertford, Craven and Derby scholarships, he graduated in 1877 with a first class in classics and was elected to a fellowship at New College, however, for London in 1879. At Oxford he formed a close friendship with young economic historian Arnold Toynbee, writing a paper in support of his theories of social work and, in 1895, twelve years after his death at the age of 30, penning a tribute, Arnold Toynbee: a Reminiscence. Although authorised to practise law after being called to the bar at the Inner Temple in 1881, he joined the staff of the Pall Mall Gazette under John Morley, becoming assistant editor to William Thomas Stead. In 1885 he abandoned journalism for a potential political career as the Liberal candidate for the Harrow division of Middlesex, but lost in the general election. Holding the post of private secretary to George Goschen, he rose in rank when, in 1887, Goschen became Chancellor of the Exchequer and, two years used his influence to have Milner appointed under-secretary of finance in Egypt.
He remained in Egypt for four years, his period of office coinciding with the first great reforms, after the danger of bankruptcy had been avoided. Returning to England in 1892, he published England and Egypt which, at once, became the authoritative account of the work done since the British occupation; that year he received an appointment as chairman of the Board of Inland Revenue. In 1894 he was made CB and in 1895 KCB. Alfred Milner remained at the Board of Inland Revenue until 1897, he was regarded as one of the clearest-headed and most judicious officials in the British service, his position as a man of moderate Liberal views, so associated with Goschen at the Treasury, Cromer in Egypt and Hicks-Beach and Sir William Vernon Harcourt while at the Inland Revenue, marked him as one in whom all parties might have confidence. The moment for testing his capacity in the highest degree had now come. In April, Lord Rosmead resigned his posts of High Commissioner for Southern Africa and Governor of Cape Colony.
The situation resulting from the Jameson raid was one of the greatest delicacy and difficulty, Joseph Chamberlain, now colonial secretary, selected Milner as Lord Rosmead's successor. The choice was cordially approved by the leaders of the Liberal party and warmly recognized at a farewell dinner on 28 March 1897 presided over by the future prime minister Herbert Henry Asquith; the appointment was avowedly made in order that an acceptable British statesman, in whom public confidence was reposed, might go to South Africa to consider all the circumstances and to formulate a policy which should combine the upholding of British interests with the attempt to deal justly with the Transvaal and Orange Free State governments. Milner reached the Cape in May 1897 and by August, after the difficulties with President Kruger over the Aliens' Law had been patched up, he was free to make himself acquainted with the country and peoples before deciding on the lines of policy to be adopted. Between August 1897 and May 1898 he travelled through Cape Colony, the Bechuanaland Protectorate and Basutoland.
To better understand the point of view of the Cape Dutch and the burghers of the Transvaal and Orange Free State, Milner during this period learned both Dutch and the South African "Taal" Afrikaans. He came to the conclusion that there could be no hope of peace and progress in South Africa while there remained the "permanent subjection of British to Dutch in one of the Republics". Milner was referring to the situation in the Transvaal where, in the aftermath of the discovery of gold, thousands of fortune seekers had flocked from all over Europe, but Britain; this influx of foreigners, referred to as "Uitlanders", threatened their republic, Transvaal's President Kruger refused to give the "Uitlanders" the right to vote. The Afrikaner farmers, known as Boers, had established the Transvaal as their promised land, after their Great Trek out of Cape Colony, a trek whose purpose was to remove themselves as far as possible from British rule, they had successfully defended the Transvaal's annexation by the British Empire during the first Anglo-Boer War, a conflict that had emboldened them and resulted in a peace treaty which, lacking a convincing pretext, made it difficult for Britain to justify diplomatically another annexation of the Transvaal.
Independent Transvaal thus stood in the way of Britain's ambition to control all of Africa from the Cape to Cairo. Milner realised that, with the discovery of gold in the Transvaal, the balance of power in South Africa had shifted from Cape Tow
Blackheath is a district of south east London, within the Royal Borough of Greenwich and the London Borough of Lewisham. It is located east of Lewisham, south of Greenwich. Blackheath is within the historic boundaries of Kent; the name is recorded in 1166 as Blachehedfeld and means the "dark coloured heathland". It is formed from the Old English'blæc' and'hǣth' and refers to the open space, the meeting place of the ancient hundred of Blackheath; the name was applied to the Victorian suburb that developed in the 19th century and was extended to the areas known as Blackheath Park and Blackheath Vale. An urban myth is that Blackheath was associated with the 1665 Plague or the Black Death of the mid-14th century; the idea that Blackheath got its name from its use as a burial pit goes all the way back to the medieval period, when it was certainly used for the disposal of the dead during the ‘Black Death‘. Every part of London has a local tradition about plague pits under, say, a local school or shop.
They were common. The sheer number of bodies meant that the traditional churchyards became, as one contemporary put it, ‘overstuft’ quickly. During the seventeenth century Blackheath was, along with Hounslow Heath, a common assembly point for English Armies. In 1673 the Blackheath Army was assembled under Marshal Schomberg to serve in the Third Anglo-Dutch War; the Roman road that became known as Watling Street crosses the northern edge of Blackheath heading for the mouth of Deptford Creek, rather than for Deptford Bridge like the modern A2. Before the development of Greenwich palace by the Tudors, one of the most used royal palaces during the latter Plantagenet era was Eltham Palace located about 2.5 miles to the southeast of the heath and Watling Street. It continued to be used as a royal residence to the 16th century. Blackheath was a rallying point for Wat Tyler's Peasants' Revolt of 1381, for Jack Cade's Kentish rebellion in 1450. Wat Tyler is remembered by Wat Tyler Road on the heath, Jack Cade by Cade Road near the heath.
After pitching camp on Blackheath, Cornish rebels were defeated in the Battle of Deptford Bridge, just to the west, on 17 June 1497. With Watling Street carrying stagecoaches across the heath, en route to north Kent and the Channel ports, it was a notorious haunt of highwaymen during the 17th and 18th centuries; as reported in Edward Walford's Old and New London, "In past times it was planted with gibbets, on which the bleaching bones of men who had dared to ask for some extension of liberty, or who doubted the infallibility of kings, were left year after year to dangle in the wind." In 1909 Blackheath had a local branch of the London Society for Women's Suffrage. The Vanbrugh Pits are on the north-east part of the heath; the site of old gravel workings, Vanbrugh Pits have long been reclaimed by nature and form one of the more attractive parts of the rather flat Blackheath. It is attractive in spring when the extensive gorse blossoms; the pits are named after Sir John Vanbrugh, architect of Blenheim Palace and Castle Howard, who had a house nearby, adjacent to Greenwich Park, now called Vanbrugh Castle.'Mince Pie House' built for his family, survived until 1911.
The sizeable estate of Blackheath Park, created on lands of Wricklemarsh Manor by John Cator is situated east of Blackheath, between Lee Road, Morden Road and Manor Way. Built over in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, it contains many fine examples of substantial Georgian and Victorian houses – most notably Michael Searles' crescent of semi-detached terrace houses linked by colonnades, The Paragon – as well as some 1930s and 1960s additions; the Cator Estate was built on part of the estate owned by Sir John Morden, whose Morden College is another notable building to the south-east of the heath. The Cator Estate contains innovative 1960s Span houses and flats, the Blackheath High School buildings on Vanburgh Park include the Church Army Chapel. St Michael and All Angels' Church, designed by local architect George Smith and completed in 1830, was dubbed the Needle of Kent in honour of its tall, thin spire. All Saints' Church, situated on the heath, designed by the architect Benjamin Ferrey, dates from 1857.
Another Anglican church, St John the Evangelist's, was designed in 1853 by Arthur Ashpitel. The Pagoda is a notable example of a beautiful property situated in Blackheath, built in 1760 by Sir William Chambers in the style of a traditional Chinese pagoda, it was leased to the Prince Regent, who would become King George IV, used as a summer home by his wife Caroline, Princess of Wales. In 1871 the management of Blackheath passed by Act of Parliament to the Metropolitan Board of Works. Unlike the commons of Hackney, Tooting Bec and Clapham, Blackheath came to the Metropolitan Board of Works at no expense, because the Earl of Dartmouth agreed to waive his manorial rights, it is held in trust for public benefit under the Metropolitan Commons Act of 1886. It passed to the London County Council in 1889 to the Greater London Council; when the GLC closed in 1986, responsibility was given to the two boroughs of Greenwich and Lewisham, where it remains today. The heath itself is not manorial waste; the freehold is retained by the Manor of Lewisham and the Royal Manor of Greenwich.
The heath's chief natural resource is gravel, the freeholders retain rights over its extraction. In 1608, according to tradition, Blackheath was the place where golf was introduced to England – the Royal Blackheath G
A laborer or labourer is a person who works in the construction trades, by tradition, manual labor. Laborers are employed in the construction industry, such as road paving, bridges, railway tracks. Laborers work with blasting tools, hand tools, power tools, air tools, small heavy equipment, act as assistants to other trades as well, such as operators or cement masons; the 1st century BC engineer Vitruvius writes about laborer practices at that time. Other than the addition of pneumatics, laborer practices have changed little. With the advent of advanced technology and its introduction into the construction field, the laborers have been quick to include much of this technology as being laborers work; the following tools are considered a minimum for a laborer to keep with them: hammer, pliers w/ side-cutters, utility knife, tape measure, locking pliers, crescent wrench, margin trowel, carpenter's pencil or soapstone, tool belt and one pouch. In addition: a five gallon bucket with additional tools, toolbelt suspenders, water jug and lunchbox are recommended.
Most safety equipment, consumed or work specific, for example hard hat, safety glasses, hearing protection, fall protection, high-visibility clothing, concrete boots, respirator/dust mask and toe guards are provided by the employer as part of construction site safety. Personal safety equipment, for example full leather boots, high strength pants - Carhartt or jeans - socks, lip balm, climate specific outerwear, are provided by the individual; some of the work done by laborers includes: concrete - shotcrete, gunite and steel forms demolition - concrete cutting, pavement breaking, cutting torch environmental remediation and hazardous waste fences and landscaping street sweeping hod carrier - block masonry and fireproofing paving - white paving formwork, traffic control, signs piping - water pipe and storm drain field technology general digging tunnels - drilling and blasting dry utilities - electrical conduit and communications conduit loading and offloading - handling of physical goods, such as construction materials As a manual labor occupation, to attract free workers the wages paid to laborers is higher than those paid in general to unskilled workers.
In the United States, a union laborer earns equal or greater than most work available to anyone with a bachelor's degree. This is one of a few fields where someone without a high school diploma can still earn a living wage. Union, heavy construction and highway construction laborers earn on average $25.47/h compared to 13.72/h for non-union laborers. In addition to paid earnings, union laborers enjoy the benefits of medical insurance, vacation pay, pension plans and vocational schools, it is not uncommon for young civil engineers, construction managers and construction engineers typical salary of 40,000 to 60,000 to fall short of their union laborers average wages of 50,000 to 80,000. However, unlike engineers, laborers are not employed full-time year round and face significant hazards; the additional pay laborers receive is balanced out by the lesser unemployment checks they receive while out of work and the disability checks they receive while injured—often debilitated for life. That is if unemployment and injury insurance is provided, not the case.
Engineers are not immune to being out of work. In heavy civil work some are employed on a project basis and mental injuries due to stress are a different but debilitating hazard; because of the wide range of skills and ability to provide muscle, laborers earn side-work as independent contractors and under-the-table work. In construction the pay for laborers is low enough that planning problems can be solved by "throwing laborers at it." This can become a toxic and dangerous brew of unplanned work that slides forward on the blood and sweat of hard working laborers—injury rates soar. The value of work put in place by laborers and the value of avoided rework and increased efficiencies produced by the engineers' planning is a balance of resource utilization on any large project. Union laborers earn more than unfree labor and can be an avenue for those who are uneducated and with no resources to become educated and with resources. There are dangers associated with laboring. Many laborers are injured or killed in accidents each year while performing work duties.
Many who work as laborers for a short period of time will suffer from permanent work injuries such as: hearing loss, osteoarthritis, back injuries, eye injury, head injury, chemical burn, lung disease, missing finger nails and skin scars. Alcoholism, drug use, drug abuse are common although most companies require drug screening for all new hires. If a laborer is injured on the job they are given a drug test. If the test results are positive they are ineligible for any Workers' compensation benefits. There is a gray area for the use of marijuana due to medical marijuana prescriptions; some who have been dismissed for failing a drug test while possessing a prescription have been reinstated with pay as having been wrongfully terminated. The Laborers' Internatio
Friedrich Engels was a German philosopher, social scientist and businessman. His father was an owner of large textile factories in Barmen, Prussia. Engels developed what is now known as Marxist theory together with Karl Marx and in 1845 he published The Condition of the Working Class in England, based on personal observations and research in English cities. In 1848, Engels co-authored The Communist Manifesto with Marx and authored and co-authored many other works. Engels supported Marx financially, allowing him to do research and write Das Kapital. After Marx's death, Engels edited the third volumes of Das Kapital. Additionally, Engels organised Marx's notes on the Theories of Surplus Value, which he published as the "fourth volume" of Capital. In 1884, he published The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State on the basis of Marx's ethnographic research. Engels died in London on 5 August 1895, at the age of 74 and following cremation his ashes were scattered off Beachy Head, near Eastbourne.
Engels was born on 28 November 1820 in Barmen, Rhine Province, Prussia as eldest son of Friedrich Engels Sr. and of Elisabeth "Elise" Franziska Mauritia von Haar. The wealthy Engels family owned large cotton-textile mills in Barmen and Salford, both expanding industrial metropoles. Friedrich's parents were devout Pietist Protestants and they raised their children accordingly. At the age of 13, Engels attended high school in the adjacent city of Elberfeld but had to leave at 17, due to pressure of his father, who wanted him to become a businessman and start to work as mercantile apprentice in his firm. After a year in Barmen, the young Engels was in 1838 sent by his father to undertake an apprenticeship at a commercial house in Bremen, his parents expected. Their son's revolutionary activities disappointed them, it would be some years. Whilst at Bremen, Engels began reading the philosophy of Hegel, whose teachings dominated German philosophy at that time. In September 1838 he published his first work, a poem entitled "The Bedouin", in the Bremisches Conversationsblatt No. 40.
He engaged in other literary work and began writing newspaper articles critiquing the societal ills of industrialisation. He wrote under the pseudonym "Friedrich Oswald" to avoid connecting his family with his provocative writings. In 1841 Engels performed his military service in the Prussian Army as a member of the Household Artillery. Assigned to Berlin, he attended university lectures at the University of Berlin and began to associate with groups of Young Hegelians, he anonymously published articles in the Rheinische Zeitung, exposing the poor employment- and living-conditions endured by factory workers. The editor of the Rheinische Zeitung was Karl Marx, but Engels would not meet Marx until late November 1842. Engels acknowledged the influence of German philosophy on his intellectual development throughout his career, he wrote, "To get the most out of life you must be active, you must live and you must have the courage to taste the thrill of being young... ". Engels developed his relationship with his parents became strained.
In 1842, his parents sent the 22-year-old Engels to Manchester, England, a manufacturing centre where industrialisation was on the rise. He was to work in Weaste in the offices of Ermen and Engels's Victoria Mill, which made sewing threads. Engels's father thought that working at the Manchester firm might make his son reconsider some of his radical opinions. On his way to Manchester, Engels visited the office of the Rheinische Zeitung in Cologne and met Karl Marx for the first time, they were not impressed with each other. Marx mistakenly thought that Engels was still associated with the Berliner Young Hegelians, with whom Marx had just broken off ties. In Manchester, Engels met Mary Burns, a fierce young Irish woman with radical opinions who worked in the Engels factory, they began a relationship that lasted 20 years until her death in 1863. The two never married. While Engels regarded stable monogamy as a virtue, he considered the current state and church-regulated marriage as a form of class oppression.
Burns guided Engels through Manchester and Salford, showing him the worst districts for his research. While in Manchester between October and November 1843, Engels wrote his first economic work, entitled "Outline of a Critique of Political Economy." Engels sent the article to Paris, where Marx published it in the Deutsch–Französische Jahrbücher in 1844. While observing the slums of Manchester in close detail, Engels took notes of its horrors, notably child labour, the despoiled environment, overworked and impoverished labourers, he sent a trilogy of articles to Marx. These were published in the Rheinische Zeitung and in the Deutsch–Französische Jahrbücher, chronicling the conditions among the working class in Manchester, he collected these articles for his influential first book, The Condition of the Working Class in England. Written between September 1844 and March 1845, the book was published in German in 1845. In the book, Engels described the "grim future of capitalism and the industrial age", noting the details of the squalor in which the working people lived.
The book was published in English in 1887. Archival resources contemporary to Engels's stay in Manchester shed light on some of the conditions he describes, including a manuscript (MMM/10
Free trade is a trade policy that does not restrict imports or exports. In government, free trade is predominantly advocated by political parties that hold liberal economic positions while economically left-wing and nationalist political parties support protectionism, the opposite of free trade. Most nations are today members of the World Trade Organization multilateral trade agreements. Free trade is additionally exemplified by the European Economic Area and the Mercosur which have established open markets. However, most governments still impose some protectionist policies that are intended to support local employment, such as applying tariffs to imports or subsidies to exports. Governments may restrict free trade to limit exports of natural resources. Other barriers that may hinder trade include import quotas and non-tariff barriers, such as regulatory legislation. There is a broad consensus among economists that protectionism has a negative effect on economic growth and economic welfare while free trade and the reduction of trade barriers has a positive effect on economic growth.
However, liberalization of trade can cause significant and unequally distributed losses, the economic dislocation of workers in import-competing sectors. Free trade policies may promote the following features: Trade of goods without taxes or other trade barriers. Trade in services without taxes or other trade barriers; the absence of "trade-distorting" policies that give some firms, households, or factors of production an advantage over others. Unregulated access to markets. Unregulated access to market information. Inability of firms to distort markets through government-imposed monopoly or oligopoly power. Trade agreements which encourage free trade. Two simple ways to understand the proposed benefits of free trade are through David Ricardo's theory of comparative advantage and by analyzing the impact of a tariff or import quota. An economic analysis using the law of supply and demand and the economic effects of a tax can be used to show the theoretical benefits and disadvantages of free trade.
Most economists would recommend that developing nations should set their tariff rates quite low, but the economist Ha-Joon Chang, a proponent of industrial policy, believes higher levels may be justified in developing nations because the productivity gap between them and developed nations today is much higher than what developed nations faced when they were at a similar level of technological development. Underdeveloped nations today, Chang believes, are weak players in a much more competitive system. Counterarguments to Chang's point of view are that the developing countries are able to adopt technologies from abroad whereas developed nations had to create new technologies themselves and that developing countries can sell to export markets far richer than any that existed in the 19th century. If the chief justification for a tariff is to stimulate infant industries, it must be high enough to allow domestic manufactured goods to compete with imported goods in order to be successful; this theory, known as import substitution industrialization, is considered ineffective for developing nations.
The chart at the right analyzes the effect of the imposition of an import tariff on some imaginary good. Prior to the tariff, the price of the good in the world market is Pworld; the tariff increases the domestic price to Ptariff. The higher price causes domestic production to increase from QS1 to QS2 and causes domestic consumption to decline from QC1 to QC2; this has three main effects on societal welfare. Consumers are made worse off. Producers are better off; the government has additional tax revenue. However, the loss to consumers is greater than the gains by the government; the magnitude of this societal loss is shown by the two pink triangles. Removing the tariff and having free trade would be a net gain for society. An identical analysis of this tariff from the perspective of a net producing country yields parallel results. From that country's perspective, the tariff leaves producers worse off and consumers better off, but the net loss to producers is larger than the benefit to consumers. Under similar analysis, export tariffs, import quotas and export quotas all yield nearly identical results.
Sometimes consumers are better off and producers worse off and sometimes consumers are worse off and producers are better off, but the imposition of trade restrictions causes a net loss to society because the losses from trade restrictions are larger than the gains from trade restrictions. Free trade creates winners and losers, but theory and empirical evidence show that the size of the winnings from free trade are larger than the losses. According to mainstream economics theory, the selective application of free trade agreements to some countries and tariffs on others can lead to economic inefficiency through the process of trade diversion, it is economically efficient for a good to be produced by the country, the lowest cost producer, but this does not always take place if a high cost producer has a free trade agreement while the low cost producer faces a high tariff. Applying free trade to the high cost producer and not the low cost producer as well can lead to trade diversion and a net economic loss.
This is why many economists place such high importance on negotiations for global tar
Joseph Toynbee FRS was an English Otologist, whose career was dedicated to pathological and anatomical studies of the ear. Joseph Toynbee was born in Heckington, Lincolnshire in 1815, he was the second son of fifteen children of farmer George Toynbee. His first wife and mother of Joseph was Elizabeth Cullen. After several years of private teaching, he attended King's Lynn Grammar School in Norfolk. At the age of seventeen he studied medicine, his first experience in medicine came when he was apprenticed to William Wade of the Westminster General Dispensary in Gerrard Street in Soho London. He studied anatomy under George Derby Dermott at Hunterian Medical School at the Great Windmill Street, gained a reputation as a prosector, he was married, to Harriet, daughter of Nathaniel Holmes. They had nine children together, including economic historian Arnold Toynbee, the bacteriologist Grace Frankland. Another son, Harry Valpy Toynbee, was the father of universal historian Arnold J. Toynbee, archaeologist and art historian Jocelyn Toynbee.
He died in July 1866 while conducting experiments with prussic acid and chloroform as a remedy for tinnitus. Either one of these substances or their combination are responsible for his death, he was buried at Wimbledon. He performed studies on the functionality of the Eustachian tube and of the tympanic membrane and tried to restore attempts, the tympanoplasty; when St. Mary’s Hospital was founded in Paddington, he a became an aural surgeon and a lecturer on ear diseases — his course of clinical lectures being published in 1855 and 1866. During this time period he composed two major works: "A Descriptive Catalogue of Preparations Illustrative of the Diseases of the Ear", "The Diseases of the Ear: Their Nature and Treatment". From his many dissections of "deaf ears", he studied ankylosis of the stapes, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in March 1842. Austrian otologist Adam Politzer penned biographies in French and German honoring Toynbee, whom Politzer regarded as a major influence.
On the structure of the membrana tympani in the human ear. Richard Taylor, London 1851 On the use of an artificial membrana tympani in cases of deafness: dependent upon perforation or destruction of the natural organ. J. Churchill, London 1857 A Descriptive Catalogue of Preparations illustrative of the Diseases of the Ear in the Museum of Joseph Toynbee. J. Churchill, London 1857 The Diseases of the Ear: Their Nature and Treatment. Blanchard and Lea, 1860 Hints on the Formation of Local Museums. Robert Hardwicke, 1863 Betlejewski, Stanisław. "Joseph Toynbee—otologist, philanthropist". Otolaryngologia polska; the Polish otolaryngology. Poland. 63: 199–203. Doi:10.1016/S0030-665770106-4. ISSN 0030-6657. PMID 19681496. Sketches of Otohistory.
Dame Henrietta Octavia Weston Barnett, DBE was a notable English social reformer and author. She and her husband, Samuel Augustus Barnett, founded the first "University Settlement" at Toynbee Hall in 1884, they worked to establish the model Hampstead Garden Suburb in the early 20th century. Born in Clapham, Henrietta Octavia Weston Rowland lost her mother at an early age, her father, Alexander William Rowland, a wealthy businessman associated with the Macassar Oil Company, raised her and seven siblings at their London home and a country house in Kent, where she developed a lifelong appreciation of country pursuits. One of her sisters was the philanthropist Alice Hart. At age 16, Henrietta was sent to a boarding school in Devon run by the Haddon sisters, influenced by James Hinton, were committed to social altruism; when her father died in 1869, Henrietta moved with two sisters to Bayswater, where she met and helped social activist and housing reformer Octavia Hill. Hill introduced Henrietta to the writings of John Ruskin, as well as many influential people interested in improving the condition of London's poor.
Through Hill, Henrietta met Canon Samuel Barnett the curate of St Mary's, Bryanston Square. They married in 1873; the newlyweds soon moved to the impoverished Whitechapel parish of St Jude's, intent on improving social conditions. Henrietta continued her parish visiting activities, with a focus on women and children, including the more than 2,000 prostitutes active in Whitechapel alone. In 1875, Henrietta became a woman guardian for the parish, the following year was named a school manager for the Poor Law district schools in Forest Gate. Another social initiative which the Barnetts helped set up was the Metropolitan Association for Befriending Young Servants, with Jane Senior; the Barnetts' experiment in sending slum children for country holidays grew into the Children's Fresh Air Mission, established in 1877, becoming the Children's Country Holidays Fund in 1884. Henrietta Barnett promoted Homes for Workhouse Girls starting in 1880, founded the London Pupil Teachers Association in 1891, she served as vice-president of the National Association for the Welfare of the Feeble-Minded and National Union of Women Workers.
In 1884, the Barnetts established Toynbee Hall, a pioneering university settlement named after the deceased distinguished historian Arnold Toynbee, who had advocated education of the working classes and reduction of the division between social classes. In 1897 annual loan exhibitions of fine art began at the nearby Whitechapel Gallery through the Barnetts' efforts. In 1903 Richard Tawney began working with them, the Children's Country Holiday Fund, the Workers' Educational Association. William Beveridge and Clement Attlee worked with the Barnetts as they started their own careers. A visit to Toynbee Hall inspired Jane Addams to found Hull House in Chicago. In 1889 the activist couple acquired a weekend home at Spaniard's End in the Hampstead area of north-west London; the Barnetts became inspired by Ebenezer Howard and the model housing development movement, as well as protecting part of nearby Hampstead Heath from development by Eton College. In 1904, they established trusts which bought 243 acres of land along the newly opened Northern line extension to Golders Green.
This became the Hampstead Garden Suburb, a model garden city developed through their efforts and those of architects Raymond Unwin and Sir Edwin Lutyens and which grew to encompass over 800 acres. In 1909, an adult education institute opened in the middle of the new Hampstead Garden Suburb, with cultural programmes and discussion groups. Soon a school for girls was named the Henrietta Barnett School. Although the suburb was never developed according to Lutyens's plan, it did include Grade I listed St Jude's Church, as well as a clubhouse and a tea house, a Quaker meeting house, children's homes, a nursery school, housing for old people; the Barnetts never had children of their own. They adopted Dorothy Woods, Henrietta served as legal guardian for her brain-damaged elder sister, Fanny. After Samuel died in 1913, Henrietta founded Barnett House at Oxford in his memory, she helped it become the university's centre for social policy education. Barnett wrote several books and with her husband, their Christian Socialist beliefs are set out in Toward Social Reform.
Her early books concerned domestic issues: The Making of the Home, How to Mind the Baby, written with her husband and Ernest Abraham Hart, The Making of the Body. With Kathleen Mallam, Henrietta Barnett edited a collection of essays entitled Destitute and Delinquent Children. After her husband's death, Henrietta Barnett finished their Illustrated British Ballads Old and New, wrote his multi-volume biography, Canon Barnett: his life and friends as well as published collections of essays, most notably Matters that Matter. For her work as a social reformer, Barnett was named a Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 1917, elevated to Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 1924. In 1920, she was named honorary president of the 480 member American Federation of Se