North East England
North East England is one of nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes. It covers Northumberland, County Durham and Wear, the area of the former county of Cleveland in North Yorkshire; the region is home to three large conurbations: Teesside and Tyneside, the last of, the largest of the three and the eighth most populous conurbation in the United Kingdom. There are three cities in the region: Newcastle upon Tyne, the largest, with a population of just under 280,000. Other large towns include Darlington, Hartlepool, South Shields, Stockton-on-Tees and Washington; the region is hilly and sparsely populated in the North and West, urban and arable in the East and South. The highest point in the region is The Cheviot, in the Cheviot Hills, at 815 metres; the region contains the urban centres of Tyneside and Teesside, is noted for the rich natural beauty of its coastline, Northumberland National Park, the section of the Pennines that includes Teesdale and Weardale.
The regions historic importance is displayed by Northumberland's ancient castles, the two World Heritage Sites of Durham Cathedral and Durham Castle, Hadrian's Wall one of the frontiers of the Roman Empire. In fact, Roman archaeology can be found across the region and a special exhibition based around the Roman Fort of Segedunum at Wallsend and the other forts along Hadrian's Wall are complemented by the numerous artifacts that are displayed in the Great North Museum Hancock in Newcastle. St. Peter's Church in Monkwearmouth, Sunderland and St. Pauls in Jarrow hold significant historical value and have a joint bid to become a World Heritage Site; the area has a strong religious past, as can be seen in works such as the Lindisfarne Gospels and the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. The work of the 7th-century Cuthbert and Hilda of Whitby were hugely influential in the early church, are still venerated by some today; these saints are associated with the monasteries on the island of Lindisfarne, Wearmouth – Jarrow, the Abbey at Whitby, though they are associated with many other religious sites in the region.
Bede is regarded as the greatest Anglo-Saxon scholar. He worked at the monasteries of Wearmouth and Jarrow, translating some forty books on all areas of knowledge, including nature, astronomy and theological matters such as the lives of the saints, his best known work is "The Ecclesiastical History of the English People". One of the most famous pieces of art and literature created in the region is the Lindisfarne Gospels, are thought to be the work of a monk named Eadfrith, who became Bishop of Lindisfarne in 698; this body of work is thought to have been created in honour of Cuthbert, around 710–720. On 6 June 793 the Vikings arrived on the shores of north-east England with a raiding party from Norway who attacked the monastic settlement on Lindisfarne; the monks fled or were slaughtered, Bishop Higbald sought refuge on the mainland. A chronicler recorded: "On the 8th June, the harrying of the heathen miserably destroyed God's church by rapine and slaughter." There were three hundred years of Viking raids and settlement until William the Conqueror defeated King Harold at Hastings in 1066.
The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle notes the change from raiding to settlement when it records that in 876 the Vikings "Shared out the land of the Northumbrians and they proceeded to plough and support themselves" The Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Northumbria extended from the Scottish borders at the Firth of Forth to the north, to the south of York, its capital, down to the Humber. The last independent Northumbrian king from 947–8 was Eric Bloodaxe, who died at the Battle of Stainmore, Westmorland, in 954. After Eric Bloodaxe's death, all England was ruled by the grandson of Alfred the Great. Today the Viking legacy can still be found in the language and place names of north-east England and in the DNA of its people; the name Newcastle comes from the castle built shortly after the conquest in 1080 by Robert Curthose, William the Conqueror's eldest son. North East England has an oceanic climate with narrower temperature ranges than the south of England. Summers and winters are mild rather than hot or cold, due to the strong maritime influence of the North Atlantic Current of the Gulf Stream.
The Met Office operates several weather stations in the region and are able they show the regional variations in temperature and its relation to the distance from the North Sea. The warmest summers in the region are found in Stockton-on-Tees and the Middlesbrough area, with a 1981-2010 July average high of 20.4 °C. Precipitation is low by English standards, in spite of the low levels of sunshine, with Stockton-on-Tees averaging only 574.2 millimetres annually, with the seaside town of Tynemouth recording 597.2 millimetres annually. The summers on the northern coastlines are cooler than in the southern and central inland areas: Tynemouth is only just above 18 °C in July. Further inland, frosts during winter are more common, due to the higher elevations and distance from the sea. After more than 2,000 years of industrial activity as a result of abundant minerals such as salt and coal the chemical industry of the Northeast England is today spread across the whole of the region with pharmaceuticals being produced in the north of the region and fine chemicals spread across the middle of the region and commodity chemicals and petrochemicals on Teessi
Warton Crag is a limestone hill in north west Lancashire, England. It lies in City of Lancaster district. At 163 metres it is the highest point in the Arnside and Silverdale Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, is listed as a "HuMP" or "Hundred Metre Prominence", its parent being Hutton Roof Crags. Two areas are Local Nature Reserves, called Warton Crag Quarry. Different sections are owned by Lancashire County Council, the Wildlife Trust for Lancashire and North Merseyside, Lancaster City Council and the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds. Two caves on the west side of the hill called Dog Holes and Badger Hole show signs of early human occupation, with excavations finding a range of artefacts; the summit of the hill was the site of a small multivallate hillfort during the Iron Age period. The 3.2-hectare enclosure was defended by rock scarps and steep slopes to the south and west with triple stone ramparts forming an arc on the other sides. Many plants are found on the crag, including horseshoe vetch near its northern limit, spindle tree and many ferns.
The site is rich in butterflies, including the rare pearl bordered fritillary and high brown fritillary. Much of the hill is listed as a Site of Special Scientific Interest, being considered the best example of limestone grassland in Lancashire, with areas of Limestone pavement; the former quarry on the west of the crag is a regular breeding site for peregrine falcons and is protected by a Falcon Watch team of volunteers. The crag is used by rock-climbers, a fell race on the crag takes place annually as part of Warton Children's Sports Day. Leighton Hall Leighton Moss RSPB reserve Morecambe Bay AONB website pdf of the AONB's 20-page guide Chapman, Gerg. "Warton Crag Bouldering". LakesBloc. P. 8. Retrieved 28 November 2012. Map of Warton Crag Local Nature Reserve
Carboniferous Limestone is a collective term for the succession of limestones occurring throughout Great Britain and Ireland that were deposited during the Dinantian Epoch of the Carboniferous Period. These rocks formed between 325 million years ago. Within England and Wales, the entire limestone succession, which includes subordinate mudstones and some thin sandstones, is known as the Carboniferous Limestone Supergroup. Within Great Britain the suite of rocks known traditionally as the Carboniferous Limestone Series was deposited as marine sediments in three distinct ‘provinces’ separated by contemporary landmasses. One of these landmasses was the Wales-London-Brabant Massif, an east-west aligned belt of land stretching through central Wales and the English Midlands to East Anglia and on into Belgium; the limestones deposited to its south form a distinct South Wales-Mendip province which extends from Pembrokeshire in the west through southern Carmarthenshire and south Powys to Monmouthshire and north Somerset.
These rocks continue eastwards at depth beneath Oxfordshire. The Carboniferous Limestone sequence of South Wales and the Bristol area is subdivided thus: Pembroke Limestone Group Oystermouth Formation Oxwich Head Limestone Formation Penderyn Oolite Member Honeycombed Sandstone Member Dowlais Limestone Formation Abercriban Oolite Subgroup & Clydach Valley Subgroup Avon Group Cwmyniscoy Mudstone Formation Castell Coch Limestone Formation The limestone found north of the Wales-London-Brabant Massif and south of the emergent Southern Uplands block is identified as a separate northern province, it is characterised by the presence of numerous ‘blocks’ and ‘basins’ each with its own particular depositional style. To the north of the Southern Uplands are the limestones of the Scottish Midland Valley stretching from Ayrshire and Arran in the west to Fife and Berwickshire in the east. Though of Carboniferous age, the limestones of this Scottish province are not assigned to the Carboniferous Limestone Supergroup.
The Carboniferous Limestone is widespread throughout Ireland. The Carboniferous Limestone is a significant landscape-forming rock unit in each of the depositional provinces of Great Britain within which it is found. Within Pembrokeshire the Carboniferous Limestone forms the spectacular coastal cliffs at St Govan’s Head along from which are features such as Huntsman's Leap and the Green Bridge of Wales, a natural arch, it forms prominent headlands such as those of Stackpole Head and Lydstep Point and the cliffs at Tenby. A narrow, intensely quarried outcrop runs inland from Carmarthen Bay through Carmarthenshire from Kidwelly, entering the Brecon Beacons National Park at Llandyfan and extending westwards through the Black Mountain to Cribarth above the upper Swansea Valley, it is here referred to as the ‘north crop’ as distinct from a sub-parallel outcrop, the ‘south crop’ which defines the southern rim of the South Wales Coalfield. The outcrop continues through Ystradfellte to Pontneddfechan and Pontsticill.
It runs near the southern margin of the national park via Trefil and the Llangattock escarpment to Blorenge where it turns southwards. A narrow ‘east crop’ and ‘south crop’ run by Cwmbran and north of Cardiff, it turns west again to meet Swansea Bay at Porthcawl. West of the bay, the rock forms the renowned southern coast of Gower between Mumbles Head and Worms Head. There are further occurrences in the Vale of Glamorgan, both inland and on the coast. An important outlier is that of the Forest of Dean basin which forms the cliffs of the Wye Valley, straddling the England/Wales border and extends southwestwards through Chepstow to Undy; the larger part of the Mendip Hills are formed from Carboniferous Limestone, showing notable geomorphological features, including Cheddar Gorge, Burrington Combe and the showcave of Wookey Hole. The Avon Gorge west of Bristol and the coastal cliffs at Clevedon and Weston-super-Mare are cut in this rock; the limestone islands of Flat Holm and Steep Holm are prominent in views across the mouth of the Severn Estuary.
There are limited outcrops on the Isle of Man and more extensive ones in Anglesey notably along the Menai Strait, around Benllech and towards Puffin Island. The Carboniferous Limestone belt extends eastwards to form the Great Orme at Llandudno, the neighbouring Little Orme and a zone of country in inland Denbighshire running through Denbigh and Ruthin. A broader belt forms high ground east of the Clwydian Hills extending south to form the impressive west-facing Eglwyseg escarpment north of Llangollen and continuing as a broken outcrop southwards beyond Oswestry. There are a few outcrops at Little Wenlock; the White Peak is named for the limestone which characterises the heart of the Peak District and through which deep gorges have been cut by rivers such as the Wye and Manifold. The limestone is concealed beneath younger rocks to the east and west and to the north through the South Pennines. To the north the limestone is exposed once again in the Yorkshire Dales. There are numerous limestone hills in the Arnside and Silverdale AONB and in the southern Lake District e.g. Whitbarrow Scar with coastal exposures around the northern margins of Morecambe Bay such as Humphrey Head.
An outcrop extends from Kirkby Stephen along the western side of the Vale of Eden and wraps around the northern margin of the Lake District as far as Cleator Moor. North again, it is a major landscape forming feature in the North Pennines and thence through Northumberland to the Northumberland Coast where it extends to the Scottish border at Berwick-upon-Tweed. There are scattered outcrops along the north coast of the Solway Firth. Limestones occu
Beetham is a village and civil parish in Cumbria, situated on the border with Lancashire. It is part of the Silverdale Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. Craven in the Domesday Book shows that up till 1066 Earl Tostig was lord of Beetham and the surrounding areas of Farleton, Preston Richard, Hincaster and Levens in Cumbria plus Yealand Redmayne and Borwick in Lancashire. Beetham manor amounted to 25 carucates of ploughland; the Norman conquest of England added it to the extensive lands of Roger de Poitou. The parish had a population of 1,724 recorded in the 2001 census, increasing to 1,784 at the 2011 Census. Points of interest include: The Church of St Michael and All Angels, parts of which date from the 12th century; the Heron Corn Mill, a working watermill and active arts and education center. The Heron Theatre, an 80-seat theatre housed in the listed 18th century grammar school; the Fairy Steps, a natural staircase in a limestone crag, in the woodland to the west of the village. A small shrine to Saint Lioba, built into a stone wall in the nearby hamlet of Slackhead.
The River Bela flows past the village and through the deer park of Dallam Tower, skirting Milnthorpe before it washes out into the Kent Estuary near Sandside. Half a mile to the south-east, Beetham Hall is a 14th-century fortified manor house, now ruined, adjoining buildings. To the north of the village is the Billerud paper factory employing 140 people and producing 45,000 tonnes/year, specialising in kraft paper for pharmaceutical and food packaging; the civil parish of Beetham includes the main villages of Beetham and Storth and the smaller communities of Carr Bank, Hale, Slackhead and Whasset. Listed buildings in Beetham Beetham Parish Council Cumbria Directory listing page Heron Corn Mill Heron Theatre The Wheatsheaf at Beetham Beetham Tea Room Beetham parish historical and genealogical information at GENUKI
Chichester Harbour is a large natural harbour to the south west of the city of Chichester on the Solent. It straddles the boundary of West Hampshire, it is one of four natural harbours in that area of the coastline, the others being Portsmouth Harbour, Langstone Harbour and Pagham Harbour. The harbour and surrounding land is managed by Chichester Harbour Conservancy. Chichester Harbour is one of the few remaining undeveloped coastal areas in Southern England and remains wild, its wide expanses and intricate creeks are at the same time a major wildlife haven and among some of Britain's most popular boating waters. The massive stretch of tidal flats and saltings are of outstanding ecological significance. Large populations of wildfowl and waders use the mudflats feeding on the rich plant life and the huge populations of intertidal invertebrates. More than 7,500 Brent geese overwinter on the intertidal mud-land and adjacent farmland and around 55,000 birds reside in or visit the Harbour throughout the year.
The harbourside villages are: West Wittering, West Itchenor, Dell Quay, Bosham, Prinsted, Thorney Island, Emsworth and Northney. The nearest towns are Havant and Hayling Island; the harbour lowlands contain. Boatyards and commercial fishing are important elements of the local economy; this is one of the south coast's most popular sailing waters with as many as 12,500 craft using the harbour, with competitive racing taking place among the 14 sailing clubs of the Chichester Harbour Federation. The villages, sea walls and footpaths are a popular leisure area for tourists alike. Set up by Act of Parliament in 1971, Chichester Harbour Conservancy has the duty to conserve and improve the harbour and amenity area for recreation, natural conservation and natural beauty; as well as being the statutory harbour authority, the Conservancy manages the Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. To the south west of the entrance to Chichester Harbour is Chichester Bar, a shallow spit which can present a significant navigation hazard at all states of the tide.
The entrance to the harbour is deep with a fast tidal stream and to the east of the main harbour entrance channel is a gravel bank known as The Winner. The east side of the harbour entrance is an area of geographical and conservation interest known as East Head, it is a large sand dune linked to land by a narrow area known as The Hinge. In recent years The Hinge has been breached by several storms and repaired. There is much debate about whether and how; the western boundary with Langstone Harbour is defined by a historic causeway known as the wade way, once the principal access from Hayling Island to the mainland, but since bisected by a deep channel for the Portsmouth and Chichester Canal in the 1820s, no longer safely traversable. Chichester Harbour has three main channels; the Emsworth Channel, the Thorney Channel and the Chichester Channel, which branches off into the Bosham Lake and Itchenor Reach. Chichester Harbour is an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty; the harbour is of international importance for nature conservation.
It is a Site of Special Scientific Interest, a wetland of international importance,a Special Protection Area for wild birds and a Special Area of Conservation. The harbour is of particular importance for wintering wildfowl and waders of which five species reach numbers which are internationally important. There are a number of habitats including a large area of salt marsh habitat and mudflats which are exposed at low tide; these areas are important for wintering birds. Chichester Harbour is a designated Bass Nursery Area. Chichester Harbour is used for a wide variety including dinghy racing. There are several yacht marinas, it is used for fishing. Harbour tours depart year round from Itchenor in either a traditional boat or in Solar Heritage, a solar powered boat. During the summer regular trips depart from Emsworth on Solar Heritage and on the Victorian oyster boat Terror. There is a small dory that operates as a ferry service between Bosham; the harbour is a popular area for birdwatching. There is a network of footpaths for walkers and a cycle route from Chichester to West Wittering which passes through harbour countryside.
West Wittering Beach and East Head is the only sandy beach on the West Sussex coast and is a popular family and tourist destination on warm weekends. Bosham Sailing Club Chichester Yacht Club Chichester Cruiser Racing Club Dell Quay Sailing Club Emsworth Sailing Club Emsworth Slipper Sailing Club Hayling Island Sailing Club Itchenor Sailing Club Langstone Sailing Club Mengeham Rythe Sailing Club Thorney Island Sailing Club West Wittering Sailing Club Havant Youth Sail Training Scheme Hayling Island Lifeboat Station Bosham webcam Official website Chichester Harbour Trust
Royal Society for the Protection of Birds
The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds is a charitable organisation registered in England and Wales and in Scotland. It was founded in 1889, it works to promote conservation and protection of birds and the wider environment through public awareness campaigns and through the operation of nature reserves throughout the United Kingdom. The RSPB has over 1,300 employees, 18,000 volunteers and more than a million members, making it the largest wildlife conservation charity in Europe; the RSPB maintains 200 nature reserves. The origins of the RSPB lie with two groups of women, both formed in 1889; the Plumage League was founded by Emily Williamson at her house in Didsbury, Manchester, as a protest group campaigning against the use of great crested grebe and kittiwake skins and feathers in fur clothing. The Fur and Feather Folk was founded in Croydon by Eliza Phillips, Etta Lemon, Catherine Hall and others; the groups gained in popularity and amalgamated in 1891 to form the Society for the Protection of Birds in London.
The Society gained its Royal Charter in 1904. The original members of the RSPB were all women who campaigned against the fashion of the time for women to wear exotic feathers in hats, the consequent encouragement of "plume hunting". To this end the Society had two simple rules: That Members shall discourage the wanton destruction of Birds, interest themselves in their protection That Lady-Members shall refrain from wearing the feathers of any bird not killed for purposes of food, the ostrich only excepted. At the time of founding, the trade in plumage for use in hats was large: in the first quarter of 1884 7,000 bird-of-paradise skins were being imported to Britain, along with 400,000 birds from West India and Brazil, 360,000 birds from East India. In 1890, the society published its first leaflet, entitled Destruction of Ornamental-Plumaged Birds, aimed at saving the egret population by informing wealthy women of the environmental damage wrought by the use of feathers in fashion. A 1897 publication, Bird Food in Winter, aimed to address the use of berries as winter decoration and encouraged the use of synthetic berries to preserve the birds food source.
By 1898 the RSPB had 20,000 members and in 1897 alone had distributed over 16,000 letters and 50,000 leaflets. The Society attracted support from some women of high social standing who belonged to the social classes that popularised the wearing of feathered hats, including the Duchess of Portland and the Ranee of Sarawak; as the organisation began to attract the support of many other influential figures, both male and female, such as the ornithologist Professor Alfred Newton, it gained in popularity and attracted many new members. The society received a Royal Charter in 1904 from Edward VII, just 15 years after its founding, was instrumental in petitioning the Parliament of the United Kingdom to introduce laws banning the use of plumage in clothing. At the time that the Society was founded in Britain, similar societies were founded in other European countries. In 1961, the society acquired The Lodge in Bedfordshire as its new headquarters; the RSPB's logo depicts an Avocet. The first version was designed by Robert Gillmor.
Today, the RSPB works with both the civil service and the Government to advise Government policies on conservation and environmentalism. It is one of several organisations that determine the official conservation status list for all birds found in the UK; the RSPB offer animal rescue services. The RSPB maintains over 200 reserves throughout the United Kingdom, covering a wide range of habitats, from estuaries and mudflats to forests and urban habitats; the reserves have bird hides provided for birdwatchers and many provide visitor centres, which include information about the wildlife that can be seen there. The RSPB confers awards, including the President's Award, for volunteers who make a notable contribution to the work of the society. According to the RSPB: The RSPB Medal is the Society's most prestigious award, it is presented to an individual in recognition of wild bird protection and countryside conservation. It is awarded annually to one or two people; the RSPB has published a members-only magazine for over a century.
Bird Notes and News was first published in April 1903. The title changed to Bird Notes in 1947. In the 1950s, there were four copies per year; each volume covered two years, spread over three calendar years. For example, volume XXV, number one was dated Winter 1951, number eight in the same volume was dated Autumn 1953. From the mid-1950s, many of the covers were by Charles Tunnicliffe. Two of the originals are on long-term loan to the Tunnicliffe gallery at Oriel Ynys Môn, but in 1995 the RSPB sold 114 at a Sotheby's auction, raising £210,000, the most expensive being a picture of a partridge which sold for £6,440. From January 1964, publication increased to six per year. Volumes again covered two years, so vol. 30, covering 1962–63, therefore included nine issues, ending with the "Winter 1963–64" edition instead of eight. The final edition, vol. 31 no. 12, was published in late 1965. Miss M. G. Davies, BA, MBOU John Clegg Jeremy Boswell Bird Notes' successor Birds replaced it with volume 1, number 1 being the January
The Solway Coast is a designated Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty in northern Cumbria, United Kingdom. It incorporates two areas of coastline along the Solway Firth, the first running from just north of the city of Carlisle, at the estuary of the rivers Esk and Eden, in a westerly direction as far as Silloth-on-Solway, including the villages of Bowness-on-Solway, Burgh-by-Sands, Port Carlisle, Skinburness; the second area begins just north of the hamlet of Beckfoot, runs south down the coast to the southern end of Allonby Bay near the village of Crosscanonby. Included in this area are the villages of Mawbray and Allonby, the hamlets of Dubmill and Salta; the hamlet of Wolsty lies just outside the AONB. Beginning at Silloth, the B5300 coast road runs in a south-westerly direction, entering the Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty just north of Beckfoot, exiting near Crosscanonby; as indicated by its local name, the road sticks close to the coast, travels the entire length of the southern section of the Solway Coast AONB.
Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty in England and Wales are designated as such because of their beautiful scenery. The designating body is Natural England, the reason for the Solway Coast's designation was to conserve what is considered one of the most scenic sections of English coastline; the Solway Coast was designated an AONB because of its scenic vistas. However, the massive increase in construction of wind turbines, both off-shore and on-shore, has left many residents feeling that the area's natural beauty is being tainted; the section of coast between Silloth-on-Solway and Sellafield has been dubbed "Britain's Energy Coast", something which many see as being incompatible with the Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. However, the increase in investment brought by the establishment of the Energy Coast, as well as the promise of new jobs for an area which has seen higher than average unemployment following the closure of mines and factories in the 1970s and 1980s, has proven popular with many residents of the area.
While an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty is not designed to conserve wildlife or plants, a side-effect of conserving the landscape is the protection of the habitats of several species. Multiple species of butterfly, including some rare specimens, live on Mawbray and Wolsty banks, a designated Site of Special Scientific Interest within the Solway Coast AONB. Additionally and Wolsty banks along with Silloth dunes to the north are home to the rare natterjack toad Bufo calamita and the great crested newt Triturus cristatus; these sand dunes are among only three in Cumbria, are doubly protected by their status as an SSSI and an AONB. In the town of Silloth-on-Solway is the Solway Coast Discovery Centre, an exhibition detailing the geography and history of the Solway Coast AONB; as of 2014, the centre attracts around 12,000 visitors per year, provides tourist information for other attractions within the AONB. The main exhibition in the discovery centre looks at the wildlife and communities along the Solway Coast, how things have changed over time, from the last ice age to the present day.
This includes looking at the arrival of various groups which conquered the region, including the Romans and Normans, how the establishment of the Abbey at nearby Abbeytown had an effect on the coastal region. The exhibition was designed to be interactive. There is an art exhibition, where local artists showcase their work, as well as a cafe and a tourist information office. To commemorate the 40th anniversary of the Solway Coast's designation as an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, a film was produced and is available on DVD at the Discovery Centre; the Discovery Centre opened in 2002, was funded by a number of local and trans-national agencies, including Cumbria County Council, British Nuclear Fuels, the European Regional Development Fund