Arnold (given name)
Arnold is a masculine German and English given name. It is composed of the Germanic elements arn "eagle" and wald "rule, power"; the name is first recorded in Francia from about the 7th century, at first conflated with the name Arnulf, as in the name of bishop Arnulf of Metz recorded as Arnoald. Arnulf appears to be the older name, German Arnold may have arisen in c. the 7th century as a corruption of Arnulf by conflation of similar names such as Hari-wald, Arn-hald, etc. The name is attested with some frequency in Medieval Germany during the 8th to 11th centuries, as Arnold, Arnald, Arnolt, it was spelled Harnold and the name may have been conflated with an independent formation containing hari- "host, army". Its etymology ceased to be evident from an early time, it was sometimes folk-etymologized as Ehrenhold in the early modern period; the French form Arnaud is recorded from the 10th century, was brought to England after the Norman conquest, where it replaced the cognate Anglo-Saxon form Earnweald.
However, the Anglo-Norman given name did not survive into the modern period, the German form Arnold was re-introduced in the English-speaking world in the 19th century. In the United States, Arnold had a relative surge of popularity at the beginning of the 20th century, peaking as the 89th most given masculine name in 1916, but it dropped again below rank 200 by the 1950s. Hypocorisms of the name are: Arent, Arne, Aart. Regional variants of the name include: French: Arnaud, Italian: Arnoldo, Dutch: Arnout, Portuguese: Arnoldo, Spanish: Arnaldo, Catalan: Arnau, Arnald; the German name was adopted in Old West Norse, as Arnaldr. Arnold is recorded as a surname from the early modern period.. Arnoald, Frankish Bishop of Metz Arnold I Arnold I, Count of Looz Arnold I, Count of Cleves Arnold I, Bishop of Coria Arnold I, Lord of Egmond Arnold I, Count of Astarac Arnold II, Count of Looz Arnold of Arnoldsweiler, German saint Arnold of Bergen, Norwegian Roman Catholic bishop Arnold of Brescia, Italian Augustinian monk Arnold of Egmond, Duke of Guelders Arnold of Lübeck, German Benedictine priest and chronicler Arnold of Metz, Frankish bishop of Metz John Arnold of Monmouthshire, Welsh Protestant politician Saint Arnulf or Arnold of Soissons, patron saint of brewers Arnold of Torroja, Spanish knight, Grand Master of the Knights Templar Arnold von Uissigheim, German highwayman and renegade knight Arnold Akberg, Estonian painter Arnold Alas, Estonian landscape architect Arnaud Amalric, French Cistercian abbot Arnaud Amanieu, Lord of Albret Arnold Anderson Arnold Anderson, New Zealand sprinter and hurdler Arnold Anderson, Native American chemical engineer Arnold Arbeit, American artist and architect Arnold Auerbach Arnold M. Auerbach, American comedy writer Arnold "Red" Auerbach.
American basketball coach H. Arnold Barton, American historian Arnold Bax, English composer and author Arnold Orville Beckman, American chemist, inventor and philanthropist Arnold Belgardt, Soviet Russian cyclist Arnold Bennett, English writer Arnold Böcklin, Swiss painter Arnold Boonen, Dutch portrait painter Arnold Børud, Norwegian singer Arnold Bürkli, Swiss engineer Arnold Büscher, German SS concentration camp commandant executed for war crimes Arnold Chernushevich, Soviet Belarusian fencer Arnold Clark, Scottish businessman Arnold Denker, American chess player Arnold Franz Brasz, American painter and printmaker Arnold Bronckorst, Dutch painter Arnold Brown Arnold Brown, Australian army officer Arnold Brown, 11th General of The Salvation Army Arnold Brown, Canadian politician Stewart Arnold Brown, Canadian ice hockey player Arnold Brown, Scottish entertainer Arnold von Bruck, Franco-Flemish composer Arnold W. Brunner, American architect Arnold Förster, German entomologist Arnold Fothergill, English cricketer Arnold Freeman, British writer and anthroposophist Arnold Frick, Liechtenstein judoka Arnold van Gennep, Dutch-French ethnographer and folklorist Arnold Green Arnold Green, Estonian Soviet politician Arnold Green, New Zealand rugby league player Arnold H. Green, American historian Arnold Greenberg Arnold Greenberg, American businessman Arnold Greenberg, American businessman Arnold Henry Guyot, Swiss-American geologist and geographer Arnold Hauser, American baseball player Arnold Hauser, Hungarian art historian Arnold Heertje, Dutch economist Arnold Wienholt Hodson, British colonial administrator Arnold Horween, American football player and coachArnold Huff, Mayor of Eau Claire, Pennsylvania Arnold Issoko, Congolese footballer Arnold Jackson Arnold Jackson, British athlete, army officer and barrister
Arnold of Soissons
Arnold of Soissons or Arnold or Arnulf of Oudenburg is a saint of the Roman Catholic Church, the patron saint of hop-pickers and Belgian brewers. Arnold, born in Brabant, the son of a certain Fulbertus was first a career soldier before settling at the Benedictine St. Medard's Abbey, France, he spent his first three years as a hermit, but rose to be abbot of the monastery. His hagiography states that he tried to refuse this honor and flee, but was forced by a wolf to return, he became a priest and in 1080, bishop of Soissons, another honor that he sought to avoid. When his see was occupied by another bishop, rather than fighting, he took the opportunity to retire from public life, founding the Abbey of St. Peter in Oudenburg; as abbot in Oudenburg, Arnold brewed beer, as essential in medieval life as water. He encouraged local peasants to drink beer, instead of water, due to its "gift of health." During the process of brewing, the water was boiled and thus, unknown to all, freed of pathogens, making the beer safer to drink.
The beer consumed at breakfast and during the day at this time in Europe was called small beer, having a low alcohol content, containing spent yeast. It is that people in the local area consumed small beer from the monastery, or made their own small beer at the instructions of Arnold and his fellow monks. During one outbreak of sickness, Arnold advised the local people to avoid consuming water, in favor of beer, which advice saved lives. One miracle tale says, at the time of an epidemic, rather than stand by while the local people fell ill from drinking water, Arnold had them consume his monastery brews; because of this, many people in his church survived the plague. This same story is told of Arnulf or Arnold of Metz, another patron of brewers. There are many depictions of St. Arnold with a mashing rake in his hand, he is honoured in July with a parade in Brussels on the "Day of Beer."Miracles that were reported at his tomb were investigated and approved by a council at Beauvais in 1121. St. Arnold's feast day is 14 August.
Saint Amand - patron saint of wine makers and bartenders Arnulf of Metz - another patron saint of brewers Anneke B. Mulder-Bakker, The Invention of Saintliness, p. 58 H. Claeys, Saint Arnold. Évêque de Soissons Apôtre de la Flandre. Fondateur de l`Abbaye d`Oudenbourg. 1889. R. I. A. Nip, Hariulfus. Vitae, Translatio et alia Hagiographica sancti Arnulphi episcopi Suessionensis, Turnhout: Brepols Publishers, 2015 "St. Arnoul, or Arnulphus, Bishop of Soissons, Confessor", Butler's Lives of the Saints Arnold and other patron saints of beer
A given name is a part of a person's personal name. It identifies a person, differentiates that person from the other members of a group who have a common surname; the term given name refers to the fact that the name is bestowed upon a person to a child by their parents at or close to the time of birth. A Christian name, a first name, given at baptism, is now typically given by the parents at birth. In informal situations, given names are used in a familiar and friendly manner. In more formal situations, a person's surname is more used—unless a distinction needs to be made between people with the same surname; the idioms "on a first-name basis" and "being on first-name terms" refer to the familiarity inherent in addressing someone by their given name. By contrast, a surname, inherited, is shared with other members of one's immediate family. Regnal names and religious or monastic names are special given names bestowed upon someone receiving a crown or entering a religious order; such a person typically becomes known chiefly by that name.
The order given name – family name known as the Western order, is used throughout most European countries and in countries that have cultures predominantly influenced by European culture, including North and South America. The order family name – given name known as the Eastern order, is used in East Asia, as well as in Southern and North-Eastern parts of India, in Hungary; this order is common in Austria and Bavaria, in France, Belgium and Italy because of the influence of bureaucracy, which puts the family name before the given name. In China and Korea, part of the given name may be shared among all members of a given generation within a family and extended family or families, in order to differentiate those generations from other generations; the order given name – father's family name – mother's family name is used in Spanish-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. Today the order can be changed in Spain and Uruguay using given name – mother's family name – father's family name.
The order given name – mother's family name – father's family name is used in Portuguese-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. In many Western cultures, people have more than one given name. One of those, not the first in succession might be used as the name which that person goes by, such as in the cases of John Edgar Hoover and Mary Barbara Hamilton Cartland. A child's given name or names are chosen by the parents soon after birth. If a name is not assigned at birth, one may be given at a naming ceremony, with family and friends in attendance. In most jurisdictions, a child's name at birth is a matter of public record, inscribed on a birth certificate, or its equivalent. In western cultures, people retain the same given name throughout their lives. However, in some cases these names may be changed by repute. People may change their names when immigrating from one country to another with different naming conventions. In certain jurisdictions, a government-appointed registrar of births may refuse to register a name that may cause a child harm, considered offensive or which are deemed impractical.
In France, the agency can refer the case to a local judge. Some jurisdictions, such as Sweden, restrict the spelling of names. Parents may choose a name because of its meaning; this may be a personal or familial meaning, such as giving a child the name of an admired person, or it may be an example of nominative determinism, in which the parents give the child a name that they believe will be lucky or favourable for the child. Given names most derive from the following categories: Aspirational personal traits. For example, the name Clement means "merciful". English examples include Faith and August. Occupations, for example George means "earth-worker", i.e. "farmer". Circumstances of birth, for example Thomas meaning "twin" or the Latin name Quintus, traditionally given to the fifth male child. Objects, for example Peter means "rock" and Edgar means "rich spear". Physical characteristics, for example Calvin means "bald". Variations on another name to change the sex of the name or to translate from another language.
Surnames, for example Winston and Ross. Such names can honour other branches of a family, where the surname would not otherwise be passed down. Places, for example Brittany and Lorraine. Time of birth, for example day of the week, as in Kofi Annan, whose given name means "born on Friday", or the holiday on which one was born, for example, the name Natalie meaning "born on Christmas day" in Latin. Tuesday, May, or June. Combination of the above, for example the Armenian name Sirvart means "love rose". In many cultures, given names are reused to commemorate ancestors or those who are admired, resulting in a limited repertoire of names that sometimes vary by orthography; the most familiar example of this, to Western readers, is the use of Biblical and saints' names in most of the Christian countries (with Ethiopia, in which names were ideals or abstractions
Eynesbury is a settlement in Cambridgeshire, England. Eynesbury forms part of present-day St Neots, but before 1876 was a separate village, it is situated within Huntingdonshire, a non-metropolitan district of Cambridgeshire as well as being a historic county of England. In 1085 William the Conqueror ordered that a survey should be carried out across his kingdom to discover who owned which parts and what it was worth; the survey took place in 1086 and the results were recorded in what, since the 12th century, has become known as the Domesday Book. Starting with the king himself, for each landholder within a county there is a list of their estates or manors. Eynesbury was listed in the Domesday Book in the Hundred of Toseland in Huntingdonshire. In 1086 there were two manors at Eynesbury; the Domesday Book does not explicitly detail the population of a place but it records that there were 76 households at Eynesbury. There is no consensus about the average size of a household at that time. Using these figures an estimate of the population of Eynesbury in 1086 is that it was within the range of 266 and 380 people.
The Domesday Book uses a number of units of measure for areas of land that are now unfamiliar terms, such as hides and ploughlands. In different parts of the country, these were terms for the area of land that a team of eight oxen could plough in a single season and are equivalent to 120 acres. By 1086, the hide had become a unit of tax assessment rather than an actual land area; the survey records that there were 52.5 ploughlands at Eynesbury in 1086 and that there was the capacity for a further 2.5 ploughlands. In addition to the arable land, there was 133.5 acres of meadows, 60 acres of woodland, three water mills and a fishery at Eynesbury. The tax assessment in the Domesday Book was known as geld or danegeld and was a type of land-tax based on the hide or ploughland, it was a way of collecting a tribute to pay off the Danes when they attacked England, was only levied when necessary. Following the Norman Conquest, the geld was used to raise money for the King and to pay for continental wars.
Having determined the value of a manor's land and other assets, a tax of so many shillings and pence per pound of value would be levied on the land holder. While this was two shillings in the pound the amount did vary. For the manors at Eynesbury the total tax assessed was 24 geld. By 1086 there was a church and a priest at Eynesbury. For other details of Eynesbury's history, which began in the Saxon era, see the article History of St Neots. Eynesbury takes its name from the Anglo-Saxon "Eanwulf's or Arnulf's Burgh". Eynesbury is made up of a number of different areas, the oldest area of which, around the Berkley Street/St Mary's Street area, predates any other part of St Neots. In the 1960s and 1970s, Eynesbury grew thanks to London overspill, along with various other parts of the town such as Eaton Socon; the areas around Hardwick Road, Duck Lane, Sandfields Road, Howitts Gardens and Potton Road absorbed much of the "immigration" from the city, for a number of years had a reputation for being "rough", although this has in recent years improved beyond recognition.
It now has a reputation for being an affluent area with house prices soaring. In the 1980s the Parklands estate was built, expanding Andrew Road and filling the gap between Potton Road and Barford Road. Most the Eynesbury Manor development, which includes Eynesbury Marina, has been built between Ernulf Academy and the Tesco store by the bypass. Eynesbury was in the historic and administrative county of Huntingdonshire until 1965. From 1965, the village was part of the new administrative county of Peterborough. In 1974, following the Local Government Act 1972, Eynesbury became a part of the county of Cambridgeshire; the second tier of local government is Huntingdonshire District Council, a non-metropolitan district of Cambridgeshire and has its headquarters in Huntingdon. Huntingdonshire District Council has 52 councillors representing 29 district wards. Huntingdonshire District Council collects the council tax, provides services such as building regulations, local planning, environmental health and tourism.
Eynesbury is a part of the district ward of St Neots Eynesbury and is represented on the district council by three councillors. District councillors serve for four-year terms following elections to Huntingdonshire District Council. For Eynesbury the highest tier of local government is Cambridgeshire County Council which has administration buildings in Cambridge; the county council provides county-wide services such as major road infrastructure and rescue, social services and heritage services. Cambridgeshire County Council consists of 69 councillors representing 60 electo
Arnolfo di Cambio
Arnolfo di Cambio was an Italian architect and sculptor. Arnolfo was born in Tuscany, he was Nicola Pisano’s chief assistant on the marble Siena Cathedral Pulpit for the Duomo in Siena Cathedral, but he soon began to work independently on an important tomb sculpture. In 1266–1267 he worked in Rome for King Charles I of Anjou, portraying him in the famous statue housed in the Campidoglio. Around 1282 he finished the monument to Cardinal Guillaume de Braye in the church of San Domenico in Orvieto, including an enthroned Madonna for which he took as a model an ancient Roman statue of the goddess Abundantia. In Rome Arnolfo had seen the Cosmatesque art, its influence can be seen in the intarsia and polychrome glass decorations in the Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls and the church Santa Cecilia in Trastevere, where he worked in 1285 and 1293 respectively. In this period he worked on the presepio of Santa Maria Maggiore, on Santa Maria in Aracoeli, on the monument of Pope Boniface VIII and on the bronze statue of St. Peter in St. Peter's Basilica.
In 1294–1295 he worked in Florence as an architect. According to his biographer Giorgio Vasari, he was in charge of construction of the cathedral of the city, for which he provided the statues once decorating the lower part of the façade destroyed in 1589; the surviving statues are now in the Museum of the Cathedral. While the design of the Church of Santa Croce has been attributed to Arnolfo, this is disputed. Vasari attributed to him the urban plan of the new city of San Giovanni Valdarno; the monumental character of Arnolfo's work has left its mark on the appearance of Florence. His funerary monuments became the model for Gothic funerary art. Giorgio Vasari included a biography of Arnolfo in his Lives of the Most Excellent Painters and Architects. Old basilica of Santa Maria del Fiore, Florence Cathedral, 1296. Palazzo Vecchio in Florence, 1299. St. Peter Enthroned inside St. Peter's Basilica, is attributed to Arnolfo. Monument to Pope Adrian V – San Francesco, Viterbo Monument to Riccardo Cardinal Annibaldi – San Giovanni in Laterano, Rome Statue of Charles I of Anjou – Campidoglio, Rome Fountain of the Thirsty People – Perugia Tomb of Cardinal Guillaume de Braye – San Domenico, Orvieto Monument of Pope Boniface VIII – the Museo dell'Opera del Duomo – Florence Tomasi, Michele.
"Lo stil novo del Gotico italiano". Medioevo: 32–46. Arnolfo di Cambio in the "History of Art"
Personal names in German-speaking Europe consist of one or several given names and a surname. The Vorname is gender-specific. A name is cited in the "Western order" of "given name, surname", unless it occurs in an alphabetized list of surnames, e.g. "Bach, Johann Sebastian". In this, the German conventions parallel the naming conventions in most of Western and Central Europe, including English, Dutch and French. There are some vestiges of a patronymic system as they survive in parts of Eastern Europe and Scandinavia, but these do not form part of the official name. Women traditionally adopted their husband's name upon marriage and would retain their maiden name by hyphenation, in a so-called Doppelname, e.g. "Else Lasker-Schüler". Recent legislation motivated by gender equality now allows a married couple to choose the surname they want to use, including an option for men to keep their birthname hyphenated to the common family name in the same way, it is possible for the spouses to do without a common surname altogether and to keep their birthnames.
The most common given names are either Biblical or from Germanic names Since the 1990s, there has however been a trend of parents picking non-German forms of names, either for originality, or influenced by international celebrities, e.g. Liam rather than the German equivalent Wilhelm. Most surnames are derived either from occupations, or from geographical origin, less from bodily attributes, they became heritable with the beginning of central demographic records in the early modern period. The Vorname is given to a child by the parents shortly after birth, it is common to give a child several Vornamen, one of them intended for everyday use and known as the Rufname. This Rufname is underlined on official documents, as it is sometimes the second or third name in the sequence of given names on official record though it is the given name in daily use from childhood. For example, in the resume submitted by mathematician Emmy Noether to Erlangen University in 1907, Amalie Emmy Noether, bayerischer Staatsangehörigkeit und israelitischer Konfession, bin geboren zu Erlangen am 23.
März 1882... "I, Amalie Emmy Noether, of Bavarian nationality and of Israelite confession, born in Erlangen on 23 March 1882..."the underlining of Emmy communicates that this is the Rufname though it is the second of two official given names. In Germany, the chosen name must be approved by the local Standesamt; the name must indicate the gender of the child and not negatively affect the well being of the child. Last names or the names of objects and products are not acceptable. For example, "Matti" was rejected for a boy's name. Among German nobility, a fashion arose in the early modern period to give a large number of forenames six or more; this fashion was to some extent copied by the bourgeois class, but subsided again after the end of the 19th century, so that while two or three forenames remain common, a larger number is now rare. The practice persists among German nobility, e.g. Johann Friedrich Konrad Carl Eduard Horst Arnold Matthias, Prince of Saxe-Meiningen, Duke of Saxony, Ernst August Albert Paul Otto Rupprecht Oskar Berthold Friedrich-Ferdinand Christian-Ludwig, Prince of Hanover, Christian Heinrich Clemens Paul Frank Peter Welf Wilhelm-Ernst Friedrich Franz Prince of Hanover, Duke of Brunswick and Lüneburg.
Traditionally, there are dialectal differences between the regions of German-speaking Europe visible in the forms of hypocorisms. These differences are still perceptible in the list of most popular names though they are marginalized by super-regional fashionable trends: As of 2012, the top ten given names of Baden-Württemberg and of Schleswig-Holstein share the entries Ben, Finn, Max, Emma, Leonie, Lena, while Schleswig-Holstein retains the traditionally northern forms Lasse and Neele in the top ten; the following table gives the most popular given names in Germany per decade, the most recent ranking, as of 2014.: Surnames were introduced in German-speaking Europe during the Late Middle Ages. Many of such surnames are derived from nicknames, they are classified into four groups by derivation: given names, occupational designations, bodily attributes, toponyms. Many family names display characteristic features of the dialect of the region they originated in. Given names turned into family names when people were identified by their father's name.
For example, the first name Ahrend developed into the family name Ahrends by adding a genitive s-ending, as in Ahrend's son. Examples: Ahrends/Ahrens, Wulff, Benz, Fritz. With many of the early city records written in Latin the Latin genitive singular -i was used such as in Jakobi or Alberti or in Mendelssohn Bartholdy. Occupational name are the most common form of family names. Examples: Gaschler, Schmidt, Müller, Meier (farm
Arnulf of Carinthia
Arnulf of Carinthia was the duke of Carinthia who overthrew his uncle, Emperor Charles the Fat, became the Carolingian king of East Francia from 887, the disputed King of Italy from 894 and the disputed Holy Roman Emperor from February 22, 896 until his death at Regensburg, Bavaria. Arnulf was the illegitimate son of Carloman of Bavaria, Liutswind, who may have been the sister of Ernst, Count of the Bavarian Nordgau Margraviate in the area of the Upper Palatinate, or the burgrave of Passau, according to other sources. After Arnulf's birth, Carloman married, before 861, a daughter of that same Count Ernst, who died after 8 August 879; as it is West-Franconian historiography that speaks of Arnulf's illegitimacy, it is quite possible that the two females are one and the same person and that Carloman married Arnulf's mother, thus legitimizing his son. Arnulf was granted the rule over the Duchy of Carinthia, a Frankish vassal state and successor of the ancient Principality of Carantania by his father Carloman, after Carloman reconciled with his own father, king Louis the German and was made king in Duchy of Bavaria.
Arnulf spent his childhood in Mosaburch or Mosapurc, believed to be Moosburg in Carinthia, a few miles away from one of the Imperial residences, the Carolingian Kaiserpfalz at Karnburg, the residence of the Carantanian princes. Arnulf kept his seat here and from events it may be inferred that the Carantanians, from an early time, treated him as their own Duke. After he had been crowned King of East Francia, Arnulf turned his old territory of Carinthia into the March of Carinthia, a part of the Duchy of Bavaria. After King Carloman was incapacitated by a stroke in 879, Louis the Younger inherited Bavaria, Charles the Fat was given the Kingdom of Italy and Arnulf was confirmed in Carinthia by an agreement with Carloman. However, Bavaria was less ruled by Arnulf. Arnulf ruled Bavaria during the summer and autumn of 879 while his father arranged his succession and he himself was granted "Pannonia," in the words of the Annales Fuldenses, or "Carantanum," in the words of Regino of Prüm; the division of the realm was confirmed in 880 after Carloman's death.
When Engelschalk II of Pannonia in 882 rebelled against Aribo, Margrave of Pannonia and ignited the Wilhelminer War, Arnulf supported him and accepted his and his brother's homage. This ruined Arnulf's relationship with his uncle the Emperor and put him at war with Svatopluk of Moravia. Pannonia was invaded. Arnulf did not make peace with Svatopluk until late 885, by which time Moravian ruler was loyal to the emperor; some scholars see this war as destroying Arnulf's hopes at succeeding Charles the Fat. Arnulf took the leading role in the deposition of Emperor Charles the Fat. With the support of the Frankish nobles, Arnulf called a Diet at Tribur and deposed Charles in November 887, under threat of military action. Charles peacefully agreed to this involuntary retirement, but not without first chastising his nephew for his treachery and asking for a few royal villas in Swabia, which Arnulf granted him, on which to live out his final months. Arnulf, having distinguished himself in the war against the Slavs, was elected king by the nobles of East Francia.
West Francia, the Kingdom of Burgundy and the Kingdom of Italy at this point elected their own kings from the Carolingian family. Like all early Germanic rulers, he was involved in ecclesiastical disputes. In 895, at the Diet of Tribur, he presided over a dispute between the Episcopal sees of Bremen and Cologne over jurisdictional authority, which saw Bremen and Hamburg remain a combined see, independent of the see of Cologne. Arnulf was a fighter, not a negotiator. In 890 he was battling Slavs in Pannonia. In early/mid-891, Vikings invaded Lotharingia, crushed an East Frankish army at Maastricht. Terms such as "Vikings", "Danes", "Northmen" and "Norwegians" have been used loosely and interchangeably to describe these invaders. At the subsequent Battle of Leuven, in Lotharingia, Arnulf repelled the Vikings, ended their attacks on that front; the Annales Fuldenses report that there were so many dead Northmen that their bodies blocked the run of the river. After this victory Arnulf built a new castle on an island in the Dijle river.
Arnulf took advantage of the problems in West Francia after the death of Charles the Fat to secure the territory of Lotharingia, which he converted into a kingdom for his son Zwentibold. In 889 Arnulf supported the claim of Louis the Blind to the kingdom of Provence, after receiving a personal appeal from Louis' mother, who came to see Arnulf at Forchheim in May 889. Recognising the superiority of Arnulf's position, in 888 king Odo of France formally accepted the suzerainty of Arnulf. In 893 Arnulf switched his support from Odo to Charles the Simple after being persuaded by Fulk, Archbishop of Reims, that it was in his best interests. Arnulf took advantage of the following fighting between Odo and Charles in 894, taking more territory from West Francia. At one point, Charles the Simple was forced to ask for his protection, his intervention soon forced Pope Formosus to get involved, as he was worried that a divided and war weary West Francia would be easy prey for the Vikings. In 895 Arnulf summoned both Odo to his residence at Worms.
Charles's advisers convinced him not to go, he sent a representative in his place. Odo, on the other hand attended, together with a large retinue, bearing many gifts for Arnulf. Angere