Ear candling called ear coning or thermal-auricular therapy, is an alternative medicine practice claimed to improve general health and well-being by lighting one end of a hollow candle and placing the other end in the ear canal. Medical research has shown that the practice is both dangerous and ineffective and does not help remove earwax or toxicants. Edzard Ernst has published critically on the subject of ear candles, noting, "There is no data to suggest that it is effective for any condition. Furthermore, ear candles have been associated with ear injuries; the inescapable conclusion is. Their use should be discouraged."According to the US Food and Drug Administration, ear candling is sometimes promoted with claims that the practice can "purify the blood" or "cure" cancer, but that Health Canada has determined the candles have no effect on the ear, no health benefit. In October 2007, US FDA issued an alert identifying ear candles as "dangerous to health when used in the dosage or manner, or with the frequency or duration, recommended, or suggested in the labeling thereof"... "since the use of a lit candle in the proximity of a person's face would carry a high risk of causing severe skin/hair burns and middle ear damage."A 2007 paper in the journal Canadian Family Physician concludes: Ear candling appears to be popular and is advertised with claims that could seem scientific to lay people.
However, its claimed mechanism of action has not been verified, no positive clinical effect has been reliably recorded, it is associated with considerable risk. No evidence suggests. On this basis, we believe it can do more harm than good and we recommend that GPs discourage its use. A 2007 paper in American Family Physician said: Ear candling should be avoided. Ear candling is a practice in which a hollow candle is inserted into the external auditory canal and lit, with the patient lying on the opposite ear. In theory, the combination of heat and suction is supposed to remove earwax. However, in one trial, ear candles neither created suction nor removed wax and led to occlusion with candle wax in persons who had clean ear canals. Primary care physicians may see complications from ear candling including candle wax occlusion, local burns, tympanic membrane perforation; the Spokane Ear and Throat Clinic conducted a research study in 1996 which concluded that ear candling does not produce negative pressure and was ineffective in removing wax from the ear canal.
Several studies have shown that ear candles produce the same residue when burnt without ear insertion and that the residue is candle wax and soot. As of 2008, there are at least two cases in which people have set their houses on fire while ear candling, one of which resulted in death. A survey of ENT surgeons found some. Burns were the most common. One end of a cylinder or cone of waxed cloth is lit, the other is placed into the subject's ear; the flame is cut back with scissors and extinguished between five and ten centimeters from the subject. The subject is lying on one side with the candle vertical; the candle can be stuck through a paper plate or aluminium pie tin to protect against any hot wax or ash falling onto the subject. Another way to perform ear candling involves the subject lying face up with the ear candle extending out to the side with a forty-five-degree upward slant. A dish of water is placed next to the subject under the ear candle. Proponents claim that the flame creates negative pressure, drawing wax and debris out of the ear canal, which appears as a dark residue.
An ear candling session lasts up to one hour, during which one or two ear candles may be burned for each ear. In Europe, some ear candles bear the CE mark, though they are self-issued by the manufacturer; this mark indicates that the device is designed and manufactured so as not to compromise the safety of patients, but no independent testing is required as proof. While ear candles are available in the U. S. selling or importing them with medical claims is illegal. This means that one cannot market ear candles as products that "Diagnose, treat, or prevent any disease". In a report, Health Canada states "There is no scientific proof to support claims that ear candling provides medical benefits.... However, there is plenty of proof that ear candling is dangerous." It says that while some people claim to be selling the candles "for entertainment purposes only", the Canadian government maintains that there is no reasonable non-medical use, hence any sale of the devices is illegal in Canada. In a paper published by Edzard Ernst in Journal of Laryngology & Otology, the cost of practicing ear candling according to the recommended frequency of use is estimated.
As each candles costs $3.15 USD, the annual cost of the treatment would amount to $982.00 USD. The author calls the continued practice of the treatment "a triumph of ignorance over science... or a triumph of commercial interests over medical reasoning." Although Biosun, a manufacturer of ear candles, refers to them as "Hopi" ear candles, there is no such treatment within traditional Hopi healing practices. Vanessa Charles, public relations officer for the Hopi Tribal Council, has stated that ear candling "is not and has never been a practice conducted by the Hopi tribe or the Hopi people." The Hopi tribe has asked Biosun, the manufacturer of'Hopi Ear Candles', to stop usin
Christian Science is a set of beliefs and practices belonging to the metaphysical family of new religious movements. It was developed in 19th-century New England by Mary Baker Eddy, who argued in her 1875 book Science and Health that sickness is an illusion that can be corrected by prayer alone; the book became Christian Science's central text, along with the Bible, by 2001 had sold over nine million copies. Eddy and 26 followers were granted a charter in 1879 to found the Church of Christ, in 1894 the Mother Church, The First Church of Christ, was built in Boston, Massachusetts. Christian Science became the fastest growing religion in the United States, with nearly 270,000 members by 1936, a figure that had declined by 1990 to just over 100,000; the church is known for its newspaper, the Christian Science Monitor, which won seven Pulitzer Prizes between 1950 and 2002, for its public Reading Rooms around the world. Eddy described Christian Science as a return to "primitive Christianity and its lost element of healing".
There are key differences between Christian Science theology and that of other branches of Christianity. In particular, adherents subscribe to a radical form of philosophical idealism, believing that reality is purely spiritual and the material world an illusion; this includes the view that disease is a mental error rather than physical disorder, that the sick should be treated not by medicine, but by a form of prayer that seeks to correct the beliefs responsible for the illusion of ill health. The church does not require that Christian Scientists avoid all medical care—adherents use dentists, obstetricians, physicians for broken bones, vaccination when required by law—but maintains that Christian-Science prayer is most effective when not combined with medicine. Between the 1880s and 1990s, the avoidance of medical treatment led to the deaths of several adherents and their children. Parents and others were prosecuted for, in a few cases convicted of, manslaughter or neglect. Several periods of Protestant Christian revival nurtured a proliferation of new religious movements in the United States.
In the latter half of the 19th century these included what came to be known as the metaphysical family: groups such as Christian Science, Divine Science, the Unity School of Christianity and the United Church of Religious Science. From the 1890s the liberal section of the movement became known as New Thought, in part to distinguish it from the more authoritarian Christian Science; the term metaphysical referred to the movement's philosophical idealism, a belief in the primacy of the mental world. Adherents believed that material phenomena were the result of mental states, a view expressed as "life is consciousness" and "God is mind." The supreme cause was referred to as Divine Mind, God, Life, Principle or Father–Mother, reflecting elements of Plato, Berkeley, Hegel and transcendentalism. The metaphysical groups became known as the mind-cure movement because of their strong focus on healing. Medical practice was in its infancy, patients fared better without it; this provided fertile soil for the mind-cure groups, who argued that sickness was an absence of "right thinking" or failure to connect to Divine Mind.
The movement traced its roots in the United States to Phineas Parkhurst Quimby, a New England clockmaker turned mental healer, whose motto was "the truth is the cure." Mary Baker Eddy had been a patient of his, leading to debate about how much of Christian Science was based on his ideas. New Thought and Christian Science differed in that Eddy saw her views as a unique and final revelation. Eddy's idea of malicious animal magnetism marked another distinction, introducing an element of fear, absent from the New Thought literature. Most she dismissed the material world as an illusion, rather than as subordinate to Mind, leading her to reject the use of medicine, or materia medica, making Christian Science the most controversial of the metaphysical groups. Reality for Eddy was purely spiritual. Christian Science leaders place their religion within mainstream Christian teaching, according to J. Gordon Melton, reject any identification with the New Thought movement. Eddy was influenced by her Congregationalist upbringing.
According to the church's tenets, adherents accept "the inspired Word of the Bible as sufficient guide to eternal Life... acknowledge and adore one supreme and infinite God... acknowledge His Son, one Christ. When founding the Church of Christ, Scientist, in April 1879, Eddy wrote that she wanted to "reinstate primitive Christianity and its lost element of healing", she suggested that Christian Science was a kind of second coming and that Science and Health was an inspired text. In 1895, in the Manual of the Mother Church, she ordained the Bible and Science and Health as "Pastor over the Mother Church". Christian Science theology differs in several respects from that of traditional Christianity. Eddy's Science and Health reinterprets key Christian concepts, including the Trinity, divinity of Jesus and resurrection. At the core of Eddy's theology is the view that the spiritual world is the only reality and is good, that the material world, with its evil and death, is an illusion. Eddy saw humanity as an "idea of Mind", "perfect, eternal and reflects the divine", according to Bryan Wilson.
Quackery synonymous with health fraud, is the promotion of fraudulent or ignorant medical practices. A quack is a "fraudulent or ignorant pretender to medical skill" or "a person who pretends, professionally or publicly, to have skill, qualification or credentials they do not possess; the term quack is a clipped form of the archaic term quacksalver, from Dutch: kwakzalver a "hawker of salve". In the Middle Ages the term quack meant "shouting"; the quacksalvers sold their wares on the market shouting in a loud voice. Common elements of general quackery include questionable diagnoses using questionable diagnostic tests, as well as untested or refuted treatments for serious diseases such as cancer. Quackery is described as "health fraud" with the salient characteristic of aggressive promotion. Since it is difficult to distinguish between those who knowingly promote unproven medical therapies and those who are mistaken as to their effectiveness, United States courts have ruled in defamation cases that accusing someone of quackery or calling a practitioner a quack is not equivalent to accusing that person of committing medical fraud.
To be both quackery and fraud, the quack must know they are misrepresenting the benefits and risks of the medical services offered. In addition to the ethical problems of promising benefits that can not reasonably be expected to occur, quackery includes the risk that patients may choose to forego treatments that are more to help them, in favor of ineffective treatments given by the "quack". Stephen Barrett of Quackwatch defines quackery "as the promotion of unsubstantiated methods that lack a scientifically plausible rationale" and more broadly as: "anything involving overpromotion in the field of health." This definition would include questionable ideas as well as questionable products and services, regardless of the sincerity of their promoters. In line with this definition, the word "fraud" would be reserved only for situations in which deliberate deception is involved. Paul Offit has proposed four ways in which alternative medicine "becomes quackery": "...by recommending against conventional therapies that are helpful."
"...by promoting harmful therapies without adequate warning." "...by draining patients' bank accounts..." "...by promoting magical thinking..." Unproven ineffective, sometimes dangerous medicines and treatments have been peddled throughout human history. Theatrical performances were sometimes given to enhance the credibility of purported medicines. Grandiose claims were made for what could be humble materials indeed: for example, in the mid-19th century revalenta arabica was advertised as having extraordinary restorative virtues as an empirical diet for invalids. Where no fraud was intended, quack remedies contained no effective ingredients whatsoever; some remedies contained substances such as opium and honey, which would have given symptomatic relief but had no curative properties. Some would have addictive qualities to entice the buyer to return; the few effective remedies sold by quacks included emetics and diuretics. Some ingredients did have medicinal effects: mercury and arsenic compounds may have helped some infections and infestations.
However, knowledge of appropriate uses and dosages was limited. The science-based medicine community has criticized the infiltration of alternative medicine into mainstream academic medicine and publications, accusing institutions of "diverting research time and other resources from more fruitful lines of investigation in order to pursue a theory that has no basis in biology." R. W. Donnell coined the phrase "quackademic medicine" to describe this attention given to alternative medicine by academia. Referring to the Flexner Report, he said that medical education "needs a good Flexnerian housecleaning."For example, David Gorski criticized Brian M. Berman, founder of the University of Maryland Center for Integrative Medicine, for writing that "There evidence that both real acupuncture and sham acupuncture more effective than no treatment and that acupuncture can be a useful supplement to other forms of conventional therapy for low back pain." He castigated editors and peer reviewers at the New England Journal of Medicine for allowing it to be published, since it recommended deliberately misleading patients in order to achieve a known placebo effect.
With little understanding of the causes and mechanisms of illnesses marketed "cures" referred to as patent medicines, first came to prominence during the 17th and 18th centuries in Britain and the British colonies, including those in North America. Daffy's Elixir and Turlington's Balsam were among the first products that used branding and mass marketing to create and maintain markets. A similar process occurred in other countries of Europe around the same time, for example with the marketing of Eau de Cologne as a cure-all medicine by Johann Maria Farina and his imitators. Patent medicines contained alcohol or opium, while not curing the diseases for which they were sold as a remedy, did make the imbibers feel better and confusedly appreciative of the product; the number of internationally marketed quack medicines
A biorhythm is an attempt to predict various aspects of a person's life through simple mathematical cycles. The theory was developed by Wilhelm Fliess in the late 19th century, was popularized in the United States in late 1970s. Most scientists believe. "The theory of biorhythms is a theory that claims our daily lives are affected by rhythmic cycles." According to the theory of biorhythms, a person's life is influenced by rhythmic biological cycles that affect his or her ability in various domains, such as mental and emotional activity. These cycles begin at birth and oscillate in a steady fashion throughout life, by modeling them mathematically, it is suggested that a person's level of ability in each of these domains can be predicted from day to day; the theory is built on the idea that the biofeedback chemical and hormonal secretion functions within the body could show a sinusoidal behavior over time. Most biorhythm models use three cycles: a 23-day physical cycle, a 28-day emotional cycle, a 33-day intellectual cycle.
Although the 28-day cycle is the same length as the average woman's menstrual cycle and was described as a "female" cycle, the two are not in synchronization. Each of these cycles varies between high and low extremes sinusoidally, with days where the cycle crosses the zero line described as "critical days" of greater risk or uncertainty; the numbers from +100 % to -100 % indicate. In general, a rhythm at 0% is crossing the midpoint and is thought to have no real impact on your life, whereas a rhythm at +100% would give you an edge in that area, a rhythm at -100% would make life more difficult in that area. There is no particular meaning to a day on which your rhythms are all high or all low, except the obvious benefits or hindrances that these rare extremes are thought to have on your life. In addition to the three popular cycles, various other cycles have been proposed, based on linear combination of the three, or on longer or shorter rhythms. Theories published state the equations for the cycles as: physical: sin , emotional: sin , intellectual: sin ,where t indicates the number of days since birth.
Basic arithmetic shows that the combination of the simpler 23- and 28-day cycles repeats every 644 days, while the triple combination of 23-, 28-, 33-day cycles repeats every 21,252 days. The notion of periodic cycles in human fortunes is ancient; the first studies surrounding certain “rhythms” and “life cycles” began in the 19th century, “were called Biorhythms.” The word biorhythm consists of two terms “bios” and “rhythmos” which are derived from Greek terms which translate to “life” and “rhythm". The 23- and 28-day rhythms used by biorhythmists, were first devised in the late 19th century by Wilhelm Fliess, a Berlin physician and patient of Sigmund Freud. Fliess believed that he observed regularities at 23- and 28-day intervals in a number of phenomena, including births and deaths, he labeled the 28-day rhythm "female", matching the menstrual cycle. In 1904, Viennese psychology professor Hermann Swoboda came to similar conclusions. Alfred Teltscher, professor of engineering at the University of Innsbruck, developed Swoboda's work and suggested that his students' good and bad days followed a rhythmic pattern.
One of the first academic researchers of biorhythms was Estonian-born Nikolai Pärna, who published a book in German called Rhythm and Creation in 1923. The practice of consulting biorhythms was popularized in the 1970s by a series of books by Bernard Gittelson, including Biorhythm — A Personal Science, Biorhythm Charts of the Famous and Infamous, Biorhythm Sports Forecasting. Gittelson's company, Biorhythm Computers, Inc. made a business selling personal biorhythm charts and calculators, but his ability to predict sporting events was not substantiated. Charting biorhythms for personal use was popular in the United States during the 1970s. Biorhythm programs were a common application on personal computers. Biorhythm charts appeared in the Chicago Tribune from 1977 to 1979, Gittelson wrote daily biorhythm charts for the Toronto Star from 1981 to 1985. Although biorhythms have declined in popularity, there are free and proprietary apps and computer programs which have charting and analysis capabilities, as well as numerous websites that offer free biorhythm readings.
There have been some three dozen studies supporting biorhythm theory, but according to a study by Terence Hines, all of those had methodological and statistical errors. Hines rejected 134 biorhythm studies and concluded th
History of medicine
The history of medicine shows how societies have changed in their approach to illness and disease from ancient times to the present. Early medical traditions include those of Babylon, China and India; the Indians introduced the concepts of medical diagnosis and advanced medical ethics. The Hippocratic Oath was written in ancient Greece in the 5th century BCE, is a direct inspiration for oaths of office that physicians swear upon entry into the profession today. In the Middle Ages, surgical practices inherited from the ancient masters were improved and systematized in Rogerius's The Practice of Surgery. Universities began systematic training of physicians around 1220 CE in Italy. Invention of the microscope was a consequence of improved understanding, during the Renaissance. Prior to the 19th century, humorism was thought to explain the cause of disease but it was replaced by the germ theory of disease, leading to effective treatments and cures for many infectious diseases. Military doctors advanced the methods of trauma surgery.
Public health measures were developed in the 19th century as the rapid growth of cities required systematic sanitary measures. Advanced research centers opened in the early 20th century connected with major hospitals; the mid-20th century was characterized by new biological treatments, such as antibiotics. These advancements, along with developments in chemistry and radiography led to modern medicine. Medicine was professionalized in the 20th century, new careers opened to women as nurses and as physicians. Although there is little record to establish when plants were first used for medicinal purposes, the use of plants as healing agents, as well as clays and soils is ancient. Over time, through emulation of the behavior of fauna, a medicinal knowledge base developed and passed between generations. Earlier, Neanderthals may have engaged in medical practices; as tribal culture specialized specific castes and apothecaries fulfilled the role of healer. The first known dentistry dates to c. 7000 BC in Baluchistan where Neolithic dentists used flint-tipped drills and bowstrings.
The first known trepanning operation was carried out c. 5000 BC in France. A possible amputation was carried out c. 4,900 BC in France. The ancient Mesopotamians had no distinction between magic; when a person became ill, doctors would prescribe both magical formulas to be recited as well as medicinal treatments. The earliest medical prescriptions appear in Sumerian during the Third Dynasty of Ur; the oldest Babylonian texts on medicine date back to the Old Babylonian period in the first half of the 2nd millennium BCE. The most extensive Babylonian medical text, however, is the Diagnostic Handbook written by the ummânū, or chief scholar, Esagil-kin-apli of Borsippa, during the reign of the Babylonian king Adad-apla-iddina. Along with the Egyptians, the Babylonians introduced the practice of diagnosis, physical examination, remedies. In addition, the Diagnostic Handbook introduced the methods of cause; the text contains a list of medical symptoms and detailed empirical observations along with logical rules used in combining observed symptoms on the body of a patient with its diagnosis and prognosis.
The Diagnostic Handbook was based on a logical set of axioms and assumptions, including the modern view that through the examination and inspection of the symptoms of a patient, it is possible to determine the patient's disease, its cause and future development, the chances of the patient's recovery. The symptoms and diseases of a patient were treated through therapeutic means such as bandages and creams. In East Semitic cultures, the main medicinal authority was a kind of exorcist-healer known as an āšipu; the profession was passed down from father to son and was held in high regard. Of less frequent recourse was another kind of healer known as an asu, who corresponds more to a modern physician and treated physical symptoms using folk remedies composed of various herbs, animal products, minerals, as well as potions and ointments or poultices; these physicians, who could be either male or female dressed wounds, set limbs, performed simple surgeries. The ancient Mesopotamians practiced prophylaxis and took measures to prevent the spread of disease.
Mental illnesses were well known in ancient Mesopotamia, where diseases and mental disorders were believed to be caused by specific deities. Because hands symbolized control over a person, mental illnesses were known as "hands" of certain deities. One psychological illness was known as Qāt Ištar, meaning "Hand of Ishtar". Others were known as "Hand of Shamash", "Hand of the Ghost", "Hand of the God". Descriptions of these illnesses, are so vague that it is impossible to determine which illnesses they correspond to in modern terminology. Mesopotamian doctors kept detailed record of their patients' hallucinations and assigned spiritual meanings to them. A patient who hallucinated that he was seeing a dog was predicted to die; the royal family of Elam was notorious for its members suffering from insanity. Erectile dysfunction was recognized as being rooted in psychological problems. Ancient Egypt developed a large and fruitful medical tradition. Herodotus described the Egyptians as "the healthiest of all men, next to the Libyans", because of the dry climate and the notable public health system that they possessed.
According to him, "the practice of medicine is so specialized among
The Bates method is an alternative therapy aimed at improving eyesight. Eye-care physician William Horatio Bates, M. D. attributed nearly all sight problems to habitual strain of the eyes, felt that glasses were harmful and never necessary. Bates self-published a book, Perfect Sight Without Glasses, as well as a magazine, Better Eyesight Magazine, detailing his approach to helping people relax such "strain", thus, he claimed, improve their sight, his techniques centered on movement. He placed particular emphasis on imagining black letters and marks, the movement of such, he felt that exposing the eyes to sunlight would help alleviate the "strain". Despite continued anecdotal reports of successful results, including well-publicised support by Aldous Huxley, Bates' techniques have not been objectively shown to improve eyesight, his main physiological proposition—that the eyeball changes shape to maintain focus—has been contradicted by observation. In 1952, optometry professor Elwin Marg wrote of Bates, "Most of his claims and all of his theories have been considered false by all visual scientists."
Marg concluded that the Bates method owed its popularity to "flashes of clear vision" experienced by many who followed it. Such occurrences have since been explained as a contact lens-like effect of moisture on the eye, or a flattening of the lens by the ciliary muscles; the Bates method has been criticized not only because there is no good evidence it works, but because it can have negative consequences for those who attempt to follow it: they might damage their eyes through overexposure of their eyes to sunlight, put themselves and others at risk by not wearing their corrective lenses while driving, or neglect conventional eye care allowing serious conditions to develop. Accommodation is the process by which the eye increases optical power to maintain focus on the retina while shifting its gaze to a closer point; the long-standing medical consensus is that this is accomplished by action of the ciliary muscle, a muscle within the eye, which adjusts the curvature of the eye's crystalline lens.
This explanation is based in the observed effect of atropine temporarily preventing accommodation when applied to the ciliary muscle, as well as images reflected on the crystalline lens becoming smaller as the eye shifts focus to a closer point, indicating a change in the lens' shape. Bates rejected this explanation, in his 1920 book presented photographs that he said showed that the image remained the same size as the eye shifted focus, concluding from this that the lens was not a factor in accommodation. However, optometrist Philip Pollack in a 1956 work characterized these photographs as "so blurred that it is impossible to tell whether one image is larger than the other", in contrast to photographs that showed a change in the size of the reflected images, just as had been observed since the late nineteenth century. Bates adhered to a different explanation of accommodation, disregarded by the medical community of his time. Bates' model had the muscles surrounding the eyeball controlling its focus.
In addition to their known function of turning the eye, Bates maintained, they affect its shape, elongating the eyeball to focus at the near-point or shortening it to focus at a distance. Commenting on this hypothesis in an interview with WebMD, ophthalmologist Richard E. Bensinger stated "When we put drops in the eye to dilate the pupil, they paralyze the focusing muscles; the evidence of the anatomical fallacy is that you can't focus, but your eye can move up and down and right. The notion that external muscles affect focusing is wrong." Science author John Grant writes that many animals, such as fishes, accommodate by elongation of the eyeball, "it's just that humans aren't one of those animals."Laboratory tests have shown that the human eyeball is far too rigid to spontaneously change shape to a degree that would be necessary to accomplish what Bates described. Exceedingly small changes in axial length of the eyeball are caused by the action of the ciliary muscle during accommodation. However, these changes are far too small to account for the necessary changes in focus, producing changes of only −0.036 dioptres.
Medical professionals characterize refractive errors such as nearsightedness, farsightedness and presbyopia as consequences of the eye's shape and other basic anatomy, which there is no evidence that any exercise can alter. Bates, believed that these conditions are caused by tension of the muscles surrounding the eyeball, which he believed prevents the eyeball from sufficiently changing shape when gaze is shifted nearer or farther. Bates characterized this supposed muscular tension as the consequence of a "mental strain" to see, the relief of which he claimed would improve sight, he linked disturbances in the circulation of blood, which he said is "very influenced by thought", not only to refractive errors but to double vision, crossed-eye, lazy eye, to more serious eye conditions such as cataracts and glaucoma. His therapies were based on these assumptions. Bates felt that corrective lenses, which he characterized as "eye crutches", are an impediment to curing poor vision. In his view, "strain" would increase.
He thus recommended. In his writings, Bates discussed several techniques that he claimed helped patients to improve their sight, he wrote "The ways in which people strain to se
Chiropractic treatment techniques
Chiropractors use manipulation of the spine as a treatment. It was founded in North America by DD Palmer in the 19th century. Spinal manipulation became more popular in the 1980s. There are about 200 chiropractic techniques, but there is a significant amount of overlap between them, many techniques involve slight changes of other techniques. According to the American Chiropractic Association the most used techniques by chiropractors are Diversified technique 95.9%, Extremity manipulating/adjusting 95.5%, Activator Methods 62.8%, Gonstead technique 58.5%, Cox Flexion/Distraction 58.0%, Thompson 55.9%, Sacro Occipital Technique 41.3%, Applied Kinesiology 43.2%, NIMMO/Receptor Tonus 40.0%, Cranial 37.3%, Manipulative/Adjustive Instruments 34.5%, Palmer upper cervical 28.8%, Logan Basic 28.7%, Meric 19.9%, Pierce-Stillwagon 17.1%. There is no evidence that chiropractic manipulation is effective for any medical condition, with the possible exception of treatment for lower back pain; the safety of manipulation on the cervical spine has been debated.
Adverse results, including strokes and deaths, are rare. In the late 19th century in North America, therapies including osteopathy and chiropractic became popular. Spinal manipulation gained mainstream recognition during the 1980s. In this system, hands are used to manipulate, massage or otherwise influence the spine and related tissues, it is the most primary intervention used in chiropractic care. Diversified technique is a non-proprietary and eclectic approach to spinal manipulation, used by chiropractors; the technique, as it is applied today, is attributed to the work of Joe Janse Diversified is the most common spine manipulation technique used by chiropractors, with 96% of chiropractors using it for 70% of their patients. Diversified is the technique most preferred for use during future practice by chiropractic students. Diversified is the only spine manipulation technique taught in Canadian chiropractic programs. Like many chiropractic and osteopathic manipulative techniques, Diversified is characterized by a high-velocity, low-amplitude thrust.
It is considered the most generic chiropractic manipulative technique and is differentiated from other techniques in that its objective is to restore proper movement and alignment of spine and joint dysfunction. Atlas Orthogonal Technique is an upper cervical chiropractic treatment technique created by Frederick M. Vogel and Roy W. Sweat in 1979, it is a technique which uses a percussion instrument in attempts to adjust what is measured from specific X-rays and found to be a vertebral subluxation. It is based on the teachings of B. J. Palmer, who advocated the Hole-In-One version of spinal adjustment, it is used by straight chiropractors. Referring to the origins of upper cervical techniques, Dan Murphy, DC, DABCO, wrote: "Over the past 100 years, the practice of chiropractic has branched into dozens of specialty techniques; however for a third of this time, from the 1930s into the 1960s, the predominant practice of chiropractic involved the upper cervical spine." The Activator Method Chiropractic Technique is a chiropractic treatment method and device created by Arlan Fuhr as an alternative to manual manipulation of the spine or extremity joints.
The device is categorized as a mechanical force manual assisted instrument, regarded as a softer chiropractic treatment technique. The activator is a small handheld spring-loaded instrument which delivers a small impulse to the spine, it was found to give off no more than 0.3 J of kinetic energy in a 3-millisecond pulse. The aim is to produce enough force to move the vertebrae but not enough to cause injury; the AMCT involves having the patient lie in a prone position and comparing the functional leg lengths. One leg will seem to be shorter than the other; the chiropractor carries out a series of muscle tests such as having the patient move their arms in a certain position in order to activate the muscles attached to specific vertebrae. If the leg lengths are not the same, taken as a sign that the problem is located at that vertebra; the chiropractor treats problems found in this way moving progressively along the spine in the direction from the feet towards the head. Although prone "functional leg length" is a used chiropractic tool, it is not a recognized anthropometric technique, since legs are of unequal length, measurements in the prone position are not valid estimates of standing X-ray differences.
Measurements in the standing position are far more reliable. Another confounding factor is that moving the two legs held together and leaning them imperceptibly to one side or the other produces different results. Fuhr claims. In 2003, the National Board of Chiropractic Examiners found that 69.9% of chiropractors used the technique, 23.9% of patients received it. The majority of U. S. chiropractic schools and some schools in other countries teach the AMCT method, an estimated 45,000 chiropractors worldwide use AMCT or some part of the technique. There have been a number of studies of AMCT, including case reports, clinical studies and controlled trials, but there are still unanswered questions. A few low-quality studies have suggested that the activator may be as effective as manual adjustment in treatment of back pain. A single high-quality study has suggested that activator-assisted manipulation directed by leg-length testing was inferior to manual spinal manipulation guided by palpation and was more similar to the use of paracetamol for the treatment of low back pain.
Graston Technique is a trademarked therapeutic method for dia