Aron Nimzowitsch

Aron Nimzowitsch was a Danish chess player and writer. He was the foremost figure amongst the hypermoderns. Born in Riga, a part of the Russian Empire, the Jewish Yiddish-speaking Nimzowitsch came from a wealthy family, where he learned chess from his father Shaya Abramovich Nimtsovich, a timber merchant. By 1897 the family lived in Dvinsk. In 1904, he travelled to Berlin to study philosophy, but set aside his studies soon and began a career as a professional chess player that same year, he won his first international tournament at Munich 1906. He tied for first with Alexander Alekhine at Saint Petersburg 1913/14. During the 1917 Russian Revolution, Nimzowitsch was in the Baltic war zone, he escaped being drafted into one of the armies by feigning madness, insisting that a fly was on his head. He escaped to Berlin, gave his first name as Arnold to avoid anti-Semitic persecution. Nimzowitsch moved to Copenhagen in 1922, which coincided with his rise to the world chess elite, where he lived for the rest of his life in one small rented room.

In Copenhagen, he won the Nordic Chess Championship twice, in 1924 and in 1934. He obtained Danish citizenship and lived in Denmark until his death in 1935; the height of Nimzowitsch's career was the late 1920s and early 1930s. Chessmetrics places him as the third best player in the world from 1927 to 1931, behind Alexander Alekhine and José Capablanca, his most notable successes were first-place finishes at Copenhagen 1923, Marienbad 1925, Dresden 1926, Hanover 1926, the Carlsbad 1929 chess tournament, second place behind Alekhine at the San Remo 1930 chess tournament. Nimzowitsch never developed a knack for match play, though. Nimzowitsch never fared better against Alekhine, he beat Alekhine with the black pieces, in their short 1914 match at St. Petersburg. One of Nimzowitsch's most famous games is his celebrated immortal zugzwang game against Sämisch at Copenhagen 1923. Another game on this theme is his win over Paul Johner at Dresden 1926; when in form, Nimzowitsch was dangerous with the black pieces, scoring many fine wins over top players.

Nimzowitsch is considered one of the most important writers in chess history. His works influenced numerous other players, including Savielly Tartakower, Milan Vidmar, Richard Réti, Akiba Rubinstein, Bent Larsen and Tigran Petrosian, his influence is still felt today, he wrote three books on chess strategy: Mein System, 1925, Die Praxis meines Systems, 1929 known as Chess Praxis, Die Blockade, 1925, though much in the latter book is held to be a rehash of material presented in Mein System. Mein System is considered to be one of the most influential chess books of all time, it sets out Nimzowitsch's most important ideas, while his second most influential work, Chess Praxis, elaborates upon these ideas, adds a few new ones, has immense value as a stimulating collection of Nimzowitsch's own games accompanied by his idiosyncratic, hyperbolic commentary, as entertaining as instructive. Nimzowitsch's chess theories, when first propounded, flew in the face of held orthodoxies enunciated by the dominant theorist of the era, Siegbert Tarrasch, his disciples.

Tarrasch's rigid generalizations drew on the earlier work of Wilhelm Steinitz, were upheld by Tarrasch's sharp tongue when dismissing the opinions of doubters. While the greatest players of the time, among them Alekhine, Emanuel Lasker and Capablanca did not allow their play to be hobbled by blind adherence to general concepts that the center had to be controlled by pawns, that development had to happen in support of this control, that rooks always belong on open files, that wing openings were unsound—core ideas of Tarrasch's chess philosophy as popularly understood—beginners were taught to think of these generalizations as unalterable principles. Nimzowitsch supplemented many of the earlier simplistic assumptions about chess strategy by enunciating in his turn a further number of general concepts of defensive play aimed at achieving one's own goals by preventing realization of the opponent's plans. Notable in his "system" were concepts such as overprotection of pieces and pawns under attack, control of the center by pieces instead of pawns, blockading of opposing pieces and prophylaxis.

He was a leading exponent of the fianchetto development of bishops. Most he formulated the terminology still in use for various complex chess strategies. Others had used these ideas in practice, but he was the first to present them systematically as a lexicon of themes accompanied by extensive taxonomical observations. Grandmaster Raymond Keene writes that Nimzowitsch "was one of the world's leading grandmasters for a period extending over a quarter of a century, for some of that time he was the obvious challenger for the world championship.... A great and profound chess thinker second only to Steinitz, his works – Die Blockade, My System and Chess Praxis – established his reputation as one of the father figures of modern chess." GM Robert Byrne called him "perhaps the most brilliant theoretician and teacher in the history of the game." GM Jan Hein Donner called Nimzowitsch "a man, too much of an artist to be able to prove he was right and, regarded as something of a madman in his time. He would be u

Soro Mik'aya Patjxa

Soro Mik'aya Patjxa is a high-altitude archaeological site located in the Ilave Basin in Peru, about 30 km west of the current shoreline of Lake Titicaca. Soro Mik'aya Patjxa was a seasonal residential site, reused by hunter-gatherers over a period of over a thousand years. Situated on a fluvial terrace, the site was first identified by Mark Aldenderfer in 1995; the excavated portion of Soro Mik'aya Patjxa consists of one cultural layer of interest. 13 pits were excavated at the site. The site was occupied at least 1,500 years before the advent of low-level agriculture in the region at around 5,000 BP. Over 80,000 artefacts were recovered at the site; the artefact assemblage at Soro Mik'aya Patjxa consists of flaked lithics, includes bones, ground stones, charred plant remains, pigment stones and ceramic sherds. As the ceramic sherds were found to stylistically post-date 1,000 AD, the sherds are considered to be intrusive; the remains of 16 individuals were recovered from pit burials at the site.

Five of the crania from the site exhibit signs of intentional cranial modification. Isotopic analysis, estimates of travel distance to nearby lower elevation areas, demographic profiling, the evidence for the high use of local lithic materials suggest that the individuals at Soro Mik'aya Patjxa were permanent inhabitants of a high-altitude environment; the people at Soro Mik'aya Patjxa relied on hunting large, terrestrial mammals and intensive processing and consumption of plants. Projectile points dominate the flaked lithic assemblage at Soro Mik'aya Patjxa. Additionally, the faunal assemblage is dominated by large mammals, most coming from Hippocamelus antisensis and the vicuña; the remains of guinea pig, Lagidium viscacia and carache fish were identified from the small faunal remains at the site. The majority of the faunal bones recovered from the site shows evidence of burning; the presence of large quantities of ground stones at the site and dental wear analysis indicate that the consumption of plants was an important part of the diet at Soro Mik'aya Patjxa.

Only one of the 251 teeth recovered from the site shows evidence for dental caries, a low rate, typical of hunter-gatherers. Dental wear analysis suggests a diet typical of terrestrial hunter-gatherers. Dental wear analysis reveals evidence for lingual surface attrition of the maxillary anterior teeth, a condition, linked with the intensive consumption of tubers by hunter-gatherers. In 2018, researchers sequenced the genome from SMP5, a 50-55 male directly dated to around 6800 BP. SMP5 shares a genetic component with ancient DNA samples from the Lake Titicaca region, a component, found in modern Andean populations; when compared against modern populations, SMP5 shows closest genetic affinity for the Quechua people and the Aymara people. Unlike ancient individuals sequenced from the Lake Titicaca region, SMP5, along with USR1 from the Upward Sun River site, Anzick-1, Kennewick man, the individual tested from the Saqqaq culture, shows a genetic affinity for modern Siberian populations the Yakuts.

Jiskairumoko Qillqatani

Quinhagak, Alaska

Quinhagak, or Kuinerraq in Central Alaskan Yup'ik, is a city in Bethel Census Area, United States. As of the 2010 census, the population of the city is 669, up from 555 in 2000; the Yupik name for the village is Kuinerraq, meaning "new river channel." It has been dated to at least 1000 AD. Quinhagak is near the Nunalleq archaeological site, which has "easily the largest collection of pre-contact Yup'ik material anywhere," according to anthropologist Rick Knecht. Thousands of items dating from 1350 to 1670 have been uncovered; these include many organic artifacts preserved in permafrost. The site is located along eroding coastline and up to 75% of the original site is thought to have washed away as of 2013, including the original excavation site. Quinhagak is located at 59°45′12″N 161°54′10″W, it is situated on the Kanektok River and near the Arolik River a mile from the Kuskokwim Bay of the Bering Sea. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 5.2 square miles, of which, 4.7 square miles of it is land and 0.6 square miles of it is water.

Quinhagak has appeared under six different names on census records over the course of a century. It first appeared on the 1880 U. S. Census as the unincorporated Inuit village of "Quinchahamute." In 1890, it returned as "Quinhaghamiut." In 1900, it returned as "Kwiniak." In 1910, it returned as "Kwinak", with the alternative spelling of "Quinhagak." In 1920 and 1930, it appeared under its present spelling of Quinhagak. From 1940-70, it was spelled as "Kwinhagak." It was formally incorporated in 1975 with the current spelling of Quinhagak. As of the census of 2000, there were 555 people, 137 households, 113 families residing in the city; the population density was 118.5 people per square mile. There were 153 housing units at an average density of 32.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 2.70% White, 96.04% Native American, 1.26% from two or more races. 0.72% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 137 households out of which 50.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.2% were married couples living together, 12.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 16.8% were non-families.

12.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 1.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 4.05 and the average family size was 4.52. In the city, the population was spread out with 37.1% under the age of 18, 9.5% from 18 to 24, 29.5% from 25 to 44, 16.0% from 45 to 64, 7.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 27 years. For every 100 females, there were 109.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 115.4 males. The median income for a household in the city was $25,156, the median income for a family was $25,313. Males had a median income of $23,750 versus $36,250 for females; the per capita income for the city was $8,127. About 27.2% of families and 26.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 34.0% of those under age 18 and 25.0% of those age 65 or over. The village hosts a commercial fishing fish plant. Although a commercial fishing village, there has been no commercial fishing since the local processor, Coastal Villages Seafood/Coastal Villages Region Fund, stopped buying salmon since 2016.

Most Quinhagak households practice subsistence hunting and gathering in addition to any wage work they are able to find, utilizing the village's excellent location for salmon and trout fishing, bird and moose hunting, berry picking. Much of the work available is government-funded. Lower Kuskokwim School District operates the Kuinerrarmiut Elitnaurviat School, K-12