New York World
The New York World was a newspaper published in New York City from 1860 until 1931. The paper played a major role in the history of American newspapers, it was a leading national voice of the Democratic Party. From 1883 to 1911 under publisher Joseph Pulitzer, it became a pioneer in yellow journalism, capturing readers' attention and pushing its daily circulation to the one-million mark; the World was formed in 1860. From 1862 to 1876, it was edited by Manton Marble, its proprietor. In 1864, the World was shut down for three days after it published forged documents purportedly from Abraham Lincoln. Marble, disgusted by the defeat of Samuel Tilden in the 1876 presidential election, sold the paper after the election to a group headed by Thomas A. Scott, the president of the Pennsylvania Railroad, who used the paper "as a propaganda vehicle for his stock enterprises." But Scott was unable to meet the newspaper's growing losses, in 1879 he sold the newspaper to financier Jay Gould as part of a deal that included the Texas & Pacific Railroad.
Gould, like Scott, used the paper for his own purposes, employing it to help him take over Western Union. But Gould could not turn the financial state of the newspaper around, by the 1880s, it was losing $40,000 a year. Joseph Pulitzer began an aggressive era of circulation building. Reporter Nellie Bly became one of America's first investigative journalists working undercover; as a publicity stunt for the paper, inspired by the Jules Verne novel Around the World in Eighty Days, she traveled around the planet in 72 days in 1889–1890. In 1890, Pulitzer built the New York World Building, the tallest office building in the world at the time. In 1889, Julius Chambers was appointed by Pulitzer as managing editor of the New York World. In 1896, the World began using a four-color printing press, it joined a circulation battle with William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal-American. In 1899 Pulitzer along with Hearst were the cause of the newsboys' strike of 1899 which led to Pulitzer's circulation dropping by 70%.
The World was attacked for being "sensational", its circulation battles with Hearst's Journal American gave rise to the term yellow journalism. The charges of sensationalism were most leveled at the paper by more established publishers, who resented Pulitzer's courting of the immigrant classes, and while the World presented its fair share of crime stories, it published damning exposés of tenement abuses. After a heat wave in 1883 killed a disproportionate number of poor children, the World published stories about it, featuring such headlines as "Lines of Little Hearses", its coverage spurred action in the city for reform. Hearst reproduced Pulitzer's approach in the San Francisco Examiner and in the Journal American. Charles Chapin was hired in 1898 as City Editor of the Evening World, he was most known for embracing the sensational and showing little empathy in the face of tragedy, only taking a more solemn tone when reporting on the assassination of William McKinley in 1901. He controlled the newsroom with an iron fist, was despised by the journalists who worked for him.
Chapin fired 108 newspaper men during his tenure. However, Stanley Walker still referred to him as "the greatest city editor that lived." His time at the World ended when, after falling into financial ruin, he murdered his wife in 1918. He was sentenced to Sing Sing Prison and died there in 1930. Frank Irving Cobb was employed on a trial basis as the editor of the World in 1904 by publisher Pulitzer. Cobb was a fiercely independent Kansan who resisted Pulitzer's attempts to "run the office" from his home; the elder man was so invested in the paper. The two found common ground in their support of Woodrow Wilson, but they had many other areas of disagreement; when Pulitzer's son took over administrative responsibility of The World in 1907, his father wrote a worded resignation. Cobb had it printed in every New York paper—except the World. Pulitzer raged at the insult, but began to respect Cobb's editorials and independent spirit. Exchanges and messages between them increased; the good rapport between the two was based on Cobb's flexibility.
In May 1908, Cobb and Pulitzer met to outline plans for a consistent editorial policy. Pulitzer's demands for editorials on contemporary breaking news led to overwork by Cobb; the publisher sent his managing editor on a six-week tour of Europe to restore his spirit. Shortly after Cobb's return, Pulitzer died. Cobb published Pulitzer's resignation. Cobb retained the editorial policies he had shared with Pulitzer until he died of cancer in 1923; when Pulitzer died in 1911, he passed control of the World to his sons Ralph and Herbert. The World continued to grow under its executive editor Herbert Bayard Swope, who hired writers such as Frank Sullivan and Deems Taylor. Among the World's noted journalists were columnists Franklin Pierce Adams who wrote "The Conning Tower," Heywood Broun who penned "It Seems To Me" on the editorial page, hardboiled writer James M. Cain. C. M. Payne created several comic strips for the newspaper; the paper published the first crossword puzzle in December 1913. The annual reference book, called The World Almanac, was founded by the newspaper, its name, World Almanac, is directly descended from the newspaper.
The paper ran a twenty-article series, an exposé on the 20th-century revival of the Ku Klux Klan, starting September 6, 1921. In 1931, Pulitzer's heirs went to court to sell the World. A surrogate court judge decided in the Pulitzer sons' favor.
Around the World in 80 Days (1956 film)
Around the World in 80 Days is a 1956 American epic adventure-comedy film starring Cantinflas and David Niven, produced by the Michael Todd Company and released by United Artists. The epic picture was directed by Michael Anderson and produced by Mike Todd, with Kevin McClory and William Cameron Menzies as associate producers; the screenplay was written by James Poe, John Farrow, S. J. Perelman based on the classic novel of the same name by Jules Verne; the music score was composed by Victor Young, the Todd-AO 70 mm cinematography was by Lionel Lindon. The film's six-minute-long animated title sequence, shown at the end of the film, was created by award-winning designer Saul Bass; the film won 5 Academy Awards, including Best Picture. Broadcast journalist Edward R. Murrow presents an onscreen prologue, featuring footage from A Trip to the Moon by Georges Méliès, explaining that it is based loosely on the book From the Earth to the Moon by Jules Verne. Included is the launching of an unmanned rocket and footage of the earth receding.
In 1872, an English gentleman Phileas Fogg claims. He makes a £20,000 wager with four sceptical fellow members of the Reform Club that he can arrive back eighty days from 8:45 pm that evening. Together with his resourceful valet, Fogg goes hopscotching around the globe generously spending money to encourage others to help him get to his destinations faster so he can accommodate tight steamship schedules, they set out on the journey from Paris by a gas balloon named La Coquette upon learning the mountain train tunnel is blocked. The two accidentally end up in Spain. Next, he goes to Brindisi. Meanwhile, suspicion grows that Fogg has stolen £55,000 from the Bank of England so Police Inspector Fix is sent out by Scotland Yard to trail him and keeps waiting for a warrant to arrive so he can arrest Fogg in the British ports they visit. In India and Passepartout rescue young widow Princess Aouda from being forced into a funeral pyre with her late husband; the three visit Hong Kong, San Francisco, the Wild West.
After sailing across the Atlantic, only hours short of winning his wager, Fogg is arrested upon arrival at Liverpool, by the diligent yet misguided Inspector Fix. At the jail, the humiliated Fix informs Fogg. Although he is now exculpated, he has insufficient time to reach London before his deadline and thus has lost everything – but the love of the winsome Aouda. Salvation is at hand when, upon returning to London, Passepartout buys a newspaper and sees it is still Saturday. Fogg realizes that by traveling east towards the rising sun and by crossing the International Date Line, he has gained a day. There is still time to win the bet. Fogg arrives at the club just before the 8:45 pm chime. Aouda and Passepartout arrive, surprising everyone, as no woman has entered the Reform Club before; the film boasts an all star cast, with David Niven and Cantinflas in the lead roles of Fogg and Passepartout. Fogg is the classic Victorian gentleman, well-dressed, well-spoken, punctual, whereas his servant Passepartout provides much of the comic relief as a "jack of all trades" for the film in contrast to his master's strict formality.
Joining them are Shirley MacLaine as Princess Aouda and Robert Newton as the detective Fix, in his last role. The role of Passepartout was expanded from the novel to accommodate Cantinflas, the most famous Latin-American comedian at the time, winds up as the focus of the film. While Passepartout describes himself as a Parisian in the novel, this is unclear in the film – he has a French name, but speaks Spanish when he and his master arrive in Spain by balloon. In the Spanish version the name of his character was changed from the French Passepartout to the Spanish "Juan Picaporte". There is a comic bullfighting sequence created for Cantinflas, not in the novel. Indeed, when the film was released in some non-English speaking nations, Cantinflas was billed as the lead. According to the guidebook, this was done because of an obstacle Todd faced in casting Cantinflas, who had never before appeared in an American movie and had turned down countless offers to do so. Todd allowed Cantinflas to appear in the film as a Latin, "so," the actor said himself, "...to my audience in Latin America, I'll still be Cantinflas."
More than 40 famous performers make cameo appearances, including Marlene Dietrich, Ronald Colman, George Raft, Frank Sinatra. The film was significant as the first of the so-called Hollywood "make work" films, employing dozens of film personalities. John Wayne turned down Todd's offer for the role of the Colonel leading the Cavalry charge, a role filled by Colonel Tim McCoy. Promotional material released at the time quoted a Screen Actors Guild representative looking at the shooting call sheet and crying: "Good heavens Todd, you've made extras out of all the stars in Hollywood!" As of 2019, Shirley MacLaine and Glynis Johns are the last surviving members of the entire cast. David Niven as Phileas Fogg Cantinflas as Passepartout Shirley MacLaine as Princess Aouda Robert Newton as Inspector Fix Around the World in 80 Days was produced by Michael Todd, a Broadway showman who had never before produced a film; the director he hired, Michael Anderson, had directed the acclaimed British World War II feature The Dam Busters, George Orwell's Nineteen E
Circumnavigation is the complete navigation around an entire island, continent, or astronomical body. This article focuses on the circumnavigation of Earth; the first circumnavigation of Earth was the Magellan-Elcano expedition, which sailed from Seville, Spain in 1519 and returned in 1522, after crossing the Atlantic and Indian oceans. The word circumnavigation is a noun formed from the verb circumnavigate, from the past participle of the Latin verb circumnavigare, from circum "around" + navigare "to sail". If a person walks around either Pole, he crosses all meridians, but this is not considered a "circumnavigation"; the trajectory of a true circumnavigation forms a continuous loop on the surface of Earth separating two-halves of comparable area. A basic definition of a global circumnavigation would be a route which covers a great circle, in particular one which passes through at least one pair of points antipodal to each other. In practice, people use different definitions of world circumnavigation to accommodate practical constraints, depending on the method of travel.
Since the planet is quasispheroidal, a trip from one Pole to the other, back again on the other side, would technically be a circumnavigation, but practical difficulties preclude such a voyage although it was undertaken in the early 1980s by Ranulph Fiennes. The first single voyage of global circumnavigation was that of the ship Victoria, between 1519 and 1522, known as the Magellan–Elcano expedition, it was a Castilian voyage of discovery, led by the Portuguese Ferdinand Magellan between 1519 and 1521, by the Spanish Juan Sebastián Elcano from 1521 to 1522. The voyage started in Seville, crossed the Atlantic Ocean, after several stopovers rounded the southern tip of South America where the expedition discovered the Strait of Magellan, named after the fleet's captain, it continued across the Pacific discovering a number of islands on its way, including Guam before arriving in the Philippines. After Magellan's death in the Philippines in 1521, Elcano took command of the expedition and continued the journey across the Indian Ocean, round the Cape of Good Hope, north along the Atlantic Ocean, back to Spain in 1522.
Elcano and a small group of 18 men were the only members of the expedition to make the full circumnavigation. Apart from some scholars, it is not accepted that Magellan and some crew members completed a full circumnavigation on several voyages, since Sumatra and Malacca lie southwest of Cebu. If he had been in the Moluccas islands in early 1512, he completed and exceeded an entire circumnavigation of Earth in longitude—though one circumnavigation in the strict sense implies a return to the same exact point. However, traveling west from Europe, in 1521, Magellan reached a region of Southeast Asia, which he had reached on previous voyages traveling east. Magellan thereby achieved a nearly complete personal circumnavigation of the globe for the first time in history. In 1577, Elizabeth I sent Francis Drake to start an expedition against the Spanish along the Pacific coast of the Americas. Drake set out from Plymouth, England in November 1577, aboard Pelican, which Drake renamed Golden Hind mid-voyage.
In September 1578, he passed through the southern tip of South America, named Drake Passage, which connects the southwestern part of the Atlantic Ocean with the southeastern part of the Pacific Ocean. In June 1579, Drake landed somewhere north of Spain's northern-most claim in Alta California, known as Drakes Bay, California. Drake completed the second circumnavigation of the world in September 1580, becoming the first commander to lead an entire circumnavigation. For the wealthy, long voyages around the world, such as was done by Ulysses S. Grant, became possible in the 19th century, the two World Wars moved vast numbers of troops around the planet. However, it was improvements in technology and rising incomes that made such trips common; the nautical global and fastest circumnavigation record is held by a wind-powered vessel, the trimaran IDEC 3. The record was established by six sailors: Francis Joyon, Alex Pella, Clément Surtel, Gwénolé Gahinet, Sébastien Audigane and Bernard Stamm; the absolute speed sailing record around the world followed the North Atlantic Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, Southern Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic Ocean route in an easterly direction.
The map on the right shows, in red, a typical, non-competitive, route for a sailing circumnavigation of the world by the trade winds and the Suez and Panama canals. It can be seen that the route approximates a great circle, passes through two pairs of antipodal points; this is a route followed by many cruising sailors. In yacht racing, a round-the-world route approximating a great circle would be quite impractical in a non-stop race where use of the Panama and Suez Canals would be impossible. Yacht racing therefore defines a world circumnavigation to be a passage of at least 21,600 nautical miles
RMS Oceanic (1870)
RMS Oceanic was the White Star Line's first liner and an important turning point in passenger liner design. Entering service in 1871 for Atlantic crossings, she was chartered to Occidental and Oriental Steamship Company in 1875; the ship provided passenger service for O&O in the Pacific until 1895. Oceanic was built by Harland and Wolff in Belfast, was launched on 27 August 1870, arriving in Liverpool for her maiden voyage on 26 February 1871. Powered by a combination of steam and sail, she had twelve boilers generating steam at 65 pounds-force per square inch powering a single four cylinder compound steam engine, 2 x 78 inches and 2 x 41 inches, with a stroke of 60 inches. A single funnel exhausted four masts carried sail; the hull was divided into eleven watertight compartments. A crew of 143 operated the vessel; the Oceanic had a capacity of 1,000 third-class and 166 first-class passengers, known at the time as'steerage' and'saloon' class. The White Star Line was among only a handful of trans-Atlantic passenger lines to segregate their third-class accommodations.
First-class cabins were positioned amidship, away from ocean movements and the vibration of the engines. The contemporary press described her "more an imperial yacht than a passenger liner." Innovative features included running water and electric bells to summon stewards in the first-class cabins. Portholes in the ship were much larger than on contemporary liners; the saloon dining room was large enough to seat all first-class passengers at once. Maritime historian Daniel Allen Butler writes "With her unparalleled accommodations and stunning appearance... the Oceanic established the White Star Line as the arbiter of comfort on the North Atlantic". Oceanic left for her maiden voyage from Liverpool on 2 March 1871 carrying only 64 passengers, under Captain Sir Digby Murray. Not long after departing, she had to return because of overheated bearings, her voyage restarted on 16 March. From that point onward, Oceanic was a success for the White Star Line, she was to be the first of a series of six sister ships constructed in rapid succession: Atlantic, Republic and Adriatic.
All were of the same approximate dimensions with differences in tonnage, with the exception of the Celtic and Adriatic, the designs for which were modified to increase their sizes. In January, 1872, Oceanic underwent a refit, during which a large forecastle was added to help prevent the bow being inundated during high seas. Two new boilers were added to increase steam pressure and thus engine power, the four masts were shortened. Oceanic continued sailing with the White Star line on the Liverpool to New York City route until 11 March 1875, when she was chartered to the Occidental & Oriental Steamship Company for service between San Francisco and Hong Kong; the White Star Line provided the officers. The ship itself flew the O&O flag. During the repositioning voyage from Liverpool to Hong Kong, Oceanic set a speed record for that route, she set a speed record for Yokohama to San Francisco in December 1876, broke her own record over that route in November 1889, with a time of 13 days, 14 hours and 5 minutes.
On 22 August 1888, Oceanic collided with the coastal liner SS City of Chester just outside the Golden Gate. On 7 January 1890, Nellie Bly boarded Oceanic in Yokohama to cross the Pacific as part of her voyage Around the World in Seventy-Two Days, she arrived in San Francisco on 21 January 1890, a day behind schedule as a result of rough weather. In 1895, Oceanic was returned to the White Star Line, which planned on putting her back into service, she was sent back to Harland and Wolff for re-engining, but when the ship was inspected it was found to be uneconomical to perform all the work needed. Instead, she was sold for scrap, leaving Belfast for the last time on 10 February 1896, under tow, for a scrapyard on the River Thames. Oceanic info at The Great Ocean Liners For a listing of passengers on one voyage Video dedicated to RMS Oceanic 1899
Hamburg America Line
The Hamburg-Amerikanische Packetfahrt-Actien-Gesellschaft referred to as Hamburg America Line, was a transatlantic shipping enterprise established in Hamburg, in 1847. Among those involved in its development were prominent citizens such as Albert Ballin, Adolph Godeffroy, Ferdinand Laeisz, Carl Woermann, August Bolten, others, its main financial backers were Berenberg Bank and H. J. Merck & Co, it soon developed into the largest German, at times the world's largest, shipping company, serving the market created by German immigration to the United States and immigration from Eastern Europe. On 1 September 1970, after 123 years of independent existence, HAPAG merged with the Bremen-based North German Lloyd to form Hapag-Lloyd AG. In the early years, the Hamburg America Line connected European ports with North American ports, such as Hoboken, New Jersey, or New Orleans, Louisiana. With time, the company established lines to all continents; the company built a large ocean liner terminal at Cuxhaven, Germany, in 1900.
Connected directly to Hamburg by a dedicated railway line and station, the HAPAG Terminal at Cuxhaven served as the major departure point for German and European immigrants to North America until 1969 when ocean liner travel ceased. Today it serves as a cruise ship terminal. In 1858, its liner Austria sank. In 1891, the cruise of the Augusta Victoria in the Mediterranean and the Near East from 22 January to 22 March, with 241 passengers including Albert Ballin and wife, is stated to have been the first passenger cruise. Christian Wilhelm Allers published an illustrated account of it as "Bakschisch". In 1897, its steamer Arcadia was wrecked on the rocks off Newfoundland. In 1900, 1901 and 1903 its liner Deutschland won the Blue Riband taking the prize from the Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse. In 1906 Prinzessin Victoria Luise ran aground off the coast of Jamaica. No lives were lost by the grounding. In 1912, its liner SS Amerika was the first ship to warn Titanic of icebergs. HAPAG's general director, Albert Ballin, believed that safety, size and luxury would always win out over speed.
Thus he conceived the three largest liners yet to be built, named the Imperator and Bismarck. The first two were in service before the First World War. In 1914, the Vaterland was caught in port at Hoboken, New Jersey at the outbreak of World War I and interned by the United States, she was seized, renamed Leviathan after the declaration of war on Germany in 1917, served for the duration and beyond as a troopship. After the war, she was retained by the Americans in war reparations. In 1919 Vaterland's sister ships – Imperator and the unfinished Bismarck – were handed over to the allies as war reparations to Britain, they were sold to the Cunard Line and White Star Line and renamed Berengaria and Majestic. In 1917, its liner Allemannia was "torpedoed by German submarine near Alicante". In 1939, the HAPAG liner St. Louis was unable to find a port in Cuba, the United States, or Canada willing to accept the more than 950 Jewish refugees on board and had to return to Europe. On 9 April 1940, when German warships attacked Kristiansand, during Operation Weserübung, the HAPAG freighter Seattle sailed into the crossfire between the warships and Norwegian coastal artillery.
She was holed and sunk, her crew became prisoners of war. The Hamburg America Line lost the entirety of its fleet twice, as a result of World Wars I and II. In 1970, the company merged with its longstanding rival, Norddeutscher Lloyd of Bremen, to establish the present-day company Hapag-Lloyd. Holland America Line Norwegian America Line Scandinavian America Line Swedish American Line USS President Lincoln SS Imperator Hertford Fleet information The history of the Hamburg-America Line Historic photos of Hoboken and Hamburg America Line ports Passenger Lists from the Hamburg-Amerika Linie Hamburg-Amerika Line ships This collection contains 16 photographs depicting ship interior and exterior views of Hamburg-Amerika Line's luxury passenger ships Augusta Victoria and Normannia by Louis Koch, Bremen Documents and clippings about Hamburg America Line in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics
Around the World in Eighty Days
Around the World in Eighty Days is an adventure novel by the French writer Jules Verne, published in 1873. In the story, Phileas Fogg of London and his newly employed French valet Passepartout attempt to circumnavigate the world in 80 days on a £20,000 wager set by his friends at the Reform Club, it is one of Verne's most acclaimed works. The story starts in London on Wednesday, 2 October 1872. Phileas Fogg is a rich British gentleman living in solitude. Despite his wealth, Fogg lives a modest life with habits carried out with mathematical precision. Little can be said about his social life other than that he is a member of the Reform Club. Having dismissed his former valet, James Forster, for bringing him shaving water at 84 °F instead of 86 °F, Fogg hires Frenchman Jean Passepartout as a replacement. At the Reform Club, Fogg gets involved in an argument over an article in The Daily Telegraph stating that with the opening of a new railway section in India, it is now possible to travel around the world in 80 days.
He accepts a wager for £20,000, half of his total fortune, from his fellow club members to complete such a journey within this time period. With Passepartout accompanying him, Fogg departs from London by train at 8:45 p.m. on 2 October. They take the remaining £20,000 of Fogg's fortune with them to cover expenses during the journey. Fogg and Passepartout reach Suez in time. While disembarking in Egypt, they are watched by a Scotland Yard detective, Detective Fix, dispatched from London in search of a bank robber. Since Fogg fits the vague description Scotland Yard was given of the robber, Detective Fix mistakes Fogg for the criminal. Since he cannot secure a warrant in time, Fix boards the steamer conveying the travelers to Bombay. Fix becomes acquainted with Passepartout without revealing his purpose. Fogg promises the steamer engineer a large reward, they dock two days ahead of schedule. After reaching India, they take a train from Bombay to Calcutta. Fogg learns. Fogg purchases an elephant, hires a guide, starts toward Allahabad.
They come across a procession in which Aouda, is to undergo sati. Since she is drugged with opium and hemp and is not going voluntarily, the travelers decide to rescue her, they follow the procession to the site, where Passepartout takes the place of Aouda's deceased husband on the funeral pyre. During the ceremony he rises from the pyre, scaring off the priests, carries Aouda away; the twelve hours gained earlier are lost. The travelers hasten taking Aouda with them. At Calcutta, they board a steamer going to Hong Kong. Fix has Passepartout arrested, they jump Fix follows them to Hong Kong. He shows himself to Passepartout, delighted to again meet his travelling companion from the earlier voyage. In Hong Kong, it turns out that Aouda's distant relative, in whose care they had been planning to leave her, has moved to Holland, so they decide to take her with them to Europe. Still without a warrant, Fix sees Hong Kong as his last chance to arrest Fogg on British soil. Passepartout becomes convinced.
Fix confides in Passepartout, who does not believe a word and remains convinced that his master is not a bank robber. To prevent Passepartout from informing his master about the premature departure of their next vessel, the Carnatic, Fix gets Passepartout drunk and drugs him in an opium den. Passepartout still manages to catch the steamer to Yokohama, but neglects to inform Fogg that the steamer is leaving the evening before its scheduled departure date. Fogg discovers, he searches for a vessel that will take him to Yokohama, finding a pilot boat, the Tankadere, that takes him and Aouda to Shanghai, where they catch a steamer to Yokohama. In Yokohama, they search for Passepartout, believing that he may have arrived there on the Carnatic as planned, they find him in a circus, trying to earn the fare for his homeward journey. Reunited, the four board a paddle-steamer, the General Grant, taking them across the Pacific to San Francisco. Fix promises Passepartout that now, having left British soil, he will no longer try to delay Fogg's journey, but instead support him in getting back to Britain so he can arrest Fogg in Britain itself.
In San Francisco they board a transcontinental train to New York, encountering a number of obstacles along the way: a massive herd of bison crossing the tracks, a failing suspension bridge, the train being attacked by Sioux warriors. After uncoupling the locomotive from the carriages, Passepartout is kidnapped by the Indians, but Fogg rescues him after American soldiers volunteer to help, they continue by a wind powered sledge to Omaha. In New York, having missed the ship China, Fogg looks for alternative transport, he finds the Henrietta, destined for Bordeaux, France. The captain of the boat refuses to take the company to Liverpool, whereupon Fogg consents to be taken to Bordeaux for $2,000 per passenger, he bribes the crew to mutiny and make course for Liverpool. Against hurricane winds and going on full steam, the boat runs out of fuel after a few days. Fogg has the crew burn all the wooden parts to keep up the steam; the companions arrive at Queenstown, take the train to Dublin and th