Rivers and lakes of Armenia
The Rivers and lakes in Armenia are powered by fresh water. Throughout history Armenia has been called Nairi by the Assyrians meaning the "Land of the lakes and rivers". Armenia is home to many lakes; the largest river of Armenia is the Arax, which lies on the country's border with Iran and a large part of the border with Turkey. Its major tributaries are the Akhurian, Hrazdan, Arpa and Voghdji rivers; the largest rivers in north west part of the country are the Debed and Aghstev, while smaller ones include the Dzoraget and the Pambak. The following table is the list of the biggest rivers in Armenia: Armenia has one large lake called Lake Sevan and more than 100 small mountain lakes. None of them, except Lake Arpi, have yet been extensively studied; the water resources of the lakes amount to about 39,300,000,000 cubic metres, Sevan holding most of this, nearly 39,000,000,000 cubic metres. At the country's capital, Yerevan, it is possible to find small lakes in amusement parks
Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic
The Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic is a landlocked exclave of the Republic of Azerbaijan. The region covers 5,500 km2 with a population of 414,900, bordering Armenia to the east and north, Iran to the south and west, Turkey to the northwest; the area, now Nakhchivan became part of the Safavid dynasty of Iran in the 16th century. In 1828, after the last Russo-Persian War and the Treaty of Turkmenchay, the Nakhchivan Khanate passed from Iranian into Imperial Russian possession. After the 1917 February Revolution and its surrounding region were under the authority of the Special Transcaucasian Committee of the Russian Provisional Government and subsequently of the short-lived Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic; when the TDFR was dissolved in May 1918, Nagorno-Karabakh and Qazakh were contested between the newly formed and short-lived states of the Democratic Republic of Armenia and the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic. In June 1918, the region came under Ottoman occupation. Under the terms of the Armistice of Mudros, the Ottomans agreed to pull their troops out of the Transcaucasus to make way for British occupation at the close of the First World War.
In July 1920, the Bolsheviks occupied the region and on July 28, declared the Nakhchivan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic with "close ties" to the Azerbaijan SSR, beginning seventy years of Soviet rule. In January 1990 Nakhchivan declared independence from the USSR to protest against the suppression of the national movement in Azerbaijan, became the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic within the newly independent Republic of Azerbaijan a year later; the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic is an autonomous area of Azerbaijan, governed by its own elected legislature. The region continues to suffer from the effects of the Armenia-Azerbaijan War, its Karki exclave has been under Armenian occupation since; the administrative capital city is Nakhchivan. Vasif Talibov has been the leader since 1995. Variations of the name Nakhchivan include Nakhichevan, Naxçivan, Nakhijevan, Nakhitchevan and Nakhdjevan. Nakhchivan is mentioned in Ptolemy's Geography and by other classical writers as "Naxuana"; the 19th-century language scholar Johann Heinrich Hübschmann wrote that the name "Nakhichavan" in Armenian means "the place of descent", a Biblical reference to the descent of Noah's Ark on the adjacent Mount Ararat.
Armenian tradition says. First century Jewish historian Flavius Josephus wrote about Nakhichevan, saying that its original name "Αποβατηριον, or Place of Descent, is the proper rendering of the Armenian name of this city". Hübschmann noted, that it was not known by that name in antiquity, that the present-day name evolved to "Nakhchivan" from "Naxčawan"; the prefix "Naxč" derives from Naxič or Naxuč and "awan" is Armenian for "place, town". The oldest material culture artifacts found in the region date back to the Neolithic Age. On the other hand, Azerbaijani archaeologists have found that the history of Nakhchivan dates back to the Stone Age; as a result of archaeological diggings, archaeologists discovered a great number of Stone-Age materials in different regions of Nakhchivan. These materials were useful to study the Paleolithic age in Azerbaijan. Pollen analysis conducted in Gazma Cave suggests that humans in the Middle Palaeolithic lived not only in the mountain forests but in the dry woodlands found in Nakhchivan.
Several archeological sites from the dating from the Neolithic have been found in Nakhchivan, including the ancient town of Ovchular Tepesi, which includes some of the oldest salt mines in the world. The region was part of the state of Urartu and of Media, it became part of the Satrapy of Armenia under Achaemenid Persia c. 521 BC. After Alexander the Great's death in 323 BC, various Macedonian generals such as Neoptolemus tried to take control of the region, but failed and a native Armenian dynasty of Orontids flourished until Armenia was conquered by Antiochus III the Great. In 189 BC, Nakhchivan became part of the new Kingdom of Armenia established by Artaxias I. Within the kingdom, the region of present-day Nakhchivan was part of the Ayrarat and Syunik provinces. According to the early medieval Armenian historian Movses Khorenatsi, from the 3rd to 2nd centuries, the region belonged to the Muratsyan nakharar family but after disputes with central power, King Artavazd I massacred the family and seized the lands and formally attached it to the kingdom.
The area's status as a major trade center allowed it to prosper. According to the Armenian historian Faustus of Byzantium, when the Sassanid Persians invaded Armenia, Sassanid King Shapur II removed 2,000 Armenian and 16,000 Jewish families in 360-370. In 428, the Armenian Arshakuni monarchy was abolished and Nakhchivan was annexed by Sassanid Persia. In 623, possession of the region was soon left to its own rule. Sebeos referred to the area as Tachkastan. Nakhchivan is said by his pupil, Koriun Vardapet, to be the place where the Armenian scholar and theologian Mesrob Mashtots finished the creation of the Armenian Alphabet and opened the first Armenian schools, it happened in the province of Gokhtan. From 640 on, the Arabs invaded Nakhchivan an
Lake Sevan is the largest body of water in Armenia and the Caucasus region. It is one of the largest freshwater high-altitude lakes in Eurasia; the lake is situated at an altitude of 1,900 m above sea level. The total surface area of its basin is about 5,000 km2; the lake itself is 1,242 km2, the volume is 32.8 km3. It streams. Only 10 % of the incoming water is drained by the Hrazdan River; the lake provides 80 % of the crayfish catch of Armenia. Sevan has significant economic and recreational value, its only island is home to a medieval monastery. Sevan was exploited for irrigation of the Ararat plain and hydroelectric power generation during the Soviet period, its water level decreased by around 20 m and its volume reduced by more than 40%. Two tunnels were built to divert water from highland rivers, which halted its decline and its level began rising. Before human intervention changed the lake's ecosystem, the lake was 95 m deep, covered an area of 1,416 km2, had a volume of 58.5 km3. The lake's surface was at an altitude of 1,916 m above sea level.
The scholarly consensus is that the word Sevan originated from the Urartian word suna translated as "lake". The term is found on an 8th-century BC cuneiform inscription by the Urartian king Rusa I, found in Odzaberd, on the southern shore of the lake. Per folk etymology, Sevan is either a combination of sev + Van or sev and vank’. Russian and European sources of the 19th and early 20th century sometimes referred to the lake as Sevanga or Sevang, it is the Russified version of the Armenian sev vank’ or derives from the Armenian phrase սա է վանքը sa ē vank'ə. Since antiquity up to the Middle Ages, Sevan was known as a sea and referred to in Armenian as the Sea of Gegham. In classical antiquity, the lake was known as Lychnitis; the historic Georgian name of the lake is Gelakuni. The name Gokcha appeared in Russian and European sources during the 19th and early 20th century. Along with Lake Van and Lake Urmia, Sevan is considered one of the three great "seas" of historic Armenia, it is the only one within the boundaries of present-day Republic of Armenia, while the other two are located in Turkey and Iran, respectively.
Lake Sevan is considered the "jewel" of Armenia and is "recognized as a national treasure" in the country. The 2001 Law on Lake Sevan defines the lake as "a strategic ecosystem valuable for its environmental, social, cultural, medical, climatic and spiritual value." Naturalist and traveler Friedrich Parrot, best known for ascending Mount Ararat in 1829 for the first time in history, wrote that, It is important for the Armenian economy: being the main source of irrigation water, Sevan provides low-cost electricity, fish and tourism. Sevan originated during the early Quaternary when a Palaeo-Sevan, ten times larger than the present lake, came into existence by tectonic formation; the current lake was formed some 25 to 30 thousand years ago. Sevan was recognized as being a major potential water resource in the 19th century, its high attitude location relative to the fertile Ararat plain and limited energy resources attracted engineers to explore ways of usage of the lake's water. In his 1910 book, Armenian engineer Sukias Manasserian proposed to use Sevan's water for irrigation and hydroelectric power generation.
He proposed draining the lake by 50 m. Major Sevan would dry out, while Minor Sevan would have a surface area of 240 km2. Manasserian's proposal was adopted by the Soviet authorities in the 1930s when, under Joseph Stalin, the country was undergoing rapid industrialization. Works on the project started in 1933; the riverbed of Hrazdan was deepened thorough excavation. A tunnel was bored around 40 metres under the lake's surface; the tunnel was completed in 1949 and thereafter the Sevan's level began to drop at a rate over 1 metre per year. The water was used for irrigation and the Sevan–Hrazdan Cascade of six hydroelectric power stations on Hrazdan River. During the second half of the 20th century, the ecological condition of Lake Sevan underwent tangible changes and vast degradation due to reduced water level, increased eutrophication, detrimental impact of human activity on the biological diversity of the lake. According to Babayan et al. the lake level dropped by 19.88 m by 2002, while the volume decreased by 43.8%.
Due to the water level decrease, the quality of the water deteriorated, natural habitats were destroyed that meant loss of biodiversity. Vardanian wrote that drop of the lake level and the economic development in the basin brought about the change in hydro-chemical regime of the lake; the quality of the water deteriorated, water turbidity increased. The inner circulation of the water constituents as well as the circulation of the biological substances altered. According to Babayan et al. "by the 1950s it had become evident that the ecological and economic consenquences of extensive exploitation of the water of Lake Sevan were too undesirable to continue in the same way." In 1964 a project began to divert the Arpa River through a 49
Getik is a river in Armenia, the right tributary of the Aghstev River. It begins on the eastern slope of the Sevan ridge near the apex Kashatakh. Average incline of 31,9 m/km. Nourishment is predominantly snow-rain. Waters are used for the irrigation. On the coasts in the upper flow of river is located Chambarak city, in the lower flow on by its right to coast - Dilijan preserve
The Akhurian, Akhuryan or Akhouryan is a river in the South Caucasus. It originates in Armenia and flows from Lake Arpi, along the closed border with Turkey, forming part of the geographic border between the two states, until it flows into the Aras River as a left tributary near Bagaran; the Akhurian has total length of 186 kilometres. Gyumri, the second largest city of Armenia, is located on the east bank of the river, which flows past four of the twelve historical capitals of Armenia: Ani, Bagaran and Yerazgavors; when the Byzantine army arrived in the province of Shirak in 1041, local Armenian nobles assembled together against them under the command of the Pahlavuni general Vahram Pahlavouni. Vahram selected a body of 30,000 infantry and 20,000 cavalry, forming three divisions, which fought against the Byzantines. A battle ensued; the fight was so ferocious that the effusion of blood flowing into the Akhurian River is said to have coloured its waters red. The Byzantines left 21,000 dead behind.
This victory allowed Vahram Pahlavuni along with Catholicos Petros Guedadarts to crown Gagik II king of Armenia and subsequently take the fortress of Ani, in the hands of Vest Sarkis. Several medieval bridges once existed over the Akhurian River; the bridge at Ani may date back to the Bagratuni Dynasty. More it dates to the thirteenth century. An inscription found nearby said that building work was done on the approach to the bridge in the early fourteenth century; the bridge's single arch has fallen, leaving only tall abutments that were part of a fortified gate. Nineteenth-century travelers reported a guardhouse next to the bridge, but this has since disappeared. Geography of Armenia Geography of Turkey Rivers and lakes in Armenia
Getar spelled Gedar, is a small river in Armenia that flows through Kotayk Province and central parts of the capital Yerevan. It originates near the village of Mayakovski at the western parts of Gegham mountains, flows through Avan-Arinj and joins Hrazdan River at the outskirts of Yerevan, its length is about 24 kilometres. In 1664, a bridge was built on the Getar river near the old Nork district in the opposing side of the entrance to Yerevan Zoo; the structure was built by an architect named Grigor with the financial support of vardapet Hovhannes of Nork. The bridge held a great significance in the past because it served as the only way of crossing from the north to Yerevan, it was one of the few buildings in the area to survive the devastating earthquake in 1679. Under the Soviet rule in the 1950s, the bridge was granted state protection; the bridge stands 7 meters high. There have been several mudflows of the Getar throughout history, the most notable of these occurred in 1860, 1866, 1873, 1912, 1923, 1924, 1946, 1947 and 1950.
The most recent serious mudflow of Getar occurred on May 25, 1946. The mudflow "caused serious destruction to the city. Around 800 houses were destroyed and another 630 were damaged"; the flood lasted for five and half hours. It involved Alaverdyan and Abovyan streets and left about 200 casualties. After the flood, the locals were surprised to find rocks measuring 2 to 3 meters in diameter deposited in the streets. During the 1950s, a series of hydro-technical and afforestation projects were implemented including a tunnel linking the Getar to Hrazdan River to prevent future mudflows in Yerevan
Azerbaijan the Republic of Azerbaijan, is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia at the crossroads of Eastern Europe and Western Asia. It is bounded by the Caspian Sea to the east, Russia to the north, Georgia to the northwest, Armenia to the west and Iran to the south; the exclave of Nakhchivan is bounded by Armenia to the north and east, Iran to the south and west, has an 11 km long border with Turkey in the northwest. The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic proclaimed its independence in 1918 and became the first democratic Muslim state. In 1920 the country was incorporated into the Soviet Union as the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic; the modern Republic of Azerbaijan proclaimed its independence on 30 August 1991, shortly before the dissolution of the USSR in the same year. In September 1991, the Armenian majority of the disputed Nagorno-Karabakh region seceded to form the Republic of Artsakh; the region and seven adjacent districts outside it became de facto independent with the end of the Nagorno-Karabakh War in 1994.
These regions are internationally recognized as part of Azerbaijan pending a solution to the status of the Nagorno-Karabakh through negotiations facilitated by the OSCE. Azerbaijan is a unitary semi-presidential republic, it is one of six independent Turkic states and an active member of the Turkic Council and the TÜRKSOY community. Azerbaijan has diplomatic relations with 158 countries and holds membership in 38 international organizations, including the United Nations, the Council of Europe, the Non-Aligned Movement, the OSCE, the NATO Partnership for Peace program, it is one of the founding members of GUAM, the Commonwealth of Independent States and the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons. Azerbaijan holds observer status in the World Trade Organization. While more than 89% of the population is Shia Muslim, the Constitution of Azerbaijan does not declare an official religion and all major political forces in the country are secularist. Azerbaijan has a high level of human development that ranks on par with most Eastern European countries.
It has a high rate of economic literacy, as well as a low rate of unemployment. However, the ruling party, the New Azerbaijan Party, has been accused of authoritarianism and human rights abuses. According to a modern etymology, the term Azerbaijan derives from that of Atropates, a Persian satrap under the Achaemenid Empire, reinstated as the satrap of Media under Alexander the Great; the original etymology of this name is thought to have its roots in the once-dominant Zoroastrianism. In the Avesta's Frawardin Yasht, there is a mention of âterepâtahe ashaonô fravashîm ýazamaide, which translates from Avestan as "we worship the fravashi of the holy Atropatene." The name "Atropates" itself is the Greek transliteration of an Old Iranian Median, compounded name with the meaning "Protected by the Fire" or "The Land of the Fire". The Greek name was mentioned by Diodorus Strabo. Over the span of millennia, the name evolved to Āturpātākān to Ādharbādhagān, Ādharbāyagān, Āzarbāydjān and present-day Azerbaijan.
The name Azerbaijan was first adopted for the area of the present-day Republic of Azerbaijan by the government of Musavat in 1918, after the collapse of the Russian Empire, when the independent Azerbaijan Democratic Republic was established. Until the designation had been used to identify the adjacent region of contemporary northwestern Iran, while the area of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic was referred to as Arran and Shirvan. On that basis Iran protested the newly adopted country name. During the Soviet rule, the country was spelled in English from the Russian transliteration as Azerbaydzhan; the earliest evidence of human settlement in the territory of Azerbaijan dates back to the late Stone Age and is related to the Guruchay culture of Azokh Cave. The Upper Paleolithic and late Bronze Age cultures are attested in the caves of Tağılar, Damcılı, Yataq-yeri and in the necropolises of Leylatepe and Saraytepe. Early settlements included the Scythians in the 9th century BC. Following the Scythians, Iranian Medes came to dominate the area to the south of the Aras.
The Medes forged a vast empire between 900–700 BC, integrated into the Achaemenid Empire around 550 BC. The area was conquered by the Achaemenids leading to the spread of Zoroastrianism, it became part of Alexander the Great's Empire and its successor, the Seleucid Empire. During this period, Zoroastrianism spread in the Atropatene. Caucasian Albanians, the original inhabitants of northeastern Azerbaijan, ruled that area from around the 4th century BC, established an independent kingdom; the Sasanian Empire turned Caucasian Albania into a vassal state in 252, while King Urnayr adopted Christianity as the state religion in the 4th century. Despite Sassanid rule, Albania remained an entity in the region until the 9th century, while subordinate to Sassanid Iran, retained its monarchy. Despite being one of the chief vassals of the Sasanian emperor, the Albanian king had only a semblance of authority, the Sasanian marzban held most civil and military authority. In the first half of the 7th century, Caucasian Albania, as a vassal of the Sasanians, came under nominal Muslim rule due to the Muslim conquest of Persia.
The Umayyad Caliphate repulsed both the Sasanians and Byzantines from Transcaucasia and turned Caucasian Albania into a vassal state after Christian resistance led by Kin