Arpi is a town in the Vayots Dzor Province of Armenia. Vayots Dzor Province Arpi, Armenia at GEOnet Names Server World Gazeteer: Armenia – World-Gazetteer.com Report of the results of the 2001 Armenian Census, National Statistical Service of the Republic of Armenia
Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography
The Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, first published in 1854, was the last of a series of classical dictionaries edited by the English scholar William Smith, which included as sister works A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities and the Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. As declared by Smith in the Preface: "The Dictionary of Geography... is designed to illustrate the Greek and Roman writers, to enable a diligent student to read them in the most profitable manner". The book stays up to the description: in two massive volumes the dictionary provides detailed coverage of all the important countries, towns, geographical features that occur in Greek and Roman literature, without forgetting those mentioned in the Bible; the work was last reissued in 2005. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology Smith, William; the Quarterly Review. 99: 415–451. September 1856. Via Google Book Search: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, Vol.
I: Abacaenum – Hytanis Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, Vol. II Iabadius – Zymethus The Internet Archive has a number of editions including: Smith, William. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. 1. Boston: Little, Brown. Smith, William. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. 2. London: Walton and Mayberly. Smith, William. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, Vol. II Iabadius – Zymethus. 2. London: Walton and Mayberly. Smith, William. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. 1. Boston: Little, Brown. Smith, William. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. 2. London: John Murray. Works related to Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography at Wikisource
Samnium is a Latin exonym for a region of Southern Italy anciently inhabited by the Samnites. Their own endonyms were Safineis for the people; the language of these endonyms and of the population was the Oscan language. However, not all the Samnites spoke Oscan, not all the Oscan-speakers lived in Samnium; the ancient geographers were unable to relay a precise definition of Samnium's borders. Moreover, the areas it included vary depending on the time period considered; the main configurations are the borders it had during the floruit of the Oscan speakers, from about 600 BC to about 290 BC, when it was absorbed by the Roman Republic. This originary Samnium should not be confused with the territory of the same name. Rome's first Emperor, divided Italy into 11 regions. Although these entities only served administrative purposes, were identified with the sole numeral, by scholarly convention the Regio IV has been dubbed "Samnium". Ancient Samnium had been split up into three of the Augustan regions.
Modern Italian language has borrowed the name "Sannio" to indicate only a small portion of what it once was - informally, the Province of Benevento only. Etymologically the name Samnium is recognized to be a form of the name of the Sabines, who were Umbrians. From Safinim, Sabinus and Samnis an Indo-European root can be extracted, *sabh-, which becomes Sab- in Latino-Faliscan and Saf- in Osco-Umbrian: Sabini and *Safineis; the eponymous god of the Sabines, seems to support this view. The Greek terms and Saunitis, remain outside the group. Nothing is known of their origin. At some point in prehistory, a population speaking a common language extended over both Samnium and Umbria. Salmon conjectures that it was common Italic and puts forward a date of 600 BC, after which the common language began to dialectize; this date does not correspond to any historical or archaeological evidence. The linguist, Julius Pokorny, carries the etymology somewhat further back. Conjecturing that the -a- was altered from an -o- during some prehistoric residence in Illyria he derives the names from an o-grade extension *swo-bho- of an extended e-grade *swe-bho- of the possessive adjective, *swe-, of the reflexive pronoun, *se-, "oneself".
The result is a set of Indo-European tribal names: Semnones, Suiones. The general concept is "our own kith and kin," Pokorny's "von eigener Art," "Gesamtheit der eigenen Leute," "Liebe," "Sippegenossen," "Sippenangehörigen," and the like. Samnium lay on the Apennine area; the principal cities of the region were Bovaiamom, renamed Bovianum by Latins and Maleventum, renamed Beneventum by the Romans. For most of their history the Samnites were landlocked, but during a brief period they controlled parts of both coasts of the Italian peninsula; the Samnites were composed of at least four tribes: the Pentri, the Caraceni, the Caudini and the Hirpini. They may have been joined by the Frentani; the federal capital of the League they formed was Bovianum, except for a short period between the 4th and 3rd centuries BC, when it was Aquilonia, destroyed by the Romans in 293 BC, whose probable location today is modern Agnone, in Molise. The earliest written record of the people is a treaty with the Romans from 354 BC, which set their border at the Liris River.
Shortly thereafter the Samnite Wars broke out. By 290 BC, the Romans were able to break the Samnites' power after some hard-fought battles; the Samnites were one of the Italian peoples that allied with King Pyrrhus of Epirus during the Pyrrhic War. After Pyrrhus left for Sicily, the Romans invaded Samnium and were crushed at the Battle of the Cranita hills, but after the defeat of Pyrrhus, the Samnites could not resist on their own and surrendered to Rome; some of the Samnites joined and aided Hannibal during the Second Punic War. The Samnites and several other Italic people rebelled against Rome and started the Social War, after Romans refused to grant them Roman Citizenship; the war lasted three years, resulted in a Roman victory. However and other Italic tribes were granted Roman citizenship, to avoid another war; the Samnites supported the Marian party in the civil war against Lucius Cornelius Sulla, by 82 BC, the Roman dictator Sulla conducted an ethnic cleansing campaign against this most stubborn and persistent of Rome's adversaries and forced the remnant to disperse.
So great was the destruction brought upon them that it was recorded that "some of their cities have now dwindled into villages, some indeed being deserted." After this the Samnites were assimilated into the Roman society. Gaius Pontius ca. 320s BC Gellius Egnatius ca. 296 BC Gaius Papius Mutilus 90-89 with: Ponti
Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition
The Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication; some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopedia, containing 40,000 entries, is now in the public domain, many of its articles have been used as a basis for articles in Wikipedia. However, the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic; some articles have special value and interest to modern scholars as cultural artifacts of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The 1911 eleventh edition was assembled with the management of American publisher Horace Everett Hooper. Hugh Chisholm, who had edited the previous edition, was appointed editor in chief, with Walter Alison Phillips as his principal assistant editor. Hooper bought the rights to the 25-volume 9th edition and persuaded the British newspaper The Times to issue its reprint, with eleven additional volumes as the tenth edition, published in 1902.
Hooper's association with The Times ceased in 1909, he negotiated with the Cambridge University Press to publish the 29-volume eleventh edition. Though it is perceived as a quintessentially British work, the eleventh edition had substantial American influences, not only in the increased amount of American and Canadian content, but in the efforts made to make it more popular. American marketing methods assisted sales; some 14% of the contributors were from North America, a New York office was established to coordinate their work. The initials of the encyclopedia's contributors appear at the end of selected articles or at the end of a section in the case of longer articles, such as that on China, a key is given in each volume to these initials; some articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time, such as Edmund Gosse, J. B. Bury, Algernon Charles Swinburne, John Muir, Peter Kropotkin, T. H. Huxley, James Hopwood Jeans and William Michael Rossetti. Among the lesser-known contributors were some who would become distinguished, such as Ernest Rutherford and Bertrand Russell.
Many articles were carried over from some with minimal updating. Some of the book-length articles were divided into smaller parts for easier reference, yet others much abridged; the best-known authors contributed only a single article or part of an article. Most of the work was done by British Museum scholars and other scholars; the 1911 edition was the first edition of the encyclopædia to include more than just a handful of female contributors, with 34 women contributing articles to the edition. The eleventh edition introduced a number of changes of the format of the Britannica, it was the first to be published complete, instead of the previous method of volumes being released as they were ready. The print type was subject to continual updating until publication, it was the first edition of Britannica to be issued with a comprehensive index volume in, added a categorical index, where like topics were listed. It was the first not to include long treatise-length articles. Though the overall length of the work was about the same as that of its predecessor, the number of articles had increased from 17,000 to 40,000.
It was the first edition of Britannica to include biographies of living people. Sixteen maps of the famous 9th edition of Stielers Handatlas were translated to English, converted to Imperial units, printed in Gotha, Germany by Justus Perthes and became part this edition. Editions only included Perthes' great maps as low quality reproductions. According to Coleman and Simmons, the content of the encyclopedia was distributed as follows: Hooper sold the rights to Sears Roebuck of Chicago in 1920, completing the Britannica's transition to becoming a American publication. In 1922, an additional three volumes, were published, covering the events of the intervening years, including World War I. These, together with a reprint of the eleventh edition, formed the twelfth edition of the work. A similar thirteenth edition, consisting of three volumes plus a reprint of the twelfth edition, was published in 1926, so the twelfth and thirteenth editions were related to the eleventh edition and shared much of the same content.
However, it became apparent that a more thorough update of the work was required. The fourteenth edition, published in 1929, was revised, with much text eliminated or abridged to make room for new topics; the eleventh edition was the basis of every version of the Encyclopædia Britannica until the new fifteenth edition was published in 1974, using modern information presentation. The eleventh edition's articles are still of value and interest to modern readers and scholars as a cultural artifact: the British Empire was at its maximum, imperialism was unchallenged, much of the world was still ruled by monarchs, the tragedy of the modern world wars was still in the future, they are an invaluable resource for topics omitted from modern encyclopedias for biography and the history of science and technology. As a literary text, the encyclopedia has value as an example of early 20th-century prose. For example, it employs literary devices, such as pathetic fallacy, which are not as common in modern reference texts.
In 1917, using the pseudonym of S. S. Van Dine, the US art critic and author Willard Huntington Wright published Misinforming a Nation, a 200+
Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus
Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus, surnamed Cunctator, was a Roman statesman and general of the third century BC. He was consul five times and was appointed dictator in 221 and 217 BC, he was censor in 230 BC. His agnomen, Cunctator translated as "the delayer", refers to the strategy that he employed against Hannibal's forces during the Second Punic War. Facing an outstanding commander with superior numbers, he pursued a then-novel strategy of targeting the enemy's supply lines, accepting only smaller engagements on favourable ground, rather than risking his entire army on direct confrontation with Hannibal himself; as a result, he is regarded as the originator of many tactics used in guerrilla warfare. Born at Rome c. 280 BC, Fabius was a descendant of the ancient patrician Fabia gens. He was the son or grandson of Quintus Fabius Maximus Gurges, three times consul and princeps senatus, grandson or great-grandson of Quintus Fabius Maximus Rullianus, a hero of the Samnite Wars, who like Verrucosus held five consulships, as well as the offices of dictator and censor.
Many earlier ancestors had been consuls. His cognomen, Verrucosus, or "warty", used to distinguish him from other members of his family, derived from a wart on his upper lip. According to Plutarch, Fabius possessed a mild temper and slowness in speaking; as a child, he had difficulties in learning, engaged in sports with other children cautiously and appeared submissive in his interactions with others. All the above were perceived by those. However, according to Plutarch, these traits proceeded from stability, greatness of mind, lion-likeness of temper. By the time he was roused by active life, his virtues exerted themselves. While still a youth in 265 BC, Fabius was consecrated an augur, it is unknown whether he participated in the First Punic War, fought between the Roman Republic and Carthage from 264 to 241 BC, or what his role might have been. Fabius' political career began in the years following that war, he was quaestor in 237 or 236 BC, curule aedile about 235. During his first consulship, in 233 BC, Fabius was awarded a triumph for his victory over the Ligurians, whom he defeated and drove into the Alps.
He was censor in 230 consul a second time in 228. It is possible that he held the office of dictator for a first time around this time: according to Livy, Fabius's tenure of the dictatorship in 217 was his second term in that office, with Gaius Flaminius as his deputy and magister equitum during the first term: however Plutarch suggests that Flaminius was deputy instead to Marcus Minucius Rufus - Fabius's great political rival of that name, who served as deputy to Fabius himself, it is of course possible that Flaminius was successively deputy to both, after Minucius's premature deposition following bad augural omens: and possible that little of note was accomplished during either dictatorship. According to Livy, in 218 BC Fabius took part in an embassy to Carthage, sent to demand redress for the capture of the neutral town of Saguntum in Spain. After the delegation had received the Carthaginians' reply, it was Fabius himself who, addressing the Carthaginian senate, issued a formal declaration of war between Carthage and the Roman Republic.
However, Cassius Dio, followed by Zonaras, calls the ambassador Marcus Fabius, suggesting that it was his cousin, Marcus Fabius Buteo, who issued the declaration of war against the Carthaginians. When the Consul Gaius Flaminius was killed during the disastrous Roman defeat at the Battle of Lake Trasimene in 217 BC, panic swept Rome. With Consular armies destroyed in two major battles, Hannibal approaching Rome's gates, the Romans feared the imminent destruction of their city; the Roman Senate decided to appoint a dictator, chose Fabius for the role - for the second time, though evidence of a previous term seems to be conflicting - in part due to his advanced age and experience. However, he was not allowed to appoint his own Master of the Horse. Fabius sought to calm the Roman people by asserting himself as a strong Dictator at the moment of what was perceived to be the worst crisis in Roman history, he asked the Senate to allow him to ride on horseback. He caused himself to be accompanied by the full complement of twenty-four lictors, ordered the surviving Consul, Gnaeus Servilius Geminus, to dismiss his lictors, to present himself before Fabius as a private citizen.
Plutarch tells us that Fabius believed that the disaster at Lake Trasimene was due, in part, to the fact that the gods had become neglected. Before that battle, a series of omens had been witnessed, including a series of lightning bolts, which Fabius had believed were warnings from the gods, he had warned Flaminius of this. And so Fabius, as Dictator, next sought to please the gods, he ordered a massive sacrifice of the whole product of the next harvest season throughout Italy, in particular that of cows, goats and sheep. In addition, he ordered that musical festivities be celebrated, told his fellow citizens to each spend a precise sum of 333 sestertii and 333 denarii. Plutarch isn't sure how Fabius came up with this number, although he believes it was to honor the perfection of the number three
Apulia is a region in Southern Italy bordering the Adriatic Sea to the east, the Ionian Sea to the southeast, the Strait of Otranto and Gulf of Taranto to the south. The region comprises 19,345 square kilometers, its population is about four million, it is bordered by the other Italian regions of Molise to the north, Campania to the west, Basilicata to the southwest. Across the Adriatic and Ionian Seas, it faces Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia and Montenegro, its capital city is Bari. Apulia's coastline is longer than that of any other mainland Italian region. In the north, the Gargano promontory extends out into the Adriatic like a'sperone', while in the south, the Salento peninsula forms the'tacco' of Italy's boot; the highest peak in the region is Mount Cornacchia within the Daunian Mountains, in the north along the Apennines. It is home to the Alta Murgia National Park and Gargano National Park. Outside of national parks in the North and West, most of Apulia and Salento is geographically flat with only moderate hills.
The climate is mediterranean with hot and sunny summers and mild, rainy winters. Snowfall on the coast is rare but has occurred as as January 2019. Apulia is among the hottest and driest regions of Italy in summer with temperatures sometimes reaching up to and above 40 °C in Lecce and Foggia; the coastal areas on the Adriatic and in the southern Salento region are exposed to winds of varying strengths and directions affecting local temperatures and conditions, sometimes within the same day. The Northerly Bora wind from the Adriatic can lower temperatures and moderate summer heat while the Southerly Sirocco wind from North Africa can raise temperatures and drop red dust from the Sahara. On some days in spring and autumn, it can be warm enough to swim in Gallipoli and Porto Cesareo on the Ionian coast while at the same time, cool winds warrant jackets and sweaters in Monopoli and Otranto on the Adriatic coast. Apulia is one of the richest archaeological regions in Italy, it was first colonized by Mycenaean Greeks.
A number of castles were built in the area by Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II, including Castel del Monte, sometimes called the "Crown of Apulia". After 1282, when the island of Sicily was lost, Apulia was part of the Kingdom of Naples, remained so until the unification of Italy in the 1860s; this kingdom was independent under the House of Anjou from 1282 to 1442 was part of Aragon until 1458, after which it was again independent under a cadet branch of the House of Trastámara until 1501. As a result of the French–Spanish war of 1501–1504, Naples again came under the rule of Aragon and the Spanish Empire from 1504 to 1714; when Barbary pirates of North Africa sacked Vieste in 1554, they took an estimated 7,000 slaves. The coast of Apulia was occupied at times at other times by the Venetians. In 1861 the region became part of the Kingdom of Italy, with the new capital city at Turin. In the words of one historian, Turin was "so far away that Otranto is today closer to seventeen foreign capitals than it is to Turin".
The region's contribution to Italy's gross value added was around 4.6% in 2000, while its population was 7% of the total. The per capita GDP is low compared to the national average and represents about 68.1% of the EU average. The share of gross value added by the agricultural and services sectors was above the national average in 2000; the region has industries specialising in particular areas, including food processing and vehicles in Foggia. Between 2007 and 2013 the economy of Apulia expanded more than that of the rest of southern Italy; such growth, over several decades, is a severe challenge to the hydrogeological system. Apulia's thriving economy is articulated into numerous sectors boasting several leading companies: Aerospace; the unemployment rate was higher than the national average. There is an estimated 50 to 60 million olive trees in Puglia and the region accounts for 40% of Italy's olive oil production. There are four specific Protected Designation of Origin covering the whole region.
Olive varieties include: Baresane, Brandofino, Carolea, Cellina di Nardò, Cerignola, Cima di Bitonto, Cima di Mola, Coratina grown in Corning, CA. A 2018 Gold Medal New York International Olive Oil Competition winner, Garganica, La Minuta, Moresca, Nocellara Etnea, Nocellara Messinese, Ogliarola Barese, Ogliara Messinese, Peranzana, produced as "Certified Ultra-Premium Extra Virgin Olive Oil", Santagatese, Tonda Iblea, Verdello. There has been an issue of marketed "extra pure" olive oil being imported from Spain, the Balkans and Tunisia; this includes the use of rectified lampante, being allowed due to a controversial 1995 law. The olive oil industry in Puglia is under threat from the pathogen Xy
Foggia is a city and comune of Apulia, in southern Italy, capital of the province of Foggia. In 2013 its population was 153,143. Foggia is the main city of a plain called Tavoliere known as the "granary of Italy"; the name "Foggia" might derive from Latin "fovea", meaning "pit", referring to the pits where wheat was stored. The name's etymology remains uncertain however, as it could as well stem from "Phocaea", or most from the Medieval Greek word for "fire", "fotia", as according to legend the original -11th-c-AD- settlers were peasants after having discovered there a panel portraying the Madonna, on which three flames burnt; the area had been settled since Neolithic times, on a Greek colony known as Argos Hippium existed nearby. However the first document attesting the existence of the modern city dates from circa 1000 AD, during the catepanate era of Byzantine sovereignty; the area remained marshy and unhealthy, until Robert Guiscard directed draining the wetland, boosting the economic and social growth of the city.
The city was the seat of Henry, Count of Monte Sant'Angelo during the last twenty years of the 11th century. In the 12th century, William II of Sicily built a cathedral here and further enlarged the settlement. Frederick II had a palace built in Foggia in 1223, in which he sojourned, it was seat of his court and a studium, including notable figures such as the mathematician and scholar Michael Scot, but little of it remains now. In 1447, King Alfonso V of Aragon built a Custom Palace to tax the local sheep farmers; this caused a decline of the local economy and the progressive ruin of the land, which again became marshy. In 1456, an earthquake struck Foggia, followed by others in 1534, 1627 and 1731, the last destroying one third of the city; the House of Bourbon promoted a certain economic growth by boosting the cereal agriculture of Capitanata and rebuilding much of the settlement. In the 19th century, Foggia received important public monuments; the citizens took part in the riots which led to the annexation to Italy in 1861.
By 1865, there was a definitive shift from the custom of sheep farming in favour of an agricultural economy. During World War II, Foggia bombed by the Allied air forces for its important airfields and marshalling yards. After the armistice of Cassibile on 8 September 1943, the town was occupied by German troops in Operation Achse. There was some fighting there during the Allied invasion of Italy. In response to the Allied advance towards them, the German troops occupying Foggia abandoned the city on the 27th of September. By the 1st of October British troops had occupied the city. In order to clear the Germans from the hills north and west of the Fogia plain and to reach the Vinchiaturo-Termoli road near the Biferno River, Britain's General Montgomery sent his British 13th Corps beyond Foggia on a two division drive, the 78th Division moved on the coastal road to Termoli and the 1st Canadian Division struck inland through the mountains. 5th Corps followed, protecting the rear. The German 1st parachute division had withdrawn to the Biferno River near Termoli and dug in.
Based out of Foggia, the British launched Operation Devon and succeeded in dislodging the Nazi German forces from Termoli. The historical lack of water resources was solved with the construction of the Apulian aqueduct in 1924, when Foggia was an important hub between northern and southern Italy. On 1 October 1943, the British 8th Army liberated Foggia, making it a stronghold of their slow offensive towards the north of the peninsula. In 1959 and 2006, Foggia received the Gold Medal for Civil and Military value for its role in World War II; the makers of the well-known American TV sitcom All in the Family included in the biography of the main character Archie Bunker a World War II service at Foggia, in the ranks of the United States Army Air Corps. Foggia has hot Mediterranean climate. Winter days can be as cool as single figures. Low temperatures are above freezing, but frosts are experienced a handful of times a year. Summers are hot, with temperatures in July and August reaching 33–38 °C. Temperatures exceed 40 °C a handful of times a decade.
Extremes are −10.4 °C on 8 January 1985 and 47 °C - the highest temperature recorded in Italy and one of the highest recorded in Europe - on 25 June 2007. The cathedral of Santa Maria de Fovea, directly linked with the patron saint "Madonna dei Sette Veli" This important site has two levels of architectural style; the lower part is Romanic as with many Pugliese churches. The upper part is a remarkable example of Baroque; the upper part was reconstructed after an earthquake that destroyed a great part of the historical centre. Palazzo Dogana, the historical seat of the sheep custom. On July 2013 this Palace was elected by UNESCO as "Messenger Monument of the Culture of Peace" for the important role it had in the cultural exchanges during centuries. Chiesa delle Croci. I Tre Archi. Arco di Federico II. Archaeological park of Passo di Corvo, it is the main wheat market of Southern Italy. Foggia is famous for its tomatoes. Although less important than once before, the agricultural sector remains the mainstay of Foggia's economy.
This area is nicknamed the "granary of Italy". The few industries present are devoted to food processing. Craftsman