Dirty rice is a traditional Creole dish made from white rice which gets a "dirty" color from being cooked with small pieces of pork, beef or chicken, green bell pepper and onion, spiced with cayenne and black pepper. Parsley and chopped green onions are common garnishes. Dirty rice is most common in the Creole regions of southern Louisiana. In some southern regions, it is called rice dressing. Rice dressing may be prepared using ground beef or ground pork, rather than chicken liver and giblets. List of rice dishes
The Indonesian rijsttafel, a Dutch word that translates to "rice table", is an elaborate meal adapted by the Dutch following the hidang presentation of nasi Padang from the Padang region of West Sumatra. It consists of many side dishes served in small portions, accompanied by rice prepared in several different ways. Popular side dishes include egg rolls, satay, fruit, vegetables and nuts. In most areas where it is served, such as the Netherlands, other areas of heavy Dutch influence, it is known under its Dutch name. Although the dishes served are undoubtedly Indonesian, the rijsttafel’s origins were colonial; the Dutch introduced the rice table not only so they could enjoy a wide array of dishes at a single setting but to impress visitors with the exotic abundance of their colony. Rijsttafels strive to feature an array of not only flavors and colors and degrees of spiciness but textures, an aspect, not discussed in Western food; such textures may include crispy, slippery, hard, velvety and runny.
The rijsttafel was created to provide a festive and official type of banquet that would represent the multi-ethnic nature of the Indonesian archipelago. Dishes were assembled from many of the far flung regions of Indonesia, where many different cuisines exist determined by ethnicity and culture of the particular island or island group — from Javanese favourite sateh and seroendeng, to vegetarian cuisine gado-gado and lodeh with sambal lalab from Batavia and Preanger. From spicy rendang and gulai curry from the Minangkabau region in Sumatra, to East Indies ubiquitous dishes nasi goreng, soto ayam, kroepoek crackers. Indonesian dishes from hybrid influences, and there are many others from the hundreds of inhabited islands, which contain more than 300 regional and ethnic language groups. During its centuries of popularity in Dutch East Indies, lines of servants or sarong-clad waitresses ceremoniously served the marathon meal on platters laden with steaming bowls of fragrant foods; the first to be served was a cone-shaped pile of rice on a large platter, which the server placed in the center of the table.
The servers surrounded the rice platter with as many as 40 small bowls holding meat and vegetable dishes as well as condiments. During its colonial heyday, the most celebrated rijsttafel in the Indies was served for Sunday luncheon at the Hotel des Indes in Batavia and the Savoy Homann Hotel in Bandung, where the rice was accompanied by sixty different dishes. Brought back to the Netherlands by former colonials and exiled Indonesians and Indo-Europeans after Indonesia gained its independence in 1945, the rijsttafel was predominantly popular with Dutch families with colonial roots. On the other hand, when Indonesia proclaimed its independence in 1945, nationalist sentiment promoted the rejection of Dutch colonial culture and customs, including the flamboyant rice table. Today, the rice table has disappeared from Indonesia's restaurants and is served only by a handful of fine-dining restaurants in Indonesia. More of a banquet than a regular meal, the rijsttafel has survived Indonesia's independence, composed as it is of indigenous Indonesian dishes, is served in some mainstream restaurants in Indonesia.
A typical rijsttafel will have several dining tables covered with different dishes. Since about 1990, Indonesian food has become part of a mainstream interest in South East Asian cuisine, there has been a proliferation of Indonesian restaurants in the Netherlands; the following is a brief, but not nearly complete, list of examples of foods that may be found on a rijsttafel: Babi kecap – Pork belly braised in sweet soy sauce common in the Netherlands. That is because most Indonesian meals consist of rice accompanied by only one, two or three dishes consisting of lauk and other side dishes. To consume more than that number of dishes at once is considered too extravagant and too expensive; the closest versions to rice table dishes available in Indonesia are local nasi Padang and nasi campur. However, in Indonesian restaurants around the world in the Netherlands and South Africa, the rijsttafel is still popular. Today only a handful of
Jollof rice or just jollof called Benachin, is a one-pot rice dish popular in many West African countries. Jollof rice is one of the most common dishes in Western Africa, consumed throughout the regions of Nigeria, Ghana, Sierra Leone, Togo, Mali, Ivory Coast and Cameroon. In West Africa it is a common favorite at ceremonies such as weddings and birthday. There are several regional variations in name and ingredients. In Mali it is called zaamè in Bamanankan, is a typical Sunday lunchtime favorite in urban, middle-class families; the name Jollof derives from the name of the Wolof people, though in Senegal and Gambia the dish is referred to in Wolof as ceebu jën or benachin. In French-speaking areas, it is called riz au gras. Despite the variations, the dish is "mutually intelligible" across the region, has spread along with the diaspora to become the best known African dish outside the continent.. Based on its name, the origins of jollof rice can be traced to the Senegambian region, ruled by the Jolof Empire.
Food and agriculture historian James C. McCann considers this claim plausible given the popularity of rice in the upper Niger valley, but considers it unlikely that the dish could have spread from Senegal to its current range since such a diffusion is not seen in "linguistic, historical or political patterns". Instead he proposes that the dish spread with the Mali empire the Djula tradespeople who dispersed to the regional commercial and urban centers, taking with them economic arts of "blacksmithing, small-scale marketing, rice agronomy" as well as the religion of Islam. Marc Dufumier, Emeritus Professor of Agronomy proposes a more recent origin for the dish, which may only have appeared as a consequence of the colonial promotion of intensive peanut cropping in central Senegal for the French oil industry, where commensurate reduction in the planted area of traditional millet and sorghum staples was compensated by forced imports of broken rice from Indochina, it may have spread throughout the region through the historical commercial and religious channels linking Senegal with Ghana and beyond, many of which continue to thrive today, such as the Tijāniyyah Sufi brotherhood bringing thousands of West African pilgrims to Senegal annually.
The dish consists of rice tomatoes and tomato paste, cooking oil, salt and chili peppers. Due to the tomato paste and used red palm oil, the dish is red in colour; the recipe differs from one region to another. The main ingredients of jollof rice are rice and tomatoes; the addition of palm oil does add saturated fat. Jollof is carbohydrates, as it is a rice dish. Since jollof is served with chicken, eggs and/or turkey, it is complemented by the protein from those accompanying dishes. Fish is sometimes used as an accompaniment, can provide the dish with omega-3 fatty acids, as well as protein. On the event of special occasions such as birthdays, weddings or baby showers, the dish can be presented and served made into shapes, overall a more formal presentation of the dish; as an option, fried plantain can be placed on top, or beside the jollof rice, various meats are added around the rest of the dish. There are multiple regions in Africa. However, one of the most vigorous jollof rivalries has been between Ghanaians.
The main argument in this debate is centered on which country's version tastes better. The reason for the debate is due to the huge popularity of jollof, in regards to West African cuisine. Both Nigeria and Ghana have shown consistent competitiveness over the debate as to who can serve the dish the best; the debate has gone so far as to having organized contest shows like the Jollof Festival in Washington, DC, in order for famous critics from all over the world to taste, examine the differences, give their overall judgments on either forms of the dish. Social media has become a popular tool for people to share pictures, opinions over who serves the dish the best. Although considerable variation exists, the basic profile for Nigerian jollof rice includes long grain parboiled rice and tomato paste, vegetable oil and stock cubes. Most of the ingredients are cooked in one pot, of which a fried tomato and pepper puree characteristically forms the base. Rice is added and left to cook in the liquid.
The dish is served with the protein of choice and often with fried plantains, moi moi, steamed vegetables, salad, etc. In the riverine areas of Nigeria where seafood is the main source of protein, seafood takes the place of chicken or meat as the protein of choice and there are variations of the classic jollof rice. More economical versions of jollof rice are popularly referred to among Nigerians as “concoction rice,” the preparation of which can involve as little as rice and pepper. Ghanaian jollof rice is made of vegetable oil, bell pepper, cloves of pressed garlic, tomato paste, beef or goat meat or chicken, jasmine or basmati rice and black pepper; the method of cooking jollof begins with first preparing the beef or chicken by seasoning and frying it until it is well-cooked The rest of the ingredients are fried all together, starting from onions and spices in that order. After all the ingred
Aioli or aïoli is a Mediterranean sauce made of garlic and olive oil. The names mean "oil" in Catalan and Provençal, it is found in the cuisines of the Mediterranean coasts of Spain and Italy. Current versions of the French-Provençal sauce are closer to a garlic mayonnaise, incorporating egg yolks and lemon juice, whereas the original French-Provençal and Catalan versions are without egg yolk and have more garlic; this gives the sauce a pastier texture, while making it more laborious to make as the emulsion is harder to stabilize. There are many variations, such as adding other seasonings. In France it may include mustard, it is served at room temperature. Like mayonnaise, aioli is an emulsion or suspension of small globules of oil and oil-soluble compounds in water and water-soluble compounds. In Spain, purists believe that the absence of egg distinguishes aioli from mayonnaise, but, not the case in France and other countries, where cooks may use egg or egg yolk as an emulsifier. Using only garlic as an emulsifier requires that the cook crush it and add oil drop by drop so excess oil does not "cut" the aioli.
Since the late 1980s, many people have called all flavored mayonnaises aioli. Flavorings include saffron and chili. Purists insist that flavored mayonnaise can contain garlic, but true aioli contains no seasoning other than garlic; the word is a compound of the words meaning "garlic" and "oil". The English spelling comes from the French aïoli; the spelling in Occitan may be alhòli, following the classical norm, or aiòli, following the Mistralian norm. In Catalan, it is spelled allioli. In southeastern Spain, it is called ajoaceite or ajiaceite, whereas in the rest of Spain, the Catalan term is more common. In Galician and Spanish, it is spelled alioli. Garlic is crushed in a mortar and pestle and emulsified with salt, olive oil. Today, aioli is made in a food processor or blender, but traditionalists object that this does not give the same result. In Malta, arjoli or ajjoli is made with the addition of either crushed galletti or tomato. In Occitan cuisine, aioli is served with seafood, fish soup, croutons.
An example is a dish called merluça amb alhòli. In the Occitan Valleys of Italy it is served with potatoes boiled with bay laurel. In Provence, aioli or, more formally, le grand aïoli, aioli garni, or aïoli monstre is a dish consisting of various boiled vegetables, poached fish, canned tuna, other seafood, boiled eggs, all served with aioli; this dish is served during the festivities on the feast days of the patron saint of Provençal villages and towns. It is traditional to serve it with cod on Ash Wednesday. Aïoli is so associated with Provence that when the poet Frédéric Mistral started a regionalist Provençal-language newspaper in 1891, he called it L'Aiòli. In Spain, allioli is served with arròs a banda from Alicante, with grilled lamb, grilled vegetables and arròs negre, comes in other varieties such as allioli de codony or allioli with boiled pear. Other used vegetables are beets, celery, cauliflower, chick peas, raw tomato. Agliata – A savory and pungent garlic sauce and condiment in Italian cuisine Dipping sauce Garlic sauce List of garlic dishes Mujdei – A spicy Romanian sauce made from garlic and vegetable oil Skordalia – A thick purée in Greek cuisine using crushed garlic with a bulky base and olive oil Toum – A garlic sauce common in the Levant Media related to Aioli at Wikimedia Commons
Supplì are Italian snacks consisting of a ball of rice with tomato sauce, typical of Roman cuisine. They were filled with chicken giblets, mincemeat or provatura, now with a piece of mozzarella, they are related to Sicilian arancini and croquettes. Supplì can be prepared without tomato sauce, they are eaten with the fingers: when one is broken in two pieces, mozzarella is drawn out in a string somewhat resembling the cord connecting a telephone handset to the hook. This has led to these dishes being known as supplì al telefono. Supplì were sold at friggitorie, typical Roman shops where fried food was sold. Now they are served in pizzerias all around Italy as an antipasto. Boni, Ada. La Cucina Romana. Rome: Newton Compton Editori. Carnacina, Luigi. Roma in Cucina. Milan: Giunti Martello. Connelly, Michael Alan. "20 Must-Try Street Foods Around the World". Fodor's. Retrieved July 24, 2016
Arroz chaufa known as Arroz de chaufa is a Peruvian fried rice dish. It is a mix of Peruvian and Chinese cuisine, it consists of a mix of fried rice with vegetables including Chinese onions and chicken cooked at a high flame in a wok with soy sauce and oil. It is influenced by Chinese cuisine due to the influx of Chinese immigrants to Peru. In Ecuador, a similar dish is known as Chaulafan. One, specialized in the art of making chaufa is known as a chaufero. Dark soy sauce is preferred for use with Peruvian fried rice. Meats used are pork, beef and shrimp. In some regions the rice is replaced with quinoa or pearled wheat while in others, rice is mixed with noodles; the word "chaufa" comes from the Chinese word "chaofan" "fried rice". Arroz chaufa with chicken Arroz chaufa with beef Arroz chaufa with pork Arroz chaufa "airport" Arroz chaufa "wild" Arroz Chaufa with duck Arroz chaufa with jerky Arroz chaufa with seafood Arroz chaufa with fish Arroz chaufa with alligator or lizard Arroz chaufa "special" Arroz chaufa "Taypa" It is possible to adapt the recipe with other grains: Chaufa of quinua Chaufa of wheatThe dish is accompanied by soy sauce and/or an aji-based cream.
List of fried rice dishes Food portal Rodríguez Pastor, Humberto. "Gastronomía chino-cantonesa y el chifa peruano". Gaceta Cultural del Perú. 32. Zapata Acha, Sergio. Diccionario de gastronomía peruana tradicional. Lima, Peru: Universidad San Martín de Porres. ISBN 9972-54-155-X. León, Rafo. Lima Bizarra. Antiguía del centro de la capital. Lima-Perú: Aguilar. Pp. 134–136. ISBN 978-9972-848-17-9. "Con feria gastronómica promueven consumo de pescado en Cajamarca". Agencia Andina de Noticias. November 7, 2008. Miranda, Luis. "Probando la amazonía". Gaceta Cultural del Perú. 32. "Beneficiarias ancashinas de Juntos ganan concurso ¡San Marcos con Mucho Gusto!". Agencia Andina de Noticias. December 23, 2008
Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa or Oryza glaberrima. As a cereal grain, it is the most consumed staple food for a large part of the world's human population in Asia, it is the agricultural commodity with the third-highest worldwide production, after sugarcane and maize. Since sizable portions of sugarcane and maize crops are used for purposes other than human consumption, rice is the most important grain with regard to human nutrition and caloric intake, providing more than one-fifth of the calories consumed worldwide by humans. There are many varieties of rice and culinary preferences tend to vary regionally. Rice, a monocot, is grown as an annual plant, although in tropical areas it can survive as a perennial and can produce a ratoon crop for up to 30 years. Rice cultivation is well-suited to countries and regions with low labor costs and high rainfall, as it is labor-intensive to cultivate and requires ample water. However, rice can be grown anywhere on a steep hill or mountain area with the use of water-controlling terrace systems.
Although its parent species are native to Asia and certain parts of Africa, centuries of trade and exportation have made it commonplace in many cultures worldwide. The traditional method for cultivating rice is flooding the fields while, or after, setting the young seedlings; this simple method requires sound planning and servicing of the water damming and channeling, but reduces the growth of less robust weed and pest plants that have no submerged growth state, deters vermin. While flooding is not mandatory for the cultivation of rice, all other methods of irrigation require higher effort in weed and pest control during growth periods and a different approach for fertilizing the soil; the name wild rice is used for species of the genera Zizania and Porteresia, both wild and domesticated, although the term may be used for primitive or uncultivated varieties of Oryza. First used in English in the middle of the 13th century, the word "rice" derives from the Old French ris, which comes from the Italian riso, in turn from the Latin oriza, which derives from the Greek ὄρυζα.
The Greek word is the source of all European words. The origin of the Greek word is unclear, it is sometimes held to be from the Tamil word, or rather Old Tamil arici. However, Krishnamurti disagrees with the notion that Old Tamil arici is the source of the Greek term, proposes that it was borrowed from descendants of Proto-Dravidian *wariñci instead. Mayrhofer suggests that the immediate source of the Greek word is to be sought in Old Iranian words of the types *vrīz- or *vrinj-, but these are traced back to Indo-Aryan. P. T. Srinivasa Iyengar assumed that the Sanskrit vrīhí- is derived from the Tamil arici, while Ferdinand Kittel derived it from the Dravidian root variki; the rice plant can grow to 1–1.8 m tall more depending on the variety and soil fertility. It has long, slender leaves 50–100 cm long and 2–2.5 cm broad. The small wind-pollinated flowers are produced in a branched arching to pendulous inflorescence 30–50 cm long; the edible seed is a grain 5–12 mm long and 2–3 mm thick. The varieties of rice are classified as long-, medium-, short-grained.
The grains of long-grain rice tend to remain intact after cooking. Medium-grain rice is used for sweet dishes, for risotto in Italy, many rice dishes, such as arròs negre, in Spain; some varieties of long-grain rice that are high in amylopectin, known as Thai Sticky rice, are steamed. A stickier medium-grain rice is used for sushi. Medium-grain rice is used extensively in Japan, including to accompany savoury dishes, where it is served plain in a separate dish. Short-grain rice is used for rice pudding. Instant rice differs from parboiled rice in that it is cooked and dried, though there is a significant degradation in taste and texture. Rice flour and starch are used in batters and breadings to increase crispiness. Rice is rinsed before cooking to remove excess starch. Rice produced in the US is fortified with vitamins and minerals, rinsing will result in a loss of nutrients. Rice may be rinsed until the rinse water is clear to improve the texture and taste. Rice may be soaked to decrease cooking time, conserve fuel, minimize exposure to high temperature, reduce stickiness.
For some varieties, soaking improves the texture of the cooked rice by increasing expansion of the grains. Rice may be soaked for 30 minutes up to several hours. Brown rice may be soaked in warm water for 20 hours to stimulate germination; this process, called germinated brown rice, activates enzymes and enhances amino acids including gamma-aminobutyric acid to improve the nutritional value of brown rice. This method is a result of research carried out for the United Nations International Year of Rice. Rice is cooked by boiling or steaming, absorbs water during cooking. With the absorption method, rice may be cooked in a volume of water equal to the volume of dry rice- plus any evaporation losses. With the rapid-boil method, rice may be cooked in a large quantity of water, drained before serving. Rapid-boil preparation is not desirable with enriched rice, as much of the enrichment additives are l