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Arraignment is a formal reading of a criminal charging document in the presence of the defendant to inform the defendant of the charges against the defendant. In response to arraignment, the accused is expected to enter a plea. Acceptable pleas vary among jurisdictions, but they include "guilty", "not guilty", the peremptory pleas setting out reasons why a trial cannot proceed. Pleas of "nolo contendere" and the "Alford plea" are allowed in some circumstances. In Australia, arraignment is the first of eleven stages in a criminal trial, involves the clerk of the court reading out the indictment; the judge will testify during the indictment process. In every province in Canada except British Columbia, defendants are arraigned on the day of their trial. In British Columbia, arraignment takes place in one of the first few court appearances by the defendant or their lawyer; the defendant is asked whether she pleads guilty or not guilty to each charge. In France, the general rule is that one cannot remain in police custody for more than 24 hours from the time of the arrest.

However, police custody can last another 24 hours in specific circumstances if the offence is punishable by at least one year's imprisonment, or if the investigation is deemed to require the extra time, can last up to 96 hours in certain cases involving terrorism, drug trafficking or organised crime. The police needs to have the consent of the prosecutor. In Germany, if one has been arrested and taken into custody by the police one must be brought before a judge as soon as possible and at the latest on the day after the arrest. At the first appearance, the accused is asked for a plea; the available pleas are, not guilty, no plea. No plea allows the defendant to get legal advice on the plea, which must be made on the second appearance. In South Africa, arraignment is defined as the calling upon the accused to appear, the informing of the accused of the crime charged against him, the demanding of the accused whether he be guilty or not guilty, the entering of his plea, his plea having been entered he is said to stand arraigned.

In England and Northern Ireland, arraignment is the first of eleven stages in a criminal trial, involves the clerk of the court reading out the indictment. In England and Wales, the police cannot detain anyone for more than 24 hours without charging them unless an officer with the rank of superintendent authorises detention for a further 12 hours, or a judge authorises detention by the police before charge for up to a maximum of 96 hours, but for terrorism-related offences people can be held by the police for up to 28 days before charge. If they are not released after being charged, they should be brought before a court as soon as practicable. Under the United States Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, "arraignment shall open reading the indictment to the defendant and call on him to plead thereto. He/she shall be given a copy of the indictment before he/she is called upon to plead."In federal courts, arraignment takes place in two stages. The first is called the initial arraignment and must take place within 48 hours of an individual's arrest, 72 hours if the individual was arrested on the weekend and not able to go before a judge until Monday.

During this arraignment the defendant is informed of the pending legal charges and is informed of his or her right to retain counsel. The presiding judge decides at what amount, if any, to set bail. During the second arraignment, a post-indictment arraignment, the defendant is allowed to enter a plea. In New York, most people arrested must be released. In California, arraignments must be conducted without unnecessary delay and, in any event, within 48 hours of arrest, excluding weekends and holidays; the wording of the arraignment varies from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. However, it conforms with the following principles: The accused person is addressed by name. Video arraignment is the act of conducting the arraignment process using some form of videoconferencing technology. Use of video arraignment system allows the courts to conduct the requisite arraignment process without the need to transport the defendant to the courtroom by using an audio-visual link between the location where the defendant is being held and the courtroom.

Use of the video arraignment process addresses the problems associated with having to transport defendants. The transportation of defendants requires time, puts additional demands on the public safety organizations to provide for the safety of the public, court personnel and for the security of the population held in detention, it addresses the rising costs of transportation. If the defendant pleads guilty, an evidentiary hearing follows; the court is not required to accept a guilty plea. During the hearing, the judge assesses the offense, the mitigating factors, the defendant's character, passes sentence. If the defendant pleads not guilty, a date is set for a trial. In the past, a defendant who refused to plead was subject to peine forte et dure. Today in common-law jurisdictions, the court enters a plea of not guilty for a defendant who refuses to enter a plea; the rationale for this is the defen

Ubykh people

The Ubykh are one of the twelve Circassian tribes, representing one of the twelve stars on the green-and-gold Circassian flag. Along with the Natukhai and Shapsug tribes, the Ubykh were one of three coastal Circassian tribes to form the Circassian Assembly in 1860, they spoke a distinct Ubykh language, which never existed in written form and went extinct in 1992 when Tevfik Esenç, the last speaker, died. The Ubykh used to inhabit the capital of Circassia, Sache — present-day Sochi, Krasnodar Krai, Russia; the province of the Ubykh tribe was situated between the Shapsug tribe near Tuapse and the Sadz in the north of Gagra. The Ubykh tribe were mentioned in book IV of Procopius' De Bello Gothico, under the name βροῦχοι, a corruption of the native term tʷaχ. In the 1667 book of Evliya Çelebi, the Ubykh were mentioned as Ubúr without any other information; the Ubykh were semi-nomadic horsemen, had a finely-differentiated vocabulary related to horses and tack. Some Ubykh practised favomancy and scapulimancy.

However, the Ubykh gained more prominence in modern times. By 1864, during the reign of Tsar Alexander II, the Russian conquest of the Northwestern Caucasus had been completed; the other Circassian tribes and the Abkhaz were decimated, the Abaza were driven out of the Caucasus. Faced with the threat of subjugation by the Russian army, the Ubykh, as well as other Muslim peoples of Caucasus, left their homeland en masse beginning on 6 March 1864. By May 21, the entire Ubykh nation had departed from the Caucasus, they settled in a number of villages in western Turkey around the municipality of Manyas. In order to avoid discrimination, the Ubykh elders encouraged their people to assimilate into Turkish culture. Having abandoned their traditional nomadic culture, they became a nation of farmers; the Ubykh language was displaced by Turkish and other Circassian dialects. Today, the Ubykh diaspora has been scattered about Turkey and—to a much lesser extent—Jordan; the Ubykh nation per se no longer exists, although those who are of Ubykh ancestry are proud to call themselves Ubykh, a couple of villages are still found in Turkey where the vast majority of the population is Ubykh by descent.

Ubykh society was patrilineal. As in other Northwest Caucasian tribes, women were venerated, the Ubykh retained a special second person pronoun prefix used with women. Dina – Queen consort of Jordan Keriman Halis Ece of Пщызэмыгъу family – winner of Miss Turkey 1932 and Miss Universe 1932 beauty pageants Perestü Valide Sultan of Гогэн family – Valide Sultan of Abdulhamid II of the Ottoman Empire Şevkefza Valide Sultan of Заурмыкъу family – Valide Sultan of Murad V of the Ottoman Empire Düzdidil Kadın - consort of Sultan Abdulmejid I of the Ottoman empire. Setenay Özbek - artist Tevfik Esenç - politician, last known speaker of the Ubykh language Ubykhia, a region in Circassia Other Circassian tribes: Abzakh Besleney Bzhedug Hatuqwai Kabardians Mamkhegh Natukhai Shapsug Temirgoy Yegeruqwai Zhaney Journal of a residence in Circassia during the years 1837, 1838, 1839 - Bell, James Stanislaus Bagrat Shinkuba; the Last of the Departed on Circassian Library

Blink of an Eye (Michael McDonald album)

Blink of an Eye is the fourth solo studio album by American singer-songwriter Michael McDonald. It was released on August 3, 1993, on the label Reprise, three years after his previous album, Take It to Heart. Michael McDonald – lead vocals, keyboard programming, backing vocals, synth horns, acoustic piano and solo, Fender Rhodes, synthesizer Jeff Bova – keyboard programming, Hammond organ, synthesizer, drum programming Benmont Tench – Hammond organ Randy Kerber – keyboards, synth strings, synth horns Greg Phillinganes – acoustic piano Bernie Chiaravalleguitar David Williams – guitar Mike Campbell – guitar Randy Jacobs – guitar, rhythm guitar Fred Tackett – acoustic guitar Dean Parks – acoustic guitar Robben Ford – guitar, rhythm guitar Warren Haynes – lead guitar and solo Paul Jackson Jr. – guitar Pino Palladinobass guitar Nathan East – bass guitar Marcus Miller – bass guitar Freddie Washington – bass guitar Jimmy Bralower – drum programming Manu Katché – additional drums, drums John Robinson – additional drums, drums George Perilli – additional drums Lenny Castrocongas, finger cymbals, tambourine David Frank – horn arrangements, synth horns, synth bell Brandon Fields – alto saxophone Albert Wingtenor saxophone Kirk Whalum – tenor saxophone Bruce Fowlertrombone Lee Thornburgtrumpet Wallace Rooney – trumpet and solo Chuck Findleyflugelhorn Sweet Pea Atkinson – backing vocals Harry Bowen – backing vocals Clydene Edwards – backing vocals Arnold McCuller – backing vocals Jenni Muldaur – backing vocals Mona Lisa Young - backing vocals Amy Holland – backing vocals Vince Gill – backing vocals Alison Krauss – backing vocals Chuck Sabatino – backing vocals Produced by Michael McDonald and Russ Titelman.

Basic track arrangements by Jimmy Bralower, Michael McDonald and Russ Titelman. Engineers – Ben Fowler, Bruce Barris and Mark Linnett. Assistant Engineers – Charlie Paakkari, Chris Albert, Chris Fogel, Mikael Ifverson, Steve Elder and U. E. Nastasi. Mixed by Tom Lord-Alge, assisted by Tim Leitner. Recorded at The Power Station and East Hill Studios. Mixed at Unique Recording Studios. Mastered by Ted Jensen at Sterling Sound. Original demo sequences technically assisted by Ross Pallone. Production Coordination – Joanne Schwartz Additional Production Coordination – Julie Larson Art Direction and Front Cover Photo: Bruce Steinberg Back Cover Photo – Gary Irving, Tony Stone Images Inside Photo – Tony Stone Images

Gar Heard

Garfield Heard is an American retired professional basketball player and coach. He played collegiately at the University of Oklahoma and was selected by the Seattle SuperSonics in the third round of the 1970 NBA draft, he had a 15-year NBA career for four teams. Heard is best known for a buzzer beater he made to send Game 5 of the 1976 Phoenix–Boston championship series into a third overtime; this feat is known as "The Cow", or "The Shot Heard'Round the World", in reference to Ralph Waldo Emerson's poem "Concord Hymn", written about the Battle of Lexington. Heard set an Oklahoma school record with 21 double-doubles for a season by a Sooner in 27 games during 1969–70, it was broken by Blake Griffin on February 14, 2009. Prior to the 1973–74 NBA season and Kevin Kunnert were traded from the Chicago Bulls to the Buffalo Braves for John Hummer, a 1974 NBA draft 2nd round pick and a 1975 NBA draft 2nd round pick. Heard blocked shots that season; the deal was part of the resume that earned Buffalo Braves General Manager Eddie Donovan the NBA Executive of the Year Award.

Heard once played 86 games in an NBA season, 82 games long, when he was traded in the middle of the 1975–76 NBA season from Buffalo to the Phoenix Suns. With two seconds remaining in double overtime, John Havlicek had given Boston a one-point advantage with a running one-handed shot; the Celtics' timekeeper ran the clock out instead of stopping it after a made basket, per league rules. The Boston Garden crowd erupted, believing the game was over, the Celtics themselves went back to their locker room. Legend has it that Havlicek had taken the tape off his ankles by this stage, but the Suns pointed that there was still time left, though the officials only placed one second back on the clock instead of two. Paul Westphal intentionally took a technical foul by calling a timeout when the Suns had no more timeouts to use, it gave the Celtics a free throw, which Jo Jo White converted to give Boston a two-point edge, but the timeout allowed Phoenix to inbound from mid-court instead of from under their own basket.

When play resumed, Heard caught the inbound pass and fired a high-arcing turnaround jump shot from at least 20 feet away. It swished through. However, Boston won the game and the Finals, four games to two. Heard had scored 17 points and grabbed 12 rebounds in Game 5. A revision to Rule 12-A, Section I, in regards to excessive timeouts, resulted in the elimination of the advancement of the ball following an excessive timeout; the rule has since been changed to award the ball to the team shooting the free throw. In addition to his playing career, Heard served as head coach of the Dallas Mavericks from 1993–1994 and the Washington Wizards from 1999–2000, his overall head coaching record is 23-74. During the 2004–2005 season, Heard was an assistant coach with the Detroit Pistons. Heard has served several stints as an assistant coach for the Indiana Pacers. profile as player profile as coach

Let's Make Money

Let’s Make Money is an Austrian documentary by Erwin Wagenhofer released in 2008. It is about aspects of the development of the worldwide financial system, claiming that elitists economically exploit the rest of society in the developing world, but in western nations; the film starts by tracking the hypothetical savings of a typical depositor as they move around the global system, showing exploitation as various financial agents try to produce high returns. There are several interviews with investment managers, economists as well as homeless people and workers. Mark Mobius manages funds with a volume of about 12 billion dollars, he invests in emerging markets. Mirko Kovats is an investor and among the 15 richest Austrians. In the film he inspects an Indian firm. Terry Le Sueur is the finance minister of Jersey and explains the development of the island from agriculture and tourism to international financial center and tax haven. Hermann Scheer criticizes the financial system. John Perkins claims he was an "Economic Hitman" and describes US politics in developing countries based on economic interests.

Writing in the Financial Times, Christopher Caldwell praised the film's beauty, going on to state that Wagenhofer has a perfect sense for pictorial composition and for sound. He writes that film is an imperfect medium for providing an accurate view of complex economic developments. Caldwell goes on to say, it is nonetheless a film of overwhelming power. It resembles an art film such as Koyaanisqatsi, Godfrey Reggio's haunting, wordless indictment of the frenzy of modern life"; the Corporation Capitalism: A Love Story Debtocracy Generation Zero Inside Job I. O. U. S. A Too Big to Fail Official website Let's Make Money on IMDb Let's Make Money at AllMovie

Team Autonomies

Team Autonomies is a liberal political party in South Tyrol, Italy. The party's leader is Elena Artioli, a former member of the South Tyrolean People's Party and provincial leader of Lega Nord Alto AdigeSüdtirol during 2013–2014. Once a sister party of LNST, Team A became an associate party of the Democratic Party in 2014. In the run-up of the 2008 provincial election LNST was joined by Elena Artioli, who had left the SVP after the party chose to restrict its membership to German- and Ladin-speakers. In the election LNST won the 2.1% of the vote and Artioli was elected to the Provincial Council. In January 2013 Artioli, who had become the party's rising star and the darling of Lega Nord's federal leadership, was elected national secretary of LNST and in May she announced that the party would run in the 2013 provincial election as part of the Team Autonomies/Team Artioli, a larger autonomist and inter-ethnic electoral list inspired to the Austrian party Team Stronach. In September, Team A was integrated into the "Forza Alto Adige–Lega Nord–Team Autonomies" list, along with The People of Freedom.

In the election the list took 2.5% of the vote and Artioli was the only candidate elected. In January 2014, at the beginning of the Council term, Artioli voted in favour of Arno Kompatscher, the new provincial governor, in a vote of confidence and left Lega Nord. A few months Artioli, who had come to be a supporter of Prime Minister Matteo Renzi, joined the PD and became the provincial coordinator of Liberal PD, the party's liberal faction led by Enzo Bianco; as a result, Team A became an associate party of the PD. President: Elena Artioli Official website