Zuia is a town and municipality located in the province of Álava, in the Basque Country, northern Spain. The first mention of the Zuia Valley is in the document Reja de San Millan from the year 1025, a document conserved in the Monastery of San Millan; the document states. In 1752, after repeated attempts, the king approved the establishment of a highway through the valley of Zuia to facilitate communication between Vitoria and Bilbao. Work was supposed to be completed by the year 1798. In 1763, they voted to enlarge the town hall, under Mayor Francisco Vea Murgia. In 1767 the city council house of Zuia was finished. However, in 1795, after 6 years of poor harvests and a draining war with France, the Valley remained mired in abject poverty, so they sold half of the town hall for 4300 ducats to Don Domingo Ortiz de Zarate, the patron of Luquiano, who lived in Murgia. Geographically, the municipio of Zuia borders the province of Biscay and Álava municipalities: Urkabustaiz, Kuartango and. Within its limits is located a large portion of the Gorbea massif, including its most important summits: Gorbea, Nafakorta Burbona and Berretín.
The sources of several rivers are located here, including the Baias, the Ugalde, the Larreakorta, which as they flow from North to South have carved steep watersheds into the valley of Zuia, around river Baias. Although part of the original vegetation of Gorbeia has been cleared, magnificent beech woods are still found in Berretín, Ilunbe. But, without a doubt, the best preserved enclave is the beech forest of Altube, where the part of Zuia, has been developed around the canyons that descend from Burbona: the Bortal/Rekandi and Katxandiano. In the area of Zuia Valley, extraordinary oaks remain next to the Baias, distributed like islets between large areas of pasture that occupy the entire Valley of Zuia. Peñas de Oro/Atxabal and Ganalto, close the Zuia Valley, sheltering beautiful patches of beech and oak on its slopes; these places offer beautiful views over all Oro, a place of great botanical and artistic interest. Zuia was a farming and ranching municipio; the first industries appeared here in the twentieth century.
As in the rest of the region and forestry were once the primary economical activities of the area. Though agriculture is no longer a major component of the local economy, there are still important sheep and cattle farms here, in some of which Idiazabal cheese is made; the beekeeping sector is growing in importance, with the production of honey and derivatives, which are promoted from the Honey museum in Murgia. The industrial sector is located in the industrial estates of Murgia and Islarra, with an area of over 100,000 m2 of industrial land. Services are undoubtedly the most important sector of Zuia's economy; the growth of tourism and nature-related sport activities have driven this industry in a municipality with a long tourism tradition. Murgia has become a center of services whose sphere of influence goes far beyond municipal boundaries; this way, hosts numerous shops, restaurants, sports center, technical services, tourist office, etc. Other villages of the Valley host such services: farmhouses and cottages and restaurants, Zuia Golf Club in Altube, Service Areas in the motorway, etc.
The villages in the municipality are: Ametzaga Aperregi Aretxaga Bitoriano Domaikia Gilierna-Guillerna Jugo Lukiano Markina Murgia, the capital Sarria Zárate Ziorraga Zuia Sanctuary of Our Lady of Gold ZUIA in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
Álava or Araba Araba/Álava, is a province of Spain and a historical territory of the Basque Country, heir of the ancient Lordship of Álava, former medieval Catholic bishopric and now Latin titular see. Its capital city, Vitoria-Gasteiz, is the seat of the political main institutions of the autonomous community, it borders the Basque provinces of Biscay and Gipuzkoa to the north, the community of La Rioja to the south, the province of Burgos to the west and the community of Navarre to the east. The Enclave of Treviño, surrounded by Alavese territory, is however part of the province of Burgos, thus belonging to the autonomous community of Castile and León, not Álava, it is the largest of the three provinces in the Basque Autonomous Community in geographical terms, with 2,963 km2, but the least populated with 328,868 inhabitants. Built around the Roman mansion Alba located on the road ab Asturica Burdigalam, it has sometimes been argued the name may stem from that landmark. However, according to the Royal Academy of the Basque Language, the origin may be another: The name is first found on Muslim chronicles of the 8th century referring to the Alavese Plains, laua in old Basque with the Arab article added, developing into Spanish Álava and Basque Araba.
The province numbers 51 municipalities, a population of 315,525 inhabitants in an area of 3,037 km2, with an average of 104.50 inhabitants/km2. The vast majority of the population clusters in the capital city of Álava, Vitoria-Gasteiz, which serves as the capital of the Autonomous Community, but the remainder of the territory is sparsely inhabited with population nuclei distributed into seven counties: Añana. Álava is an inland territory and features a transitional climate between the humid, Atlantic neighbouring northern provinces and the dry and warmer lands south of the Ebro River. According to the relief and landscape characteristics, the territory is divided into five main zones: The Gorbea Foothills: Green hilly landscape; the Valleys: Low valleys, sparsely populated. The Plains: Heartland of Álava comprising Vitoria and Salvatierra-Agurain, with a central urban area and crop landscape prevailing around and bounded south and north by the Basque Mountains; the Alavese Mountains: Higher forest lands.
The Alavese Rioja: Oriented to the south on the left bank of the Ebro River, perfect for vineyards. Ayala: The area clustering around the Nervión River, with Amurrio and Laudio as its major towns; the region shows close bonds with an industrial landscape. Unlike Biscay and Gipuzkoa, but for Ayala and Aramaio, the waters of Álava pour into the Ebro and hence to the Mediterranean by means of two main waterways, i.e. the Zadorra and Bayas Rivers. In addition, the Zadorra Reservoir System harvests a big quantity of waters that supply not only the capital city but other major Basque towns and cities too, like Bilbao. While in 1950 agriculture and farming shaped the landscape of the territory, the trend shifted during the 60s and 70s on the grounds of a growing industrial activity in the Alavese Plains, with the main focus lying on the industrial estates of Vitoria-Gasteiz and, to a lesser extent, Salvatierra-Agurain and Araia. At the turn of the century, only 2% of the working Alavese people was in agriculture, while 60% was in the tertiary sector and 32% in manufacturing.
Industry associated with iron and metal developed earlier in the Atlantic area much in tune with Bilbao's economic dynamics, with droves of people flocking to and clustering in Amurrio and Laudio, which have since become the third and second main towns of Álava. List of rulers: Eylo, up to 866 Rodrigo c. 867–870, count of Castile Vela Jiménez 870–c. 887 Munio Velaz c. 887–c. 921 Álvaro Herraméliz c. 921–931 count of Cerezo and Lantarón Fernán González 931–970 count of Castile, Álava feudatary of Castile until 1030 García Fernández 970–995 Munio González 1030–1043 Fortunio Íñiguez 1043–1046 Munio Muñoz 1046–1060, Álava feudatary of Navarre, 1046–1085 Sancho Maceratiz 1046–1060 Ramiro 1060–1075 Marcelo 1075–1085 Lope Íñiguez 1085–?, Álava feudatary of Castile until 1123 Lope Díaz the White?–1093 Lope González 1093–1099 Lope Sánchez 1099–1114 Diego López I 1114–1123 Ladrón Íñiguez 1123–1158, Álava feudatary of Navarre until 1199 Vela Ladrón 1158–1175 Juan Velaz 1175–1181 Diego López II 1181–1187 Íñigo de Oriz 1187–1199 Diego López de Haro I 1199–1214, Álava feudatary of Castile until personal union of 1332 Lope Diaz de Haro I 1214–1240 Nuño González de Lara 1240–1252 Diego López de Haro II 1252–1274 Fernando de la Cerda 1274–1280 Lope Díaz II de Haro 1280–1288 Juan Alonso de Haro 1288–1310 Diego López de Salcedo 1310–1332The title is attributed to the Castilian kings after 1332.
The Arab invasion of the Ebro valley in the 8th century, many Christians of the Diocese of Calahorra sought refuge in areas further north free of Arab rule. The diocese called Álava or Armentaria was established in 870 on terrirory split off from the Diocese of Calahorra. From until the 11th century the names of several bishops of this see are recorded, the best known being the last, Fortún, who in 1072 went to Rome to argue before Pope Alexander II in defence of the Mozarabic Rite, which King Alfonso VI of León and Castile had decree
Oyón is a town and municipality located in the province of Álava, in the Basque Country, northern Spain. The town was formed by the incorporation of the towns Labraza. Oyón is a sister city of the French town Saint-Martin-de-Seignanx. Oyón-Oion in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia
Iruña de Oca/Iruña Oka
Iruña de Oca is a municipality located in the province of Álava, in the Basque Country, northern Spain. Is compounded by five towns called "concejos" which names are: Nanclares de la Oca/Langraiz Oka Montevite/Mandaita Ollávarre/Olabarri Víllodas/Billoda Trespuentes/TraspondeIt was formed in 1976 by the merger of the municipalities of Iruña and Nanclares de la Oca. Iruña de Oca is the most populated municipality of the Cuadrilla de Añana. More than the 35% of the people of Añana live there, it is located in the central part of the Álava province, just 14 km far from Vitoria, the capital city of the Basque Country. IRUÑA DE OCA in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia
Agurain in Basque and Salvatierra in Spanish, it is a town and municipality located in the province of Álava in the Basque Autonomous Community, northern Spain. The municipality, numbering 4,986 inhabitants, is in turn the head town of the district or Cuadrilla of Salvatierra; the gross income per family amounts to 6,784 €. With reference to workforce by economic sectors, 10.36% are employed in agriculture, 35.78% in the industry sector, 47.92% in the service sector and 5.95% in the construction industry. The council is headed by Mr Iñaki Beraza, member of the Basque Nationalist Party The municipality, located at the centre of the eastern Alavese Plains, comprises a core built-up area sitting on a low ridge and consisting of three historical streets that stretch out south to north, i.e. Zapatari and Carnicería, which bear witness to ancient guild clusters. North and west at the feet of the ridge, two watercourses, the Santa Barbara and Zadorra, outlined the town's limits not time ago, while absorbed by the rapid urban development.
Outside the walls of the town spread age old neighbourhoods, such as the Madura, La Magdalena or San Jorge. On either side of the road connecting the'Portal del Rey' and the train station, a sprawl developed in the 1950s and 1960s, called La Moncloa; the town keeps on growing east beside the Madura through new housing projects in the 2000s, i.e. Harresi Parkea. There are other minor nuclei dotting the outward lands of the municipality of Salvatierra as follows: Alangua Arrizala: home to the famous dolmen Sorginetxe. Egileor Iturrieta: former village on a plateau nowadays turned into a farm. Opakua: at the foot of the mount Arrigorrista, lends its name to a winding mountain pass. Agurain benefits from its location on the important European road axis N-1 E-5 E-80 and the Northern Railway, following that it developed industry since the early 20th century. In this respect, it is worth mentioning the one time stinky Curtidos Salvatierra S. A. L. A tanning factory, which provided not long ago work for so many inhabitants.
Nowadays the town numbers three industrial estates, the two existing so far and a new one under construction, Litutxipi across the train station, Agurain on the west and Galzar. The two latter industrial estates participate in a wider regional logistic scheme known as Vitoria Logistic Corridor. A solar power plant in the outskirts of the town was inaugurated in 2007 the biggest in the Basque Autonomous Community, with a view to injecting into the power network 350,000 kWh/year; the town of Salvatierra was founded in 1256 by the Castilian king Alfonso X on the former settlement of the village Hagurahin on top of a hill, a defensible position. Castile was intent on strengthening the territories bordering on the Kingdom of Navarre seized some decades ago; as a result, the king founded various strongholds or free towns over the lands of Gipuzkoa and Álava en route to Gascony through the northern Way of St. James, with a view at the same time to fostering Castilian trade. Salvatierra was in the ensuing decades and centuries home to various scuffles and sieges on the grounds of its bordering location with Navarre and its strategic position in the King's Highway to France.
In the 13th century, the definitive layout of the town was established, with encircling walls and two big fortified churches sealing Salvatierra at the north and south ends. The so-called olbeas were erected at this time too; these consisted of arcades, made of wood, next to both parishes in the one-time bustling marketplaces, they have endured up to the present, although reconstructed in the 16th century. The town thrived on its good location and trade in the Way of St. James, it had a Jewish quarter, located in today's'Arramel' st. In 1521 the town had to fend off the attack of its own lord, the Count of Salvatierra, a rebellious leader that revolted against emperor Charles V in the Revolt of the Comuneros, yet he failed to win the town, the Count was arrested and executed by the imperial forces, much to the joy of the inhabitants. The joy didn't last long though, since shortly afterwards the plague swept through the town, which resulted in the burning of Salvatierra, a disaster that some blame on a desperate attempt to put an end to the grim epidemic.
Only the walls were spared the whole town was destroyed, a fact reflected in poems by the writer Juan Perez de Lazarraga. Salbatierra egun ey dago tristeric oyta dabela eguiten asco negarric çerren jarri da guztia destruiduric ez da gueratu barruan ese galantic çerca çabaloc jarri ey dira bacarric oy onezquero ez da mercatu bearric After the burning, a vigorous and elegant reconstruction ensued under the hallmark of the Renaissance. Worth highlighting are the sumptuous walled stately homes in between the main streets, such as the Casa de los Diezmos in the'Carnicería' st. While the building frenzy of the previous century waned in the 18th century, there were still some outstanding works like the pentagonal San Juan Church's baroque style porch stretching out to the centre of the marketplace; the 19th century was to know turmoil in this area. The First Carlist War left a mayor scar on the town's mediev
Vitoria-Gasteiz is the seat of government and the capital city of the Basque Country and of the province of Araba/Álava in northern Spain. It holds the autonomous community's House of Parliament, the headquarters of the Government, the Lehendakari's official residency; the municipality — which comprises not only the city but the agricultural lands of 63 villages around — is the largest in the Basque Country, with a total area of 276.81 km2, it has a population of 242,082 people. The dwellers of Vitoria-Gasteiz are called vitorianos or gasteiztarrak, while traditionally they are dubbed babazorros. Vitoria-Gasteiz is a multicultural city with strengths in the arts, education, architectural conservation, vehicle industry and gastronomy, it is the first Spanish municipality to be awarded the title of European Green Capital and it is ranked as one of the 5 best places to live in Spain. The old town holds some of the best preserved medieval streets and plazas in the region and it is one of few cities to hold two Cathedrals.
The city holds well known festivals such as the Azkena rock festival, FesTVal, Vitoria-Gasteiz jazz festival, the Virgen Blanca Festivities. Vitoria-Gasteiz's vicinity is home to world-renowned wineries such as Ysios and the Marqués de Riscal Hotel. Beethoven dedicated his Opus 91 called the "Battle of Vitoria" or "Wellington's Victory", to one of the most famous events of the Napoleonic Wars: the Battle of Vitoria, in which a Spanish and British army under the command of General the Marquess of Wellington broke the French army and nearly captured the puppet king Joseph Bonaparte, it was a pivotal point in the Peninsular War, a precursor to the expulsion of the French from Spain. A memorial statue can be seen today in Virgen Blanca Square; the official name of Vitoria-Gasteiz is a compound name of its traditional names in Spanish and Basque, respectively. By inhabitants, it is still referred to as either Vitoria or Gasteiz, depending on the language spoken. More it may be referred to by Basque speakers as Vitorixe, a Basque form of the Spanish name.
In 581 AD, the Visigoth king Liuvigild founded the city of Victoriacum, trying to emulate the Roman foundations, as a celebration of the victory against the Vascones near what is assumed to be the hill occupied by the primitive village of Gasteiz. This however is not sufficiently proven, some historians and experts believe that Victoriacum was located not on the site of present-day Vitoria-Gasteiz but nearby. Several possible locations have been proposed, the foremost of, the late Roman military camp of Iruña-Veleia. Veleia is located some 11 km north of modern Vitoria, on the banks of the same river. However, modern archeological studies of the site suggest that Veleia was last inhabited c.5th century AD, archeologists are still to find a 6th-century visigothic resettlement in the site. Another theory has suggested that Victoriacum was located at the foot of Mount Gorbea where there is a village called Vitoriano; the town of Armentia, nowadays in the outskirts of Vitoria, has been proposed as a possible location of Victoriacum.
In either case, Victoriacum vanishes from history shortly after its foundation. In 1181, Sancho the Wise, King of Navarre founded the town of Nova Victoria as a defensive outpost on top of a hill at the site of the previous settlement of Gasteiz; the existence of Gastehiz inhabited by vasconic people, can be traced back to the lower Middle Ages. It is assumed that Sancho the Wise gave the new city its name in memory of the old settlement of Victoriacum, which must had long since been abandoned. In 1199, the town was besieged for nine months and captured by the troops of Alfonso VIII of Castile, who annexed the town to the Kingdom of Castile; the town was progressively enlarged and in 1431 it was granted a city charter by King Juan II of Castile. In 1463, it was one of the five founding villas of the Brotherhood of Álava alongside Sajazarra, Miranda de Ebro and Salvatierra/Agurain; the Battle of Vitoria of the Peninsular War occurred near Vitoria-Gasteiz along the river Zadorra on 21 June 1813.
An allied British and Spanish army under General the Marquess of Wellington broke the French army under Joseph Bonaparte and Marshal Jean-Baptiste Jourdan. The victory assured the eventual end of French control in Spain. There is a monument commemorating this battle in the main square of the city known as the Monument to Independence; when news came to Vienna in late July of that year, Johann Nepomuk Mälzel commissioned Ludwig van Beethoven to compose a symphony, the op. 91 Wellingtons Sieg oder die Schlacht bei Vittoria or Siegessymphonie. Work began on the Institute for Middle Education in 1843, with classes beginning during the 1853–54 academic year, it is now current headquarters of the Basque Parliament and the convent of Santa Clara. The Free University opened in the wake of the revolution of 1868; the University operated from 1869, to just prior to the 1873–1874 term because of the second Carlist War. Chief academ