click links in text for more info


Arrhythmia known as cardiac arrhythmia or heart arrhythmia, is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow. The heart rate, too fast – above 100 beats per minute in adults – is called tachycardia, a heart rate, too slow – below 60 beats per minute – is called bradycardia; some types of arrhythmias have no symptoms. Symptoms when present may include palpitations or feeling a pause between heartbeats. In more serious cases, there may be shortness of breath or chest pain. While most types of arrhythmia are not serious, some predispose a person to complications such as stroke or heart failure. Others may result in sudden death. There are four main groups of arrhythmia: extra beats, supraventricular tachycardias, ventricular arrhythmias and bradyarrhythmias. Extra beats include premature atrial contractions, premature ventricular contractions and premature junctional contractions. Supraventricular tachycardias include atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter and paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia.

Ventricular arrhythmias include ventricular tachycardia. Arrhythmias are due to problems with the electrical conduction system of the heart. Arrhythmias may occur in children, the normal range for the heart rate is different and depends on age. A number of tests can help with diagnosis including Holter monitor. Most arrhythmias can be treated. Treatments may include medical procedures such as inserting a pacemaker and surgery. Medications for a fast heart rate may include beta blockers or agents that attempt to restore a normal heart rhythm such as procainamide; this latter group may have more significant side effects if taken for a long period of time. Pacemakers are used for slow heart rates; those with an irregular heartbeat are treated with blood thinners to reduce the risk of complications. Those who have severe symptoms from an arrhythmia may receive urgent treatment with a controlled electric shock in the form of cardioversion or defibrillation. Arrhythmia affects millions of people. In Europe and North America, as of 2014, atrial fibrillation affects about 2% to 3% of the population.

Atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter resulted in 112,000 deaths in 2013, up from 29,000 in 1990. Sudden cardiac death is the cause of about half of deaths due to cardiovascular disease and about 15% of all deaths globally. About 80% of sudden cardiac death is the result of ventricular arrhythmias. Arrhythmias are more common among older people. Arrhythmia may be classified by mechanism or duration, it is appropriate to classify by site of origin: Sinus bradycardia Premature atrial contractions Wandering atrial pacemaker Atrial tachycardia Multifocal atrial tachycardia Supraventricular tachycardia Atrial flutter Atrial fibrillation AV nodal reentrant tachycardia AV nodal reentrant tachycardia Junctional rhythm Junctional tachycardia Premature junctional contraction Premature ventricular contractions, sometimes called ventricular extra beats Premature ventricular beats occurring after every normal beat are termed ventricular bigeminy PVCs that occur at intervals of 2 normal beats to 1 PVC are termed "PVCs in trigeminy" Three premature ventricular grouped together is termed a "run of PVCs" in general, runs lasting longer than three beats with an increased heart rate are referred to as ventricular tachycardia Accelerated idioventricular rhythm Monomorphic ventricular tachycardia Polymorphic ventricular tachycardia Ventricular fibrillation Torsades de pointes Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia Re-entry ventricular arrhythmia These are known as AV blocks, because the vast majority of them arise from pathology at the atrioventricular node.

They are the most common causes of bradycardia: First degree heart block, which manifests as PR prolongation Second degree heart block Type 1 Second degree heart block known as Mobitz I or Wenckebach Type 2 Second degree heart block known as Mobitz II Third degree heart block known as complete heart block. First and third degree block can occur at the level of the sinoatrial junction; this is referred to as sinoatrial block manifesting with various degrees and patterns of sinus bradycardia. Sudden arrhythmic death syndrome, is a term used as part of sudden unexpected death syndrome to describe sudden death due to cardiac arrest brought on by an arrhythmia in the presence or absence of any structural heart disease on autopsy; the most common cause of sudden death in the US is coronary artery disease because of poor oxygenation of the heart muscle, myocardial ischemia or a heart attack Approximately 180,000 to 250,000 people die of this cause every year in the US. SADS may occur from other causes.

There are many inherited conditions and heart diseases that can affect young people which can subsequently cause sudden death without advance symptoms. Causes of SADS in young people include viral myocarditis, long QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome, Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia. Arrhythmias can be found in the fetus; the normal heart rate of the fetus is between 160 beats per minute. Any rhythm beyond these limits is abnormal, classed as a fetal arrhythmia; these are the result of premature atrial contractions give no symptoms, have little consequence. However around one per cent of these will be th

Bojan Torbica

Bojan Torbica is a politician in Serbia. He has served in the National Assembly of Serbia since 2016 as a member of the Movement of Socialists. Torbica was born in Novi Sad, Vojvodina, at the time part of the Socialist Republic of Serbia in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, he has a Bachelor of Laws degree from the University of Novi Sad. Torbica moved to Temerin in 2002 to work as director of Radio Temerin and subsequently became the director of the Lukijan Mušicki cultural centre, he lives in the town of Bački Jarak in Temerin. Torbica was appointed as one of Novi Sad's four deputy mayors in January 2013, with responsibility for the economy, he served in this position until his election to parliament in June 2016. He attracted some media attention in 2015 for stating that Croatia's Operation Storm was "an illegitimate action taken by the Croatian Army and paramilitary units in the area under United Nations protection," the principle objective of, "not to ensure the territorial integrity of the Republic of Croatia, but to banish citizens of Serbian nationality from their homes."

He added that Croatia had failed to adequately combat anti-Serb sentiments among its population and called on the country's leadership to establish better neighbourly relations. The Movement of Socialists has been aligned with the Serbian Progressive Party since 2010, the party contested the 2016 Serbian parliamentary election as part of the Progressive Party's Aleksandar Vučić – Serbia Is Winning electoral list. Torbica received the forty-seventh position on the list and was elected when it won a landslide victory with 131 out of 250 mandates. Along with other Movement of Socialists parliamentarians, he serves in a parliamentary group with the People's Peasant Party and the United Peasant Party, he is a member of the assembly committee on constitutional and legislative issues and the committee on labour, social issues, social inclusion, poverty reduction. Torbica was physically attacked by unknown assailants in Kosovska Mitrovica in January 2017, he said that the attack was politically motivated and that he had been targeted for his support of Prime Minister Vučić's policies.

He is the leader of the provincial branch of the PS in Vojvodina

Little Stukeley

Little Stukeley is a village in Cambridgeshire, England. Little Stukeley lies 3 miles north-west of Huntingdon. Little Stukeley is in the civil parish of The Stukeleys. Little Stukeley is situated within Huntingdonshire, a non-metropolitan district of Cambridgeshire as well as being a historic county of England; the Alconbury Weald development is taking place near Little Stukeley. In 1085 William the Conqueror ordered that a survey should be carried out across his kingdom to discover who owned which parts and what it was worth; the survey took place in 1086 and the results were recorded in what, since the 12th century, has become known as the Domesday Book. Starting with the king himself, for each landholder within a county there is a list of their estates or manors. Little Stukeley was listed in the Domesday Book in the Hundred of Hurstingstone in Huntingdonshire. In 1086 there was just one manor at Little Stukeley; the Domesday Book does not explicitly detail the population of a place but it records that there were 19 households at Little Stukeley.

There is no consensus about the average size of a household at that time. Using these figures an estimate of the population of Little Stukeley in 1086 is that it was within the range of 66 and 95 people; the Domesday Book uses a number of units of measure for areas of land that are now unfamiliar terms, such as hides and ploughlands. In different parts of the country, these were terms for the area of land that a team of eight oxen could plough in a single season and are equivalent to 120 acres. By 1086, the hide had become a unit of tax assessment rather than an actual land area; the survey records that there were eleven ploughlands at Little Stukeley in 1086. In addition to the arable land, there was 24 acres of meadows and 120 acres of woodland at Little Stukeley; the tax assessment in the Domesday Book was known as geld or danegeld and was a type of land-tax based on the hide or ploughland. It was a way of collecting a tribute to pay off the Danes when they attacked England, was only levied when necessary.

Following the Norman Conquest, the geld was used to raise money for the King and to pay for continental wars. Having determined the value of a manor's land and other assets, a tax of so many shillings and pence per pound of value would be levied on the land holder. While this was two shillings in the pound the amount did vary. For the manor at Little Stukeley the total tax assessed was seven geld. By 1086 there was a church and a priest at Little Stukeley. Little Stukeley is part of the civil parish of The Stukeleys; the parish council is elected by the residents of the parish who have registered on the electoral roll. A parish council is responsible for providing and maintaining a variety of local services including allotments and a cemetery; the parish council reviews all planning applications that might affect the parish and makes recommendations to Huntingdonshire District Council, the local planning authority for the parish. The parish council represents the views of the parish on issues such as local transport and the environment.

The parish council raises its own tax to pay for these services, known as the parish precept, collected as part of the Council Tax. In 2015, The Stukeleys parish council had nine members. Little Stukeley was in the historic and administrative county of Huntingdonshire until 1965. From 1965, the village was part of the new administrative county of Peterborough. In 1974, following the Local Government Act 1972, Little Stukeley became a part of the county of Cambridgeshire; the second tier of local government is Huntingdonshire District Council, a non-metropolitan district of Cambridgeshire and has its headquarters in Huntingdon. Huntingdonshire District Council has 52 councillors representing 29 district wards. Huntingdonshire District Council collects the council tax, provides services such as building regulations, local planning, environmental health and tourism. Little Stukeley is a part of the district ward of Alconbury and The Stukeleys and is represented on the district council by one councillor.

District councillors serve for four-year terms following elections to Huntingdonshire District Council. For Little Stukeley the highest tier of local government is Cambridgeshire County Council which has administration buildings in Cambridge; the county council provides county-wide services such as major road infrastructure and rescue, social services and heritage services. Cambridgeshire County Council consists of 69 councillors representing 60 electoral divisions. Little Stukeley is part of the electoral division of Huntingdon and is represented on the county council by two councillors. At Westm

Henry Addington (1796 EIC ship)

Henry Addington was an East Indiaman in the service of the British East India Company. She made one voyage for the EIC and was only five days into her second when she wrecked in 1798 at the Isle of Wight. Captain Richard Atherton Farington received a letter of marque on 4 May 1796, her sailed from Portsmouth on 27 June. Henry Addington reached the Cape of Good Hope on 29 September and arrived at Whampoa Anchorage on 2 February 1797. On the homeward-bound leg, she was at Bally Town, up river from Calcutta, on 14 September, she was at the Cape on 2 December, arrived on 17 May 1798 at the Downs. Captain Thomas Wakefield received a letter of marque on 9 November 1798. On 4 December he sailed from the Downs, bound for China. Only five days on 9 December, Henry Addison struck the Bembridge Ledge on the Isle of Wight, during a heavy fog; when the tide went out the next day she bilged. Five crew member drowned. A block falling from the mizzen mast hit a boy on the head, killing him. By 16 December all, left standing was the forepart of the vessel's upper works.

Some casks were saved, but the EIC put the value of the cargo it lost at £29,222. Citations References Grocott, Terence Shipwrecks of the revolutionary & Napoleonic eras. ISBN 1-86176-030-2 Hackman, Rowan. Ships of the East India Company. Gravesend, Kent: World Ship Society. ISBN 0-905617-96-7

Virtual Pool 4

Virtual Pool 4 is a sports simulation video game developed and published by American studio Celeris as an entry in the Virtual Pool franchise, a sequel to Virtual Pool 3. The game was released on PC in August 2012, it was released to Steam on May 11, 2015 worldwide, after a period on Steam Greenlight. The game has two releases, an offline version of the game, an online multiplayer version; the game has had an additional iPad release. As with other entries in the Virtual Pool series, the game is controlled by mouse. Shots are made by holding down specific keyboard buttons, whilst moving the mouse backwards and forwards to mimic stroking the cue ball; the speed at which the mouse is moved forwards determines the strength of the shot being played. Featuring 27 different game modes, including eight-ball and nine-ball pool, carom billiards and various pub games. Included are different-sized billiard tables such as a smaller bar table, or a bigger championship snooker table. Included is the ability to edit the size of tables being played including pocket sizes and handicaps Players have the option of playing the tour, hustle tour or trick shot modes, as well as instructional videos on how to improve in game and on a real table.

In the tour mode, players have the option of playing through differing tours ranking from local competition to international series. The game features real pro and amateur players from across the world, with developers asking pool players to submit information to be included in game; the hustle tour mode sees the player follow "Curly" played by Greg Finley, the game's hustling expert and introduce the player to hustling pool. Curly greets the player in a full motion video, but despite the game mode, selected, Curly will only play 9-ball pool. Starting as a rookie in the garages and work the player rises through the bars and pool halls to take on Curly himself. Along the way earning cash to spend on new cues and equipment which you can use to impress fellow hustlers and attract bigger cash prize pots; this mode shares similarities to the Hustle Tour mode in Virtual Pool: Tournament Edition and the career mode in Virtual Pool Mobile, with there being the same locations, cut scenes to watch. The trick shot mode features 140 preset trick shots to attempt, features an editor, for the player to setup new challenges.

Virtual Pool 4 states that it can make the players' real pool game improve by saying "So realistic it will make your real life pool game better!" The game attempts this with instructional videos with head of coaching in the "world 8-ball pool association" Steve Daking. The player has the ability to customize the portrait of the player character an opponent in any game mode. A tutorial mode is included in game before any quick game, to allow the player to learn the controls; the second version of Virtual Pool 4 features game play for multiplayer matches and double elimination tournaments with or without handicap. The modes feature the ability to upload shots to the players profile online, as well as statistical displays of the players wins, world ranking and calendar for planning events; this features an in-game currency known as "V$". Virtual Pool 4 multiplayer features all of the same gameplay as the original release, but without the offline season game modes, instructional videos; this version of the release features an annual membership fee, rather than a straight up cost of the game like the offline release.

However, purchasing the annual fee includes more V$. The offline version of the game includes a 1-year subscription of the online modes for free; the Hustle Mode allows the player to play games of Pool through a series of locations. The player has to defeat the boss of each location to unlock the next one; the player starts in a location of a converted garage, as the name suggests. The player needs to defeat Big T to continue. Moving to the Hawg Pen, a dirty bar, home to a gang of bikers, lead by Nightrain Lane. Next, The Pit Stop, an American style diner with a race car motif run by "The Hammer". Deep Pockets is another location, a grandouise hall for those with lots of cash, with a boss named "GQ". Hard Times a formal pool club, renowned for hustling pool run by "Tall Steve", and the final location in the hustle mode is the Beach House, where player "Curly" lives, is able to be challenged. Other locations to play games include a championship table for Pool and Snooker in other modes, Loch Lomond, a drafty Scottish castle nestled in the Highlands, an English Pub where Snooker only can be played.

Billiards can only be played in the location Monte Carlo, named after the location in the south of France. Virtual Pool 4 at MobyGames Official Virtual Pool 4 Website

Budin Eyalet

Budin Eyalet was an administrative territorial entity of the Ottoman Empire in Central Europe and the Balkans. It was formed on the territories that Ottoman Empire conquered from the medieval Kingdom of Hungary and Serbian Despotate; the capital of the Budin Province was Budin. Population of the province was ethnically and religiously diverse and included Hungarians, Serbs, Muslims of various ethnic origins and others; the city of Buda itself became majority Muslim during the seventeenth century through the immigration of Balkan Muslims. In the 16th century the Ottoman Empire had conquered the southern "line of fortresses" of the Kingdom of Hungary. After the Battle of Mohács where the Kingdom of Hungary was defeated, the turmoil caused by the defeat, the influence was spread on the middle part of the Kingdom of Hungary. While Ottoman troops invaded Buda in 1526 and 1529, Suleyman I used the Buda area as a territory of the allied kingdom and did not annex it to the Empire. In 1541, Suleyman decided to consolidate the conquered Buda area and to set it up as an organic part of the Empire.

He drove away the Austrian commander Roggendorf, besieging the city, on 29 August 1541 he took control of the city with a trick. He organised the first Central European eyalet with capital in Buda; the same year, several other cities fell under Ottoman rule: Szeged, Szabadka. In the years 1543-44, the Ottomans conquered the fortresses of Nógrád, Vác, Fehérvár, Pécs and Siklós which were embedded into the new vilajet. In 1552 the vilajet was expanded with new territories in the North, the new Eyalet of Temeşvar was established. Military control of the surrounding areas was driven from Budin; the following year, the advance of the Ottomans slowed down and the territory of the Budin vilajet did not change until the ending of the Fifteen Years War and the Peace of Zsitvatorok, where the Ottomans lost territories North of Nógrád. However Eğri and Kanije were captured during these wars and were shortly managed as sanjaks in this province; the territory of the eyalet was reduced in size with the establishment of the eyalets of Eğri and Kanije.

It remained the foremost Ottoman province in Central Europe, owing to the strategic importance of Budin as a major port on the Danube. In the 17th century Kara Mustafa conquered more vast areas from the Habsburg Kingdom of Hungary and its vassal Principality of Transylvania, but did not succeed in conquering Vienna in 1683; this failed attempt heralded the gradual decline of Ottoman power in Europe. On 2 September 1686 Budin was captured by the troops of the Holy League. Military conflicts were a regular occurrence on the Ottoman-Habsburg border, so there was a constant need of a significant military presence. If the sultan or the great commander was not present the post of general commander was taken by the pashas of Budin, his power was enlarged to Varad. The title of the Budin pasha was enhanced to be the great commander from 1623; the number of the troops in the province at this time is difficult to estimate. There are documents to show 10,200 soldiers in the fortresses in 1546, 12,451 soldiers in 1568.

Auxiliary troops called spahi's were present, but no accurate figures are available. The cost of maintaining this large force put pressure on the budget of the province. In 1552, for example, the Porte sent 440,000 gold coins to Budin to provision the army; the Ottoman Empire put all efforts to strengthen the stronghold at Budin. They built several rings of defence around Budin and defended roads for supplies to Vienna, as their aim was to crush the capital of the Habsburgs, which they did not succeed; the most important fortresses around Budin were Esztergom, Székesfehérvár, less important Vác and Visegrád. To the south, the most relevant fortress was Szigetvár. In the 145 years Ottoman era, the city of Budin was not converted to the "Italian" type of defensive fortress, in the fashion at that time; the old fortress was enlarged by the "Víziváros" walls and a small stronghold was built on the Gellért hill. The Budin Castle was standing on a Medieval castle, with more or less same walls as per now.

Various towers were built by Ottomans i.e. "Murad pasha tower" between 1650 and 1653. The walls were enlarged in Rózsadomb, Nap-hegy and on the side of the Danube; the main castle was walled inside, where they have made small openings so that the sentry could move easily. After 1541, province included following sanjaks: In about 1566, province included following sanjaks: In about 1600, province included following sanjaks: In 1610, province included following sanjaks: Before the end of Ottoman administration, province included following sanjaks: Ottoman Hungary Transformation of the Ottoman Empire#Hungary - on the Ottoman defensive system in Hungary. History of Ottoman Serbia Ottoman Croatia Ottoman Kosovo Peter Rokai - Zoltan Đere - Tibor Pal - Aleksandar Kasaš, Istorija Mađara, Beograd, 2002. Dr. Dušan J. Popović, Srbi u Vojvodini, knjiga 1, Novi Sad, 1990. Beylerbeys of Budin 1541 - 1686 Map Map Map Map Map Fortresses of the Kingdom of Hungary