National Capital Planning Commission
The National Capital Planning Commission is a U. S. government agency that provides planning guidance for Washington, D. C. and the surrounding National Capital Region. Through its planning policies and review of development proposals, the Commission seeks to protect and enhance the extraordinary resources of the national capital; the 12-member commission includes three presidential appointees, of which one must be from Virginia and one from Maryland, the mayor of Washington, D. C. the chairman of the Council of the District of Columbia, two mayoral appointees, the chairmen of the House and Senate committees with review authority over the District. Other commission members include the heads of the three major land holding agencies, which are the Department of Defense, the Department of the Interior, the General Services Administration; the Commission is supported by a professional staff of planners, urban designers, historic preservation officers, among others. Congress established the "National Capital Park Commission" in 1924 to acquire parkland for the capital in order to preserve forests and natural scenery in and about Washington to prevent pollution of Rock Creek and the Potomac and Anacostia Rivers, to provide for the comprehensive development of the nation's park system.
Two years Congress renamed the agency the "National Capital Park and Planning Commission" and gave it the additional responsibility of comprehensive planning for the Washington region. Among its early members was noted Philadelphia architect Clarence C. Zantzinger; the 1952 Capital Planning Act gave the commission its current name and the responsibility for preservation of important natural and historic sites in the area. The Home Rule Act of 1973 gave some of the commission's local planning authority to the District of Columbia government; the commission remains the planning authority of buildings in the region. In addition, NCPC plays an advisory role to the District in certain land use decisions. NCPC operates under many authorities that guide the agency's work; these include the National Capital Planning Act, Height of Buildings Act of 1910, Commemorative Works Act, District of Columbia Zoning Act, Foreign Missions Act, International Centers Act, NEPA, Home Rule Act, the Capper Crampton Act.
NCPC principle responsibilities include: Urban Design and Plan Review - NCPC’s core work is the review of federal development projects in the region. The Commission reviews plans and projects ranging from commemorative works to new or renovated federal office buildings. Through its work, NCPC ensures that federal development meets the highest urban design standards and complies with Commission policies, including the Comprehensive Plan for the National Capital: Federal Elements. NCPC reviews District of Columbia public projects, proposed street and alley closings, Zoning Commission actions, as well as private development in the Pennsylvania Avenue Historic District. Comprehensive Planning - When creating NCPC, Congress charged the agency with preparing a “comprehensive and coordinated plan for the National Capital.” The Comprehensive Plan for the National Capital: Federal Elements serves as a blueprint for long-term development through its policies on issues including transportation and historic features and open space, foreign missions.
The District Elements of the Comprehensive Plan are developed under the auspices of the Mayor of the District of Columbia and are subject to NCPC review prior to adoption by the District's City Council. Preparing long-range comprehensive plans is one of NCPC's missions mandated by Congress; the major comprehensive plans for the National Capital Region are the L'Enfant Plan and the McMillan Plan. Signature Planning - NCPC proactively develops long-term plans for the capital city and the region. NCPC’s signature plans focus on a variety of issues including developing well-designed perimeter security, ensuring that all quadrants of the city benefit from the federal presence, meeting 21st-century transportation challenges, planning for future memorials and museums, its most recent signature plans include the Monumental Core Framework Plan, adopted in April 2009 and CapitalSpace, a joint open space plan between NCPC, the Government of the District of Columbia and the National Park Service. In addition, the Circulator Bus was a direct product of NCPC advising.
Federal Capital Improvements Program - Each year, federal agencies submit to NCPC their proposals for capital improvements in the coming six years. NCPC reviews these projects and advises the Office of Management and Budget on which projects should move forward. Through the Federal Capital Improvements Program, NCPC helps set the federal government’s development priorities. NCPC works in partnership with other federal and District agencies such as the National Park Service, U. S. Commission of Fine Arts, District Office of Planning, District Department of Transportation; as part of its long-range planning responsibilities, NCPC produced a visionary blueprint for the nation’s capital. The 1997 plan Extending the Legacy: Planning America's Capital for the 21st century redefines Washington's monumental core and encourages the location of new museums and federal office buildings in all quadrants of the city; the Memorials and Museums Master Plan advances the vision for Washington's monumental core expressed in NCPC's Extending the Legacy.
It identifies 100 potential sites for future museums and memorials and provides general guidelines, siting criteria, implementation strategies. The Monumental Core Framework Plan: Connecting New Destinations with the National Mall received unanimous approval from the Commission during its April 2009 meeting; the plan, a joint product of NCPC and the U. S
Anacostia is a historic neighborhood in Washington, D. C, its downtown is located at the intersection of Good Hope Road and Martin Luther King, Jr. Avenue, it is located east of the Anacostia River. Like the other quadrants of Washington, D. C. Southeast encompasses a large number of named neighborhoods, of which Anacostia is the most well known. Anacostia includes all of the Anacostia Historic District, listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1978; the name Anacostia is incorrectly used to refer to the entire portion of the city, southeast of the Anacostia River. The name "Anacostia" comes from the anglicized name of a Nacochtank Native Americans settlement along the Anacostia River. Captain John Smith explored the area in 1608, traveling up the "Eastern Branch"—later the Anacostia River—mistaking it for the main body of the Potomac River, met Anacostans. Before the arrival of whites, the Nacostine villages in this area were a lively center of trade visited by Native Americans such as the Iroquois of New York.
After the founding of Maryland, Leonard Calvert, in a letter to a merchant in London, described "Anacostan" as one of the three best places in the colony for trading with natives. Around the year 1668, native peoples living south of Anacostia were forced northward by war. Anacostine Island, which first appeared on a 1670 map drawn by Augustine Herman, was settled by the Anacostans around this time; the core of what is now the Anacostia historic district was incorporated in 1854 as Uniontown and was one of the first suburbs in the District of Columbia. It was designed to be affordable for Washington's working class, many of whom were employed across the river at the Navy Yard; the initial subdivision of 1854 carried restrictive covenants prohibiting the sale, rental or lease of property to anyone of African or Irish descent. Abolitionist Frederick Douglass called "the sage of Anacostia", bought Cedar Hill, the estate belonging to the developer of Uniontown, in 1877 and lived there until he died in 1895.
The home is still maintained as the Frederick Douglass National Historic Site in Anacostia. During the Civil War, Anacostia was protected by a series of forts upon the hills southwest of the city. Following the conclusion of the war, the forts were dismantled and the land returned to its original owners. Anacostia, always part of the District of Columbia, became a part of the city of Washington when the city and District became coterminous in 1878. On January 27, 1886, the House of Representatives Committee on the District of Columbia voted in favor of renaming Uniontown to Anacostia. After the bill passed the House of Representatives, the Senate voted in favor of the name change; the name change became effective on April 22, 1886. At the time, property deeds restricted land ownership to people who were white, therefore Anacostia had only white residents; the opening of Pennsylvania Avenue Bridge in 1890 began to link Anacostia more to the rest of the District of Columbia. In 1932, during the Great Depression, unemployed World War I veterans from all across the country marched on Washington to demand immediate payment of a bonus promised to them.
The event became known as the Bonus Army Conflict. Most of the Bonus Army camped on Anacostia Flats, a swampy, muddy area along the Anacostia River reclaimed as Anacostia Park/Fairlawn Park. Fearing civil unrest, the President ordered the military to disperse the campers from Washington; the Army Chief of Staff General Douglas MacArthur dispersed them, but exceeded the orders of President Herbert Hoover by crossing the bridge to Anacostia and torching the veteran's encampment. MacArthur believed that the Bonus Army was led by Communists. George Patton and Dwight Eisenhower served under MacArthur during these events. Anacostia's population remained predominantly European-American up until the late 1950s and early 1960s, with whites comprising 87% of the population. During the 1960s, the Anacostia Freeway was constructed; the highway imposed a barrier between the Anacostia River waterfront. Numerous public housing apartment complexes were built in the neighborhood. With the flight of much of the middle class out of the neighborhood during the late 1950s and 1960s with the opportunity to move to newer housing in postwar suburbs, Anacostia's demographics changed as the neighborhood became predominantly African American.
Interactions between the area's white and black residents were contentious, as was the case in the 1949 Anacostia riot at a desegregated public pool. Shopping and entertainment facilities throughout greater Anacostia are limited, as development slowed with a decrease in income in the area. Residents must travel to either the suburbs or downtown Washington for these services. Anacostia, does have a year-round ice skating rink at Fort Dupont Park. St. Elizabeth's Hospital, D. C. Village and the Blue Plains sewage treatment plant were long-established Anacostia developments noted in a late-1990s report; the report cited attention to the area at that time from Hillary Clinton and Newt Gingrich. In 2005, Building Bridges Across the River opened the 110,000-square-foot Town Hall Education Arts Recreation Campus, home to eleven nonprofit organizations, all of which share the goal of helping children and adults reach their full potential. Free summer evening jazz concerts are given weekly in Fort Dupont Park.
The annual Martin Luther King Birthday Parade is
Linda W. Cropp
Linda Washington Cropp is an American politician from Washington, D. C. the capital of the United States. She was a Democratic member of the Council of the District of Columbia, where she was the first woman to serve as the elected Council Chairman. On September 12, 2006, she lost the Democratic Primary for Mayor to Adrian Fenty; this loss came in spite of the fact that Cropp had been endorsed by outgoing mayor Anthony A. Williams, she was succeeded as Council Chairman by Vincent C. Gray. Cropp received a bachelor's degree in government from Howard University in 1969. In 1971, she received a Master of Education degree in guidance and counseling from Howard University, she was a student-teacher at Eastern Senior High School. In 2002, Cropp received an Honorary Doctor of Humane Letters degree from the University of the District of Columbia and was awarded an Honorary Doctorate in Philosophy from the George Washington University in 2007. From 1970 to 1978, Cropp worked as a teacher and a counselor with the District of Columbia Public Schools.
In 1979, she ran for the District of Columbia Board of Education to represent Ward 4. At the time, she was a guidance counselor at Roosevelt Senior High School, her candidacy was supported by then-Mayor Marion Barry. Cropp won the election. Cropp started her first term representing Ward 4 on the D. C. Board of Education in 1980, she was elected vice president of the Board of Education in December 1984, president in January 1989. In 1988, Cropp ran to represent Ward 4 on the Council of the District of Columbia. Cropp criticized incumbent Charlene Drew Jarvis, saying Jarvis had too much allegiance to big businesses because they were the source of the great majority of her campaign contributions. Cropp said that Jarvis had not done enough to help small businesses along Georgia Avenue. Jarvis criticized Cropp for the disappointing results of public schools under Cropp's leadership of the Board of Education; the editorial board of The Washington Post endorsed Jarvis' reelection. Cropp was defeated by Jarvis in the Democratic Party Primary Election, 47% to 52%.
When Council Member Betty Ann Kane decided not to run for reelection to her at-large seat in 1990, Cropp ran to replace her. The editorial board of the Washington Post endorsed the campaign of Johnny Barnes. Cropp won the Democratic Party primary election. Cropp went on to win the general election with 38 percent of the vote. 1992 elected as chair of the Councilors Committee on Human Services 1994 re-elected at-large member of D. C. Council 1997 named acting Chairman of D. C. Council, following the death of David Clarke 1997 elected D. C. Council Chairman in a special election 1998 re-elected D. C. Council Chairman 2002 re-elected D. C. Council Chairman 2006 entered race for MayorAfter her 2006 loss, Cropp retired from politics. Cropp joined the board of two not-for-profit companies, the Community Preservation and Development Corp. and CareFirst BlueCross BlueShield, volunteered for two other local charities, Capital City Links and the D. C. chapter of Boys Town. In 2013 CareFirst BlueCross BlueShield promoted her to chairman of the board.
Cropp is married to Dwight S. Cropp, a doctor of public policy with a ph.d. from George Washington university. She has two children and Christopher, a grandson, Christian Alexander, she lives in Crestwood in Washington, D. C. Biography Metro Weekly interview
Alma mater is an allegorical Latin phrase for a university, school, or college that one attended. In US usage it can mean the school from which one graduated; the phrase is variously translated as "nourishing mother", "nursing mother", or "fostering mother", suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students. Fine arts will depict educational institutions using a robed woman as a visual metaphor. Before its current usage, alma mater was an honorific title for various Latin mother goddesses Ceres or Cybele, in Catholicism for the Virgin Mary, it entered academic usage when the University of Bologna adopted the motto Alma Mater Studiorum, which describes its heritage as the oldest operating university in the Western world. It is related to alumnus, a term used for a university graduate that means a "nursling" or "one, nourished". Although alma was a common epithet for Ceres, Cybele and other mother goddesses, it was not used in conjunction with mater in classical Latin. In the Oxford Latin Dictionary, the phrase is attributed to Lucretius' De rerum natura, where it is used as an epithet to describe an earth goddess: After the fall of Rome, the term came into Christian liturgical usage in association with the Virgin Mary.
"Alma Redemptoris Mater" is a well-known 11th century antiphon devoted to Mary. The earliest documented use of the term to refer to a university in an English-speaking country is in 1600, when the University of Cambridge printer, John Legate, began using an emblem for the university's press; the device's first-known appearance is on the title-page of William Perkins' A Golden Chain, where the Latin phrase Alma Mater Cantabrigia is inscribed on a pedestal bearing a nude, lactating woman wearing a mural crown. In English etymological reference works, the first university-related usage is cited in 1710, when an academic mother figure is mentioned in a remembrance of Henry More by Richard Ward. Many historic European universities have adopted Alma Mater as part of the Latin translation of their official name; the University of Bologna Latin name, Alma Mater Studiorum, refers to its status as the oldest continuously operating university in the world. Other European universities, such as the Alma Mater Lipsiensis in Leipzig, Germany, or Alma Mater Jagiellonica, have used the expression in conjunction with geographical or foundational characteristics.
At least one, the Alma Mater Europaea in Salzburg, Austria, an international university founded by the European Academy of Sciences and Arts in 2010, uses the term as its official name. In the United States, the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, has been called the "Alma Mater of the Nation" because of its ties to the country's founding. At Queen's University in Kingston and the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, British Columbia, the main student government is known as the Alma Mater Society; the ancient Roman world had many statues of the Alma Mater, some still extant. Modern sculptures are found in prominent locations on several American university campuses. For example, in the United States: there is a well-known bronze statue of Alma Mater by Daniel Chester French situated on the steps of Columbia University's Low Library. An altarpiece mural in Yale University's Sterling Memorial Library, painted in 1932 by Eugene Savage, depicts the Alma Mater as a bearer of light and truth, standing in the midst of the personified arts and sciences.
Outside the United States, there is an Alma Mater sculpture on the steps of the monumental entrance to the Universidad de La Habana, in Havana, Cuba. The statue was cast in 1919 by Mario Korbel, with Feliciana Villalón Wilson as the inspiration for Alma Mater, it was installed in its current location in 1927, at the direction of architect Raul Otero. Media related to Alma mater at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of alma mater at Wiktionary Alma Mater Europaea website
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States. The GOP was founded in 1854 by opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which had expanded slavery into U. S. territories. The party subscribed to classical liberalism and took ideological stands that were anti-slavery and pro-economic reform. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican president in the history of the United States; the Party was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System and Fourth Party System. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive Party after being rejected by the GOP and ran unsuccessfully as a third-party presidential candidate calling for social reforms. After the 1912 election, many Roosevelt supporters left the Party, the Party underwent an ideological shift to the right; the liberal Republican element in the GOP was overwhelmed by a conservative surge begun by Barry Goldwater in 1964 that continued during the Reagan Era in the 1980s. After the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the party's core base shifted, with the Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics and the Northeastern states becoming more reliably Democratic.
White voters identified with the Republican Party after the 1960s. Following the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade, the Republican Party made opposition to abortion a key plank of its national party platform and grew its support among evangelicals. By 2000, the Republican Party was aligned with Christian conservatism; the Party's core support since the 1990s comes chiefly from the South, the Great Plains, the Mountain States and rural areas in the North. The 21st century Republican Party ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats' liberal platform and progressive wing; the GOP supports lower taxes, free market capitalism, a strong national defense, gun rights and restrictions on labor unions. The GOP was committed to protectionism and tariffs from its founding until the 1930s when it was based in the industrial Northeast and Midwest, but has grown more supportive of free trade since 1952. In addition to advocating for conservative economic policies, the Republican Party is conservative.
Founded in the Northern states in 1854 by abolitionists, modernizers, ex-Whigs and ex-Free Soilers, the Republican Party became the principal opposition to the dominant Democratic Party and the popular Know Nothing Party. The party grew out of opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and opened Kansas Territory and Nebraska Territory to slavery and future admission as slave states; the Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil. The first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement, at which the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party, was held on March 20, 1854 in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin; the name was chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party. The first official party convention was held on July 1854 in Jackson, Michigan. At the 1856 Republican National Convention, the party adopted a national platform emphasizing opposition to the expansion of slavery into U. S. territories. While Republican candidate John C.
Frémont lost the 1856 United States presidential election to James Buchanan, he did win 11 of the 16 northern states. The Republican Party first came to power in the elections of 1860 when it won control of both houses of Congress and its candidate, former congressman Abraham Lincoln, was elected President. In the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. Under Republican congressional leadership, the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution—which banned slavery in the United States—passed the Senate in 1864 and the House in 1865; the party's success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s. Those who felt that Reconstruction had been accomplished, was continued to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant, ran Horace Greeley for the presidency; the Stalwart faction defended Grant and the spoils system, whereas the Half-Breeds pushed for reform of the civil service. The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act was passed in 1883.
The Republican Party supported hard money, high tariffs to promote economic growth, high wages and high profits, generous pensions for Union veterans, the annexation of Hawaii. The Republicans had strong support from pietistic Protestants, but they resisted demands for Prohibition; as the Northern postwar economy boomed with heavy and light industry, mines, fast-growing cities, prosperous agriculture, the Republicans took credit and promoted policies to sustain the fast growth. The GOP was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System. However, by 1890 the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers; the high McKinley Tariff of 1890 hurt the party and the Democrats swept to a landslide in the off-year elections defeating McKinley himself. The Democrats elected Grover Cleveland in 1884 and 1892; the election of William McKinley in 1896 was marked by a resurgence of Republican dominance that lasted until 1932.
McKinley promised that high tariffs would end the severe hardship caused by the Pa
David A. Clarke
David Allen "Dave" Clarke was a civil-rights worker and Democratic politician in Washington, D. C. Elected as one of the original members of the Council of the District of Columbia when D. C. gained home rule in 1974, Clarke served as its chair from 1983 to 1991, again from the death of John A. Wilson in 1993 until his own death in 1997; the District of Columbia School of Law was renamed the David A. Clarke School of Law for Clarke in 1998. David Allen Clarke was born in Baltimore, Maryland, on October 13, 1943, to Allen Joseph Clarke and Ophia Carroll Clarke. After his father died while he was an infant, his mother and he moved to Southwest, Washington, D. C. Clarke's mother worked as a clerk at the United States Department of Agriculture, they moved to the neighborhood of Shaw. Clarke attended public schools, namely Thompson Elementary School, Jefferson Junior High, Western High School. Clarke's mother died of tuberculosis when Clarke was 16 years old, he moved in with his aunt, living in Shaw.
Clarke earned a Bachelor of Arts in religion from George Washington University in 1965. He enrolled at Crozer Theological Seminary in Chester, but he longed to take a more direct role in the Civil Rights Movement. Two weeks Clarke transferred to the nearby Upland Institute for Social Change and Conflict Management. At Clarke's instance, Upland Institute sent him to work for Walter E. Fauntroy at the formed D. C. Coalition for Conscience; when Greater Washington Board of Trade opposed home rule for the District, Clarke protested next to the Washington Monument on July 4, 1966. When Clarke began reading the United States Declaration of Independence, he was arrested. Clarke decided to pursue a Juris Doctor from Howard University School of Law. Clarke arranged for legal assistance for protesters who participated in the Poor People's Campaign, a protest encampment on the Mall that lasted for five rainy weeks in the spring of 1968. Clarke ran the Washington office of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, founded by Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. Clarke graduated from Howard University School of Law in 1969, he opened a private practice the following year.
Before his service on Council of the District of Columbia, he was counsel and Director of the Washington Bureau of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference and was legal assistant to the N. A. A. C. P. Legal Defense Fund, he served as a program evaluator for the U. S. Senate Committee on Nutrition. In 1974, David Clarke was elected as the Ward One Representative on the Council of the District of Columbia- first Council elected by District of Columbia voters. During his eight years as the representative of Ward One, he was chairperson of the Judiciary Committee, a member of the Council’s Housing and Finance committee, chairperson of the Public Safety Committee of the Metropolitan Council of Governments, where he was a proponent of gun control, he and his wife, a city schoolteacher, had one son. While on the Council, he was known for an ability to transcend race, a legacy from his experience as an activist and important in a racially divided district, his aggressive style at times made consensus-building difficult.
Clarke died of a form of brain cancer. November 5, 1974 – elected Ward 1 council member November 7, 1978 – reelected Ward 1 council member November 2, 1982 – elected council chairman November 4, 1986 – reelected council chairman September 11, 1990 – ran for mayor and was defeated in primary by Sharon Pratt Dixon September 14, 1993 – elected council chairman in special election after death of John A. Wilson with 47 percent, beating Charlene Drew Jarvis, Linda Cropp, Marie Drissel November 8, 1994 – reelected council chairman December 30, 1996 – entered Georgetown University Hospital; the University of the District of Columbia's Law School bears his name: "The UDC David A. Clarke School of Law." "David Clarke, 53. The New York Times. 1997-03-29. Retrieved 2008-07-12. "About David A. Clarke". UDC David A. Clarke School of Law. Archived from the original on 2008-05-04. Retrieved 2008-07-17. Barras, Jonetta Rose. "The Strange World of David Clarke". Washington City Paper. Retrieved 2008-07-28
Marion Shepilov Barry was an American politician who served as the second mayor of the District of Columbia from 1979 to 1991, again as the fourth mayor from 1995 to 1999. A Democrat, Barry had served three tenures on the Council of the District of Columbia, representing as an at-large member from 1975 to 1979 and in Ward 8 from 1993 to 1995, again from 2005 to 2014. In the 1960s he was involved in the civil rights movement, first as a member of the Nashville Student Movement and serving as the first chairman of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. Barry came to national prominence as mayor of the national capital, the first prominent civil rights activist to become chief executive of a major American city, he gave the presidential nomination speech for Jesse Jackson at the 1984 Democratic National Convention. His celebrity was transformed into international notoriety in January 1990, when he was videotaped during a sting operation smoking crack cocaine and was arrested by Federal Bureau of Investigation officials on drug charges.
The arrest and subsequent trial precluded Barry from seeking re-election, he served six months in a federal prison. After his release, he was elected to the Council of the District of Columbia in 1992, he was elected again as mayor in 1994, serving from 1995 to 1999. Despite his history of political and legal controversies, Barry was a popular and influential figure in Washington, D. C; the alternative weekly Washington City Paper nicknamed him "Mayor for life", a designation that remained long after Barry left the mayoralty. The Washington Post once stated that "to understand the District of Columbia, one must understand Marion Barry". Marion Barry was born in rural Itta Bena, the third child of Mattie Cummings and Marion Barry, his father died when he was four years old, a year his mother moved the family to Memphis, where her employment prospects were better. His mother married David Cummings, a butcher, together they raised eight children. Growing up on Latham Street near South Parkway, Marion Barry attended Florida Elementary and graduated from Booker T. Washington High.
The first time Barry noticed racial issues was when he had to walk to school while the white students were assigned a school bus to ride. The schools were segregated, he had a number of jobs as a child, including picking cotton and selling newspapers, bagging groceries. While in high school, Barry worked as a waiter at the American Legion post and, at age 17, earned the rank of Eagle Scout. Marion Barry first began his spirit of civil rights activism; the paper he worked for organized a contest in which any boys who gained 15 new customers could win a trip to New Orleans. Barry and a couple of the other black paperboys reached the quota of 15 new customers yet were not allowed to go on the trip to New Orleans, a segregated city; the paper said. Barry decided to boycott his paper route. After the paper offered the black paperboys a chance to go to St. Louis, Missouri on a trip, because it was not a segregated city, Barry resumed his paper route. Barry attended LeMoyne–Owen College, in Memphis, graduating in 1958.
In his junior year, the racial injustices he had seen started to come together. He and his friends went to a segregated fairground in Memphis, went at a time reserved for whites, because they wanted to see the science exhibit; when they were close to the exhibit, a policeman asked them to leave. Barry and his friends left without protest. At that time, Barry did not know much about his race, or why they were treated poorly, but he resented the incident. Barry became more active in the NAACP chapter at LeMoyne-Owens, it is sometimes said that his ardent support of the civil rights movement earned him the nickname "Shep", in reference to Soviet politician Dmitri Shepilov, Barry began using Shepilov as his middle name. But Barry stated in his autobiography that he chose the name with regard to his middle initial S, which had stood for nothing, after having found Shepilov's name in newspapers: "I had picked out "Shepilov" as a middle name because it was the only one that I knew and liked". In 1958, at LeMoyne-Owens, he criticized a college trustee for remarks he felt were demeaning to African Americans, for which he was nearly expelled.
While a senior and the president of the NAACP chapter, Barry heard of Walter Chandler—the only white member on LeMoyne-Owen's board of trustees—making comments that black people should be treated as a "younger brother not as an adult". Barry wrote a letter to LeMoyne's president objecting to the comments and asking if Walter Chandler could be removed from the board. A friend of Barry's was the editor of the school newspaper, the Magician, told Barry to run the letter in the paper. From there, the letter made it to the front page of Memphis' conservative morning paper. Barry earned an M. S. in organic chemistry from Fisk University in 1960. He is a member of Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity. While in graduate school at Fisk, Barry was arrested several times while participating in the Nashville sit-ins to desegregate lunch counters and other Civil Rights Movement events. After graduating from Fisk, Barry continued to work in the Civil Rights Movement, focusing on the elimination of the racial segregation of bus passengers.
In 1960, Barry was elected as the first chairman of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. He helped develop an organizing project in Mississippi; the project was both a voter registration and a direct action endea