France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Carcagny is a commune in the Calvados department in the Normandy region in northwestern France. Communes of the Calvados department INSEE
Bricqueville is a commune in the Calvados department in the Normandy region in northwestern France. Communes of the Calvados department Bricqueville-la-Blouette Bricqueville-sur-Mer INSEE
Audrieu is a commune in the Calvados department in the Normandy region of north-western France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Aldériennes. Audrieu is located some 11 km south-east of 16 km west by north-west of Caen. Access to the commune is by the D 82 road from Ducy-Sainte-Marguerite in the north which passes south through the centre of the commune and the village and continues to Tilly-sur-Seulles in the south; the D goes west to Chouain. The D goes west to Juaye-Mondaye; the D158 goes north to Loucelles. The D goes east to Brouay; the railway from Bayeux to Caen passes through the north of the commune with a station at Le Haut des Jardins. Apart from the village there are the hamlets of Lieu Moussard, Hervieu, Le Haut des Jardins, Le Bas d'Audrieu, Le Calvaire, Ferme de la Motte, Hameau Pavie, Le Pont Roch; the commune is farmland with residential areas along the D 82. The Seulles river forms the western border of the commune as it flows north to join the ocean at Courseulles-sur-Mer.
Audrieu village dates back to Classical Antiquity. There are traces of a Motte-and-bailey castle; the first lord of the area was Percy, cook for William the Conqueror, who gave it to the descendants of the Duke of Northumberland. In 1593 Audrieu returned to Guillaume de Séran, who married Marguerite de Percy, whose lordship became a barony in 1615. After being sold in the French Revolution the château returned to the Séran family at the Restoration and is still in the hands of their descendants. During the Second World War Gerhard Bremer, commandant of the 12th Reconnaissance Battalion of the German army established his headquarters in the château. On 8 June 1944, in clearings and orchards surrounding the castle, 24 members of the 3rd Canadian Infantry Division were executed: 22 from the Royal Winnipeg Rifles and two from the Queen's Own Rifles of Canada. Two British soldiers were killed at the same time; the castle now houses restaurant. List of Successive Mayors In 2010 the commune had 1,042 inhabitants.
The evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger towns that have a sample survey every year. Population change Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 The commune has two buildings and sites that are registered as historical monuments: The Chateau of Audrieu; the Chateau is composed of a main building with two projecting pavilions and a centre topped by a triangular pediment. The Chateau of La Motte is older with the Saint-Louis chapel dating from the 13th century; the Chateau grounds Other sites of interest are: The Tailleboscq Mill on the Seulles river, converted to a Dairy in 1926. The Audrieu Railway Station or Le Haut des Jardins Station is far to the north of the village and is served by the Mantes-la-Jolie to Cherbourg line; the remains of the Motte-and-bailey castle The commune has one religious buildings, registered as a historical monument: The Church of Notre-Dame d'Audrieu.
The Church was founded by Vendôme, who owned a nearby priory-priest. The church depended additionally on the Baron of Audrieu; the Church contains three items that are registered as historical objects: A Painting: The Rosary A Statue: Saint John the Bapotist A Statue: Virgin and Child Jacques Berthault, called Bertaux, General in the Army of the Republic, born in Audrieu. Philippe Livry-Level, Grand-croix of the Legion of Honour, Companion of the Order of Liberation, Mayor of Audrieu. Monique Livry-Level, daughter of Philippe Livry-Level, resistance fighter, Commandeur of the Legion of Honour, Médaille militaire, Croix de guerre 1939-1945, the King's Medal for Courage in the Cause of Freedom. Communes of the Calvados department Audrieu on Google Maps Audrieu on Géoportail, National Geographic Institute website Audrieu on the 1750 Cassini Map Audrieu on the INSEE website INSEE
Bernesq is a commune in the Calvados department in the Normandy region in northwestern France. The collieries of Littry exploit several mine pits in the town between the end of the 18th century and the middle of the 19th century. Communes of the Calvados department INSEE
Balleroy-sur-Drôme is a commune in the department of Calvados, northwestern France. The municipality was established on 1 January 2016 by merger of the former communes of Balleroy and Vaubadon. Communes of the Calvados department
Subprefectures in France
In France, a subprefecture is the administrative center of a departmental arrondissement that does not contain the prefecture for its department. The term applies to the building that houses the administrative headquarters for an arrondissement; the civil servant in charge of a subprefecture is the subprefect, assisted by a general secretary. Between May 1982 and February 1988, subprefects were known instead by the title commissaire adjoint de la République. Where the administration of an arrondissement is carried out from a prefecture, the general secretary to the prefect carries out duties equivalent to those of the subprefect; the municipal arrondissements of Paris and Marseille are divisions of the city rather than the prefecture, so are not arrondissements in the same sense. List of subprefectures of France List of arrondissements of France