Communes of France
The commune is a level of administrative division in the French Republic. French communes are analogous to civil townships and incorporated municipalities in the United States and Canada, Gemeinden in Germany, comuni in Italy or ayuntamiento in Spain; the United Kingdom has no exact equivalent, as communes resemble districts in urban areas, but are closer to parishes in rural areas where districts are much larger. Communes are based on historical geographic communities or villages and are vested with significant powers to manage the populations and land of the geographic area covered; the communes are the fourth-level administrative divisions of France. Communes vary in size and area, from large sprawling cities with millions of inhabitants like Paris, to small hamlets with only a handful of inhabitants. Communes are based on pre-existing villages and facilitate local governance. All communes have names, but not all named geographic areas or groups of people residing together are communes, the difference residing in the lack of administrative powers.
Except for the municipal arrondissements of its largest cities, the communes are the lowest level of administrative division in France and are governed by elected officials with extensive autonomous powers to implement national policy. A commune is city, or other municipality. "Commune" in English has a historical bias, implies an association with socialist political movements or philosophies, collectivist lifestyles, or particular history. There is nothing intrinsically different between commune in French; the French word commune appeared in the 12th century, from Medieval Latin communia, for a large gathering of people sharing a common life. As of January 2015, there were 36,681 communes in France, 36,552 of them in metropolitan France and 129 of them overseas; this is a higher total than that of any other European country, because French communes still reflect the division of France into villages or parishes at the time of the French Revolution. The whole territory of the French Republic is divided into communes.
This is unlike some other countries, such as the United States, where unincorporated areas directly governed by a county or a higher authority can be found. There are only a few exceptions: COM of Saint-Martin, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe région. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Martin became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. COM of Wallis and Futuna, which still is divided according to the three traditional chiefdoms. COM of Saint Barthélemy, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe region. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Barthélemy became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. Furthermore, two regions without permanent habitation have no communes: TOM of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands Clipperton Island in the Pacific Ocean In metropolitan France, the average area of a commune in 2004 was 14.88 square kilometres. The median area of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was smaller, at 10.73 square kilometres. The median area is a better measure of the area of a typical French commune.
This median area is smaller than that of most European countries. In Italy, the median area of communes is 22 km2. Switzerland and the Länder of Rhineland-Palatinate, Schleswig-Holstein, Thuringia in Germany were the only places in Europe where the communes had a smaller median area than in France; the communes of France's overseas départements such as Réunion and French Guiana are large by French standards. They group into the same commune several villages or towns with sizeable distances among them. In Réunion, demographic expansion and sprawling urbanization have resulted in the administrative splitting of some communes; the median population of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was 380 inhabitants. Again this is a small number, here France stands apart in Europe, with the lowest communes' median population of all the European countries; this small median population of French communes can be compared with Italy, where the median population of communes in 2001 was 2,343 inhabitants, Belgium, or Spain.
The median population given here should not hide the fact that there are pronounced differences in size between French communes. As mentioned in the introduction, a commune can be a city of 2 million inhabitants such as Paris, a town of 10,000 inhabitants, or just a hamlet of 10 inhabitants. What the median population tells us is that the vast majority of the French communes only have a few hundred inhabitants. In metropolitan France just over 50 percent of the 36,683 communes have fewer than 500 inhabitants a
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Bastia is a French commune in the Haute-Corse department of France located in the north-east of the island of Corsica at the base of Cap Corse. It has the second-highest population of any commune on the island after Ajaccio and is the capital of the Bagnaja region and of the department. Bastia is the principal port of the island and its principal commercial town and is famous for its wines. 10% of the population are immigrants. The unemployment rate in the commune has persistently been one of the highest in France, standing at over 20% in 2004; the inhabitants of the commune are known as Bastiaises. The commune has been awarded three flowers by the National Council of Towns and Villages in Bloom in the Competition of cities and villages in Bloom. Located in the North-East of Corsica at the base of the Cap Corse, between the sea and the mountain, Bastia is the principal port of the island; the city is located 35 km away from the northern tip of the Cap Corse, 50 km west from Elba, an Italian island, 90 km away from continental Italy which can be seen a few days per year when visibility is excellent.
In terms of geography, Bastia is defined by its position between the mountain. The city is located on a 960 m mountain; this steep mountain and several hills in the city shape a relief typical of the Cap Corse. This pronounced landscape caused the city to develop on a coastal band about 1.5 km wide, a limited part of the 19.38 km2 that the commune has. Above all, Bastia is a port, the sea has of course a significant role in the spatial organization of the city. Bastia possesses nowadays three different ports; the old port, located in a remarkable and narrow cove, offers good natural shelter against the climatic hazards of the Mediterranean Sea. Thus, it was at the core of the initial development of the city. Nowadays, many pleasure and fishing boats are still there, but it is not as economically vital than the other more modern ports, although its touristic and aesthetic charm makes the old port the official emblem of the city. In fact, many cafés, bars and restaurants have moved to its docks to which access is granted by the city for pedestrians only during summer evenings.
A bit more to the North is located the ferry port. As a major economic asset of the city, the "port de commerce" is the pulse of the city, it is more so during the summer when ferry arrivals and departures of thousands of passengers and cars can sometimes cause long traffic jams along the north–south axis, the national road RN193. In front of the commercial port, the large Saint-Nicolas square represents the heart of the city. Just North of the commercial port, the Toga marina, named after a city neighborhood, is a harbor for leisure boating activities like sailing and yachting. There are some bars and night clubs on its docks. Thus, Bastia is logically organized on a narrow north–south axis which can make access to the city centre difficult under particular circumstances. Nowadays, the city centre is composed of the "citadelle", the stronghold called Terra-Nova, with the Genoese Governors' Palace, the old port and its popular quarter and the market plaza, the ensemble of buildings along the "Boulevard Paoli", the main commercial street of the city, which lies from the Justice Court to the Avenue Maréchal Sebastiani.
During the last few decades and its region have experienced a strong demographic growth, which has cause somewhat of a suburban crawl in the South of the city, because of the congestion of the city center. The commune is located in the Alpine Eastern Corsica region, formed from "a succession of Autochthons, para-Autochtons and Allochthons; the first two coincide with the central depression. The Allochtons are in the area of lustrous schists and ophiolites corresponding to the eastern relief", its base rests on a granite bedrock, covered with oceanic layers of: Sedimentary rocks on the east coast, ranging from the mouth of the Ruisseau de Lupino north to the south bank of the mouth of the Travo lustrous schists along the entire eastern side of Cap Corse, ophiolite deposited in eastern Corsica during the Eocene period. Note the presence of copper ore in Cardo, once the subject of a concession. Geographically, Bastia is characterized by its location between the mountains; the commune lies on the eastern flank of the "Serra di Pignu" a mountain which rises to 960 m above sea level.
This steep mountain with other hills around Bastia forms the typical terrain of Cap Corse. This pronounced relief explains the development of the city on a coastal strip of about 1.5 km in width, a limited proportion of the 19.38 km2 of the whole commune. The river network is sparse. There are three small streams flowing from west to east: in the north the Ruisseau Fiuminale rises in the north-west of the commune 400 m north-east of Monte Muzzone. Along its length of 4.3 kilometres it forms the border between the communes of Bastia and Ville-di-Pietrabugno from its source to the roundabout of the Annunciation. Part of its course is covered in the city from the path of the Annunciation to the port where it empties into the Tyrrhenian Sea, it is fed by the Ruisseau de Cardo. in the centre, the Ruisseau de Lupino is 4.3 ki
Calvi is a commune in the Haute-Corse department of France on the island of Corsica. It is the seat of the Canton of Calvi, which contains one other commune, Lumio. Calvi is the capital of the Arrondissement of Calvi, which contains, besides the Canton of Calvi, three other cantons: L'Île-Rousse, Belgodère, Calenzana; the 2nd Foreign Parachute Regiment of the French Foreign Legion is based in the citadel of Calvi. According to legend, Christopher Columbus came from Calvi, which at the time was part of the Genoese Empire; because the subversive elements of the island gave its inhabitants a bad reputation, he would have been expected to mask his exact birthplace. Calvi is located on the northwest coast of the island of Corsica, 95 km from Bastia and 24 km from L'Île-Rousse, it is the fifth-largest commune in Corsica. The motto, "Calvi semper fidelis", referred to its loyalty to the Republic of Genoa; the republic instated there a closed city center in 1278, built a new castle in 1491 to face new artillery technologies.
During the war with Revolutionary France, British forces under Admiral Nelson and Lieutenant-General Charles Stuart captured the city in the Siege of Calvi. It was during the bombardment of Calvi; the economy of Calvi is based on summer tourism, which started in 1950 due to the pioneering efforts of Vladimir Raitz. Calvi is served by the international Calvi - Sainte-Catherine Airport, the Xavier Colonna Port, a railway line to L'Île-Rousse and Ponte-Leccia, where it connects with the main line Ajaccio - Bastia. Tour du Sel and the citadel Église Sainte-Marie de Calvi Communes of the Haute-Corse department Festival du Vent FCA Calvi INSEE Official website
Haute-Corse is a former department of France, consisting of the northern part of the island of Corsica. It and the other Corsican department, Corse-du-Sud, merged on 1 January 2018 with the single collectivity of Corsica, with territorial elections coinciding with the dissolution of the separate councils; the people living in the former department are called "Northerners". The department was formed on 15 September 1975, when the department of Corsica was divided into Upper Corsica and South Corsica; the department corresponds to the former department of Golo, which existed between 1793 and 1811. On 6 July 2003, a referendum on increased autonomy was voted down by a thin majority: 50.98 percent against to 49.02 percent for. This was a major setback for French Minister of the Interior Nicolas Sarkozy, who had hoped to use Corsica as the first step in his decentralization policies; the former department is surrounded on three sides by the Mediterranean Sea and on the south by the department of Corse-du-Sud.
Cantons of the Haute-Corse department Communes of the Haute-Corse department Arrondissements of the Haute-Corse department General Council website Haute-Corse at Curlie University of Corsica website Corsica Isula
Arrondissements of the Ardèche department
The 3 arrondissements of the Ardèche department are: Arrondissement of Largentière, with 151 communes. The population of the arrondissement was 97,967 in 2013. Arrondissement of Privas, with 66 communes; the population of the arrondissement was 87,324 in 2013. Arrondissement of Tournon-sur-Rhône, with 118 communes; the population of the arrondissement was 135,088 in 2013
Subprefectures in France
In France, a subprefecture is the administrative center of a departmental arrondissement that does not contain the prefecture for its department. The term applies to the building that houses the administrative headquarters for an arrondissement; the civil servant in charge of a subprefecture is the subprefect, assisted by a general secretary. Between May 1982 and February 1988, subprefects were known instead by the title commissaire adjoint de la République. Where the administration of an arrondissement is carried out from a prefecture, the general secretary to the prefect carries out duties equivalent to those of the subprefect; the municipal arrondissements of Paris and Marseille are divisions of the city rather than the prefecture, so are not arrondissements in the same sense. List of subprefectures of France List of arrondissements of France