The art and technology of papermaking addresses the methods and materials used to make paper and cardboard, these being used for printing and packaging, among many other purposes and useful products. Today all paper is manufactured using industrial machinery, while handmade paper survives as a specialized craft and a medium for artistic expression. In papermaking, a dilute suspension consisting of separate cellulose fibres in water is drained through a sieve-like screen, so that a mat of randomly interwoven fibres is laid down. Water is further removed from this sheet by pressing, sometimes aided by suction or vacuum, or heating. Once dry, a flat and strong sheet of paper is achieved. Before the invention and current widespread adoption of automated machinery, all paper was made by hand, formed or laid one sheet at a time by specialized laborers. Today those who make paper by hand use tools and technologies quite similar to those existing hundreds of years ago, as developed in China and Asia, or those further modified in Europe.
Handmade paper is still appreciated for its distinctive uniqueness and the skilled craft involved in making each sheet, in contrast with the higher degree of uniformity and perfection at lower prices achieved among industrial products. While monitoring and action by concerned citizens, as well as improvements within the industry itself are limiting the worst abuses, papermaking continues to be of concern from an environmental perspective, due to its use of harsh chemicals, its need for large amounts of water, the resulting contamination risks, as well as trees being used as the primary source of wood pulp. Paper made from other fibers, cotton being the most common, tends to be valued higher than wood-based paper. Hemp paper had been used in China for wrapping and padding since the eighth century BCE.. Paper with legible Chinese writings on it has been dated to 8 BCE; the traditional inventor attribution is of Cai Lun, an official attached to the Imperial court during the Han Dynasty, said to have invented paper about 105 CE using mulberry and other bast fibres along with fishnets, old rags, hemp waste.
Paper used as a writing medium had become widespread by the 3rd century and, by the 6th century, toilet paper was starting to be used in China as well. During the Tang Dynasty paper was folded and sewn into square bags to preserve the flavour of tea, while the Song Dynasty was the first government to issue paper-printed money. In the 8th century, papermaking spread to the Islamic world, where the process was refined, machinery was designed for bulk manufacturing. Production began in Samarkand, Damascus, Cairo and Muslim Spain. In Baghdad, papermaking was under the supervision of the Grand Vizier Ja'far ibn Yahya. Muslims invented a method to make a thicker sheet of paper; this innovation helped transform papermaking from an art into a major industry. The earliest use of water-powered mills in paper production the use of pulp mills for preparing the pulp for papermaking, dates back to Samarkand in the 8th century; the earliest references to paper mills come from the medieval Islamic world, where they were first noted in the 9th century by Arabic geographers in Damascus.
Traditional papermaking in Asia uses the inner bark fibers of plants. This fiber is soaked, cooked and traditionally hand-beaten to form the paper pulp; the long fibers are layered to form translucent sheets of paper. In Eastern Asia, three traditional fibers are abaca and gampi. In the Himalayas, paper is made from the lokta plant. Today, this paper is used for calligraphy, book arts, three-dimensional work, including origami. In Europe, papermaking moulds using metallic wire were developed, features like the watermark were well established by 1300 CE, while hemp and linen rags were the main source of pulp, cotton taking over after Southern plantations made that product in large quantities. Papermaking was not popular in Europe due to not having many advantages over papyrus and parchment, it wasn't until the 15th century with the invention of the movable type printing and its demand for paper that many paper mills entered production, papermaking became an industry. Modern papermaking began in the early 19th century in Europe with the development of the Fourdrinier machine.
This machine produces a continuous roll of paper rather than individual sheets. These machines are large; some produce paper 150 meters in length and 10 meters wide. They can produce paper at a rate of 100 km/h. In 1844, Canadian Charles Fenerty and German F. G. Keller had associated process to make use of wood pulp in papermaking; this innovation ended the nearly 2,000-year use of pulped rags and start a new era for the production of newsprint and almost all paper was made out of pulped wood. Papermaking, regardless of the scale on which it is done, involves making a dilute suspension of fibres in water, called "furnish", forcing this suspension to drain through a screen, to produce a mat of interwoven fibres. Water is removed from this mat of fibres using a press; the method of manual papermaking changed little over time, despite advances in technologies. The process of manufacturing handmade paper can be generalized into five steps: Separating the useful fibre from the rest of raw materials. Beating down the fibre into pulp Adjusting the colour, chemical and other properties of the paper by adding special chemical premixes Screening the resulting solution Pressing and drying to get the actual paperScreening the fibre involves using a mesh made from
Fruit preserves are preparations of fruits and sugar stored in glass jam jars. Many varieties of fruit preserves are made globally, including sweet fruit preserves, such as those made from strawberry or apricot, savory preserves, such as those made from tomatoes or squash; the ingredients used and how they are prepared determine the type of preserves. In English, the word, in plural form, "preserves" is used to describe all types of jellies; the term preserves is interchangeable with jams. Other names include: chutney, conserve, fruit butter, fruit curd, fruit spread and marmalade; some cookbooks define preserves as cooked and gelled whole fruit, which includes a significant portion of the fruit. In the English speaking world, the two terms are more differentiated and, when this is not the case, the more usual generic term is'jam'; the singular preserve or conserve is used as a collective noun for high fruit content jam for marketing purposes. Additionally, the name of the type of fruit preserves will vary depending on the regional variant of English being used.
A chutney is a relish of Indian origin made of fruit and herbs. Although intended to be eaten soon after production, modern chutneys are made to be sold, so require preservatives – sugar and vinegar – to ensure they have a suitable shelf life. Mango chutney, for example, is mangoes reduced with sugar. While confit, the past participle of the French verb confire, "to preserve", is most applied to preservation of meats, it is used for fruits or vegetables seasoned and cooked with honey or sugar till jam-like. Savory confits, such as ones made with garlic or fennel, may call for a savory oil, such as virgin olive oil, as the preserving agent. Konfyt is a type of jam eaten in Southern Africa, it is made by boiling selected fruit or fruits and sugar, optionally adding a small quantity of ginger to enhance the flavour. The origins of the jam is obscure but it is theorized that it came from the French; the word is based on the French term confiture via the Dutch confijt. A conserve, or whole fruit jam, is a preserve made of fruit stewed in sugar.
Traditional whole fruit preserves are popular in Eastern Europe where they are called varenye, the Baltic region where they're known by a native name in each of the countries, as well as in many regions of Western and Southern Asia, where they are referred to as murabba. The making of conserves can be trickier than making a standard jam; this process can be achieved by spreading the dry sugar over raw fruit in layers, leaving for several hours to steep into the fruit just heating the resulting mixture only to bring to the setting point. As a result of this minimal cooking, some fruits are not suitable for making into conserves, because they require cooking for longer periods to avoid issues such as tough skins. Currants and gooseberries, a number of plums are among these fruits; because of this shorter cooking period, not as much pectin will be released from the fruit, as such, conserves will sometimes be softer set than some jams. An alternative definition holds that conserves are preserves made from a mixture of fruits or vegetables.
Conserves may include dried fruit or nuts. Fruit butter, in this context, refers to a process where the whole fruit is forced through a sieve or blended after the heating process. "Fruit butters are made from larger fruits, such as apples, peaches or grapes. Cook until softened and run through a sieve to give a smooth consistency. After sieving, cook the pulp... add sugar and cook as as possible with constant stirring.… The finished product should mound up when dropped from a spoon, but should not cut like jelly. Neither should there be any free liquid."—Berolzheimer R et al. Fruit curd is a dessert topping and spread made with lemon, orange, or raspberry; the basic ingredients are beaten egg yolks, fruit juice and zest which are cooked together until thick and allowed to cool, forming a soft, intensely flavored spread. Some recipes include egg whites or butter. Although the FDA has Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Butters, Jellies and Related Products, there is no specification of the meaning of the term Fruit spread.
Although some assert it refers to a jam or preserve with no added sugar, there are many fruit spreads by leading manufacturers that do contain added sugar. This can be verified by searching the listings under fruit spread on common web sites, such as those of Amazon or Walmart, or to look at the ingredient list and nutritional information on specific fruit spread products. Jam contains both the juice and flesh of a fruit or vegetable, although one cookbook defines it as a cooked and jelled puree; the term "jam" refers to a product made of whole fruit cut into pieces or crushed heated with water and sugar to activate its pectin before being put into containers: "Jams are made from pulp and juice of one fruit, rather than a com
The Garifuna are an indigenous people from the Caribbean island of St. Vincent who speak an eponymous Arawakan language. While they are ancestrally and genealogically descended from groups that migrated from the Lesser Antilles Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, many Garifuna today are of mixed ancestry with West African, Central African, Island Carib and Arawak admixture. Most Garifuna people live along the Caribbean coast of Honduras, with smaller populations in Belize and Nicaragua, they arrived there after being exiled from the islands of the Lesser Antilles by British colonial administration as "Black Caribs" after a series of slave rebellions. Those Caribs deemed to have had less African admixture were not exiled and are still present in the Caribbean. There is now a large number that have moved to the United States; the Carib people migrated from the mainland to the islands circa 1200, according to carbon dating of artifacts. They displaced and assimilated the Taíno who were resident on the islands at the time.
The French missionary Raymond Breton arrived in the Lesser Antilles in 1635, lived on Guadeloupe and Dominica until 1653. He took ethnographic and linguistic notes on the native peoples of these islands, including St. Vincent, which he visited briefly. According to oral history noted by the English governor William Young in 1795, Carib-speaking people of the Orinoco area on the mainland came to Saint Vincent long before the arrival of Europeans to the New World, they subdued the local inhabitants called Galibeis, unions took place between the peoples. According to Young's record, the first Africans arrived in 1675 following the wreck of a slave ship from the Bight of Biafra; the survivors, members of the Mokko people of today's Nigeria and the British sailors, reached the small island of Bequia. The Carib took them to Saint Vincent and intermarried with them, supplying the men with wives, as it was taboo in their society for men to go unwed. In 1635 the Carib were overwhelmed by French forces led by the adventurer Pierre Belain d'Esnambuc and his nephew Jacques Dyel du Parquet.
They imposed French colonial rule. Cardinal Richelieu of France gave the island to the Compagnie de Saint-Christophe, in which he was a shareholder; the company was reorganized as the Compagnie des Îles de l'Amérique. The French colonists imposed French Law on the inhabitants, Jesuit missionaries arrived to forcibly convert them to the Catholic Church; because the Carib people resisted working as laborers to build and maintain the sugar and cocoa plantations which the French began to develop in the Caribbean, in 1636, Louis XIII of France proclaimed La Traité des Noirs. This authorized the capture and purchase of slaves from sub-Saharan Africa and their transportation as labor to Martinique and other parts of the French West Indies. In 1650, the Company liquidated, he held this position until his death in 1658. His widow Mme. du Parquet took over control of the island from France. As more French colonists arrived, they were attracted to the fertile area known as Cabesterre; the French had pushed the remaining Carib people to this northeastern coast and the Caravalle Peninsula, but the colonists wanted the additional land.
The Jesuits and the Dominicans agreed that whichever order arrived there first, would get all future parishes in that part of the island. The Jesuits came by sea and the Dominicans by land, with the Dominicans' prevailing; when the Carib revolted against French rule in 1660, the Governor Charles Houël du Petit Pré retaliated with war against them. Many were killed. On Martinique, the French colonists signed a peace treaty with the few remaining Carib; some Carib had fled to Saint Vincent, where the French agreed to leave them at peace. Britain and France both made conflicting claims on Saint Vincent from the late seventeenth century onward. French pioneers began informally cultivating plots on the island around 1710. In 1719 the governor of Martinique sent a force to occupy it, but was repulsed by the Carib inhabitants. A British attempt in 1723 was repelled. In 1748, Britain and France agreed to put aside their claims and declared Saint Vincent to be a neutral island, under no European sovereign.
Throughout this period, unofficial French settlement took place on the island on the Leeward side. African refugees continued to reach Saint Vincent, a mixed-race population developed through unions with the Carib. In 1763 by the Treaty of Paris, Britain gained rule over Saint Vincent following its defeat of France in the Seven Years' War, fought in both Europe and North America, it took over all French territory in North America east of the Mississippi River. Through the rest of the century, the Carib-African natives mounted a series of Carib Wars, which were encouraged and supported by the French. By the end of the 18th century, the indigenous population was mixed race. Following the death of their leader Satuye, the Carib on Saint Vincent surrendered to the British in 1796 after the Second Carib War, having resisted for much longer than natives on other islands. "St. Vincent was the last of the Windward Islands to be subjugated."This was in the period of the violent slave revolts in the French colony of Saint-Domingue, which led to the slaves gaining the independent republic of Haiti in 1804.
The French lost thousands of troops in an attempt to take back the island in 1803, many to yellow fever epidemics. Thousands of whites and free people of color were ki
Manihot esculenta called cassava, yuca, mandioca and Brazilian arrowroot, is a woody shrub native to South America of the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae. It is extensively cultivated as an annual crop in tropical and subtropical regions for its edible starchy tuberous root, a major source of carbohydrates. Though it is called yuca in Spanish and in the United States, it is not related to yucca, a shrub in the family Asparagaceae. Cassava, when dried to a powdery extract, is called tapioca. Cassava is the third-largest source of food carbohydrates in the tropics, after maize. Cassava is a major staple food in the developing world, providing a basic diet for over half a billion people, it is one of the most drought-tolerant crops, capable of growing on marginal soils. Nigeria is the world's largest producer of cassava, while Thailand is the largest exporter of dried cassava. Cassava is classified as either bitter. Like other roots and tubers, both bitter and sweet varieties of cassava contain antinutritional factors and toxins, with the bitter varieties containing much larger amounts.
It must be properly prepared before consumption, as improper preparation of cassava can leave enough residual cyanide to cause acute cyanide intoxication and ataxia, partial paralysis, or death. The more toxic varieties of cassava are a fall-back resource in times of famine or food insecurity in some places. Farmers prefer the bitter varieties because they deter pests and thieves; the cassava root is long and tapered, with a firm, homogeneous flesh encased in a detachable rind, about 1 mm thick and brown on the outside. Commercial cultivars can be 5 to 10 cm in diameter at the top, around 15 to 30 cm long. A woody vascular bundle runs along the root's axis; the flesh can be yellowish. Cassava roots are rich in starch and contain small amounts of calcium and vitamin C. However, they are poor in protein and other nutrients. In contrast, cassava leaves are a good source of protein, but deficient in the amino acid methionine and tryptophan. Wild populations of M. esculenta subspecies flabellifolia, shown to be the progenitor of domesticated cassava, are centered in west-central Brazil, where it was first domesticated no more than 10,000 years BP.
Forms of the modern domesticated species can be found growing in the wild in the south of Brazil. By 4,600 BC, manioc pollen appears in the Gulf of Mexico lowlands, at the San Andrés archaeological site; the oldest direct evidence of cassava cultivation comes from a 1,400-year-old Maya site, Joya de Cerén, in El Salvador. With its high food potential, it had become a staple food of the native populations of northern South America, southern Mesoamerica, the Caribbean by the time of European contact in 1492. Cassava was a staple food of pre-Columbian peoples in the Americas and is portrayed in indigenous art; the Moche people depicted yuca in their ceramics. Spaniards in their early occupation of Caribbean islands did not want to eat cassava or maize, which they considered insubstantial and not nutritious, they much preferred foods from Spain wheat bread, olive oil, red wine, meat, considered maize and cassava damaging to Europeans. For these Christians in the New World, cassava was not suitable for communion since it could not undergo transubstantiation and become the body of Christ.
"Wheat flour was the symbol of Christianity itself" and colonial-era catechisms stated explicitly that only wheat flour could be used. The cultivation and consumption of cassava was nonetheless continued in both Portuguese and Spanish America. Mass production of cassava bread became the first Cuban industry established by the Spanish, Ships departing to Europe from Cuban ports such as Havana, Santiago and Baracoa carried goods to Spain, but sailors needed to be provisioned for the voyage; the Spanish needed to replenish their boats with dried meat, water and large amounts of cassava bread. Sailors complained. Tropical Cuban weather was not suitable for wheat planting and cassava would not go stale as as regular bread. Cassava was introduced to Africa by Portuguese traders from Brazil in the 16th century. Around the same period, it was introduced to Asia through Columbian Exchange by Portuguese and Spanish traders, planted in their colonies in Goa, Eastern Indonesia and the Philippines. Maize and cassava are now important staple foods.
Cassava has become an important staple in Asia, extensively cultivated in Indonesia and Vietnam. Cassava is sometimes described as the "bread of the tropics" but should not be confused with the tropical and equatorial bread tree, the breadfruit or the African breadfruit. In 2016, global production of cassava root was 277 million tonnes, with Nigeria as the world's largest producer having 21% of the world total. Other major growers were Thailand and Indonesia. Cassava is one of the most drought-tolerant crops, can be grown on marginal soils, gives reasonable yields where many other crops do not grow well. Cassava is well adapted within latitudes 30° north and south of the equator, at elevations between sea level and 2,000 m above sea level, in equatorial temperatures, with rainfalls from 50 mm to 5 m annually, to poor soils with a pH ranging from acidic to alkaline; these conditions are common in certain parts of Africa and So
Saint Vincent (Antilles)
Saint Vincent is a volcanic island in the Caribbean. It is the largest island of the country Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, it is located between Saint Lucia and Grenada. It is composed of submerged volcanic mountains, its largest volcano and the country's highest peak, La Soufrière, is active, having last erupted in 1979. The territory was disputed between France and the United Kingdom in the 18th century, before being ceded to the British in 1763 and again in 1783, it gained independence on October 27, 1979. 100,000 people live on the island. Kingstown is the chief town; the rest of the population is dispersed along the coastal strip, which includes the other five main towns of Layou, Chateaubelair and Calliaqua. The people of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines are called Vincentians, or colloquially Vincies. There are a few white descendants of English and French colonists, as well as a significant number of Indo-Vincentians, descendants of indentured workers with Indian heritage and there is a sizable minority of mixed race.
The population of the island in 2012 was about 100,000. The main religions are Anglican, Roman Catholic, other Protestant denominations such as Seventh-day Adventist, Hinduism. Adult literacy was 88.1% in 2004. Infant mortality in 2006 was 17 per 1,000 live births and life expectancy for men stood at 69 years, with 74 years for women; the active workforce in 2006 was 57,695 and unemployment in 2004 was 12%. Before 1498, the island had been called Hairouna by the Caribs. Columbus named the island Saint Vincent, since it is said to have been discovered on 22 January, the feast day of the patron saint of Lisbon and Valencia, Vincent of Saragossa. Columbus and the Spanish conquistadors ignored St. Vincent and the smaller Grenadine islands nearby, but focused instead on the pursuit of gold and silver in Central and South America, they did embark on slaving expeditions in and around St. Vincent following royal sanction in 1511, driving the Carib inhabitants to the rugged interior, but the Spanish made no attempt to settle the island.
Carib Indians aggressively prevented European settlement on St. Vincent until the 18th century. African slaves, whether shipwrecked or escaped from St. Lucia or Grenada and seeking refuge in St. Vincent, intermarried with the Caribs and became known as "black Caribs". Now those of mixed African-Carib ancestry are known as Garifuna; the first Europeans to occupy St. Vincent were the French. However, following a series of wars and peace treaties, these islands were ceded to the British. While the English were the first to lay claim to St. Vincent in 1627, the French centered on the island of Martinique would be the first European settlers on the island when they established their first colony at Barrouallie on the Leeward side of St. Vincent in 1719; the French settlers cultivated coffee, indigo and sugar on plantations worked by African slaves. St. Vincent was ceded to Britain by the Treaty of Paris, after which friction between the British and the Caribs led to the First Carib War. On taking control of the island in 1763, the British laid the foundations of Fort Charlotte.
The island was restored to French rule in 1779 and regained by the British under the Treaty of Versailles. Between 1795 and 1796, with French support from Martinique, the Black Caribs, led by their chief, Joseph Chatoyer, fought a series of battles against the British, their uprising was put down, resulting in 5,000 Black Caribs being exiled to the tiny island of Baliceaux off the coast of Bequia. Conflict between the British and the black Caribs continued until 1796, when General Abercrombie crushed a revolt fomented by the French radical Victor Hugues; the British deported more than 5,000 black Caribs to an island off the coast of Honduras. Fort Charlotte was completed by 1806. Like the French before them, the British used African slaves to work plantations of sugar, indigo, tobacco and cocoa until full emancipation in 1838; the economy went into a period of decline with many landowners abandoning their estates and leaving the land to be cultivated by liberated slaves. Life was made harder following two eruptions of the La Soufriere volcano in 1812 and 1902 when much of the island was destroyed and many people were killed.
In 1979 it erupted again but this time with no fatalities. In the same year, St Vincent & The Grenadines gained full independence from Britain though it remains a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. From 1763 until independence, St. Vincent passed through various stages of colonial status under the British. A representative assembly was authorized in 1776. Decades after the success of the Haitian Revolution, the British abolished slavery in 1834; the resulting labour shortages on the plantations attracted Portuguese immigrants in the 1840s and East Indians in the 1860s as laborers. Conditions remained harsh for both former slaves and immigrant agricultural workers, as depressed world sugar prices kept the economy stagnant until the turn of the 20th century; the Opobo king Jaja was exiled to St. Vincent after his 1887 arrest by the British for shipping cargoes of palm oil directly to Liverpool without the intermediation of the National African Company. A Crown Colony government was installed in 1877, a Legislative Council created in 1925, universal adult suffrage granted in 1951.
During this period, the British made several unsuccessful attempts to affiliate St. Vincent with other Windward Islands in order to govern the region through a unified administration; the most notable was the West Indies Federation, which collapsed in 1962. St. Vincent was granted associate statehood status on 27 Octobe
Black Caribs are an ethnic group native to the island of St. Vincent. Black Carib were referred to as zambos, since they are descendants of Island Caribs and enslaved Africans who mixed among themselves in the 18th century; this population retains Caribbean culture and makes up a small population in the archipelago, representing the 2.0% of the current population of St. Vincent and Grenadines. There are black Caribs in Dominica and Trinidad; the history of the Black Caribs is known due to reports that the British governor William Young sent to the British crown, in which he explained that the Black Caribs were a mix of Caribs and enslaved Africans from Spanish ships wrecked near its shores. These reports were read and taken as reference by many chroniclers and historians. However, researchers of history and Garifuna language of the 20th and 21st centuries, such as Itarala, have their own conception of the origin of the Black Caribs. According to them, the African ancestors of the Black Caribs come from other Caribbean islands and migrated to Saint Vincent as refugees to escape slavery and as slaves bought by the Carib Amerindians.
The Black Caribs are the people who originated the Garifuna people, when part of their community was expelled from St. Vincent in 1797 and exported to the island of Roatán, from where they migrated to the coast of the mainland of Central America, spread as far as Belize and Nicaragua. Upon arrival of the Europeans, the island of St. Vincent was populated by indigenous of Caribbean ethnicity, although it was the result of the mixture of Arawak and Carib invaders arrived to the island later, it is said that the Black Carib were excellent fishermen and sailor men, like the Caribs. After the arrival of the British to St. Vincent in 1667, the British Major John Scott wrote a report for the British crown, explaining that St. Vincent was populated by indigenous people and some blacks from two Spanish ships wrecked on its shores. In 1795, the British governor of St. Vincent, William Young, explained in another report addressed to the British Crown, the island was populated by black slaves from two Spanish ships that had sunk near the island of San Vincent in 1635.
The ships carrying slaves headed to the West Indies. According to Young's report, after the wreck, slaves from the ethnic group Hebo-Hebrew from Nigeria and reached the small island of Bequia. There, the Caribs brought them to Saint Vincent. However, according to Young, the slaves were too independent of "spirit", prompting Caribbean teachers to plan to kill all the African male children; when Africans heard about the Caribs' plan, they rebelled and killed all the Caribs they could headed to the mountains, where they settled and lived with other slaves who had taken refuge there before them. From the mountains, the former slaves attacked and killed the Caribs continually, reducing them in number. However, researchers such as the linguist specializing in the Garifuna language Itarala, reject the theory of Young. According to them, most of the slaves arrived in Saint Vincent came from other Caribbean islands, who had settled in Saint Vincent in order to escape slavery in his land. So, to Saint Vincent, came Maroons from all surrounding plantations from the islands, but were diluted in the strong culture of resistance Caribbean.
Although most of the slaves came from Barbados, but slaves came from places like St. Lucia and Grenada; the Bajans and Saint Lucians arrived on the island in pre-1735 dates. After 1775, most of the slaves who came running from other islands were Saint Lucians and Grenadians. After arriving at the island, they were received by the Caribs, who offered protection, enslaved them and mixed with them. In addition to the African refugees, the Caribs captured slaves from neighboring islands, while they were in fighting against the British and French. Many of the captured slaves were integrated into their communities. After the African rebellion against the Caribs, their escape to the mountains, over time, according to Itarala, the Africans from the mountains would come down from the mountains to have sexual intercourse with Amerindian women - because most Africans were men - or to search for other kinds of food; the sexual intercourse did not lead to marriage. On the other hand, if the Maroons abducted to Arauaco-Caribbean women or married them, is another of the contradictions between the French documents and memory of the Garinagu.
Andrade Coelho states that "whatever the case, the Caribs never consented to give their daughters in marriage to blacks". Conversely, Sebastian R. Cayetano, argues that "Africans were married with women Caribs of the islands, giving birth to the Garifuna". According to Charles Gullick some Caribs were mixed peacefully with the Maroons and some not, creating two factions, that of the Black Caribs and the Yellow Caribs, who fought on more than one occasion in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth. According to Itarala, many intermarried between indigenous and African people, was which caused the origin of the Black Caribs. One datum in favour of the idea of Gullick is the physical separation
Corn starch or maize starch is the starch derived from the corn grain. The starch is obtained from the endosperm of the kernel. Corn starch is a common food ingredient, used in thickening sauces or soups, in making corn syrup and other sugars, it is versatile modified, finds many uses in industry as adhesives, in paper products, as an anti-sticking agent, textile manufacturing. It has medical uses, such as to supply glucose for people with glycogen storage disease. Like many products in dust form, it can be hazardous in large quantities due to its flammability; when mixed with a fluid, cornstarch can rearrange itself into a non-Newtonian fluid. For example, adding water transforms cornstarch into a material known as Oobleck while adding oil transforms cornstarch into an electrorheological fluid; the concept can be explained through the mixture termed "cornflour slime". Cornstarch was discovered in 1840 by Thomas Kingsford, superintendent of a wheat starch factory in Jersey City, New Jersey; until 1851, corn starch was used for starching laundry and other industrial uses.
Although used for cooking and as a household item, cornstarch is used for many purposes in several industries, ranging from its use as a chemical additive for certain products, to medical therapy for certain illnesses. Cornstarch is used as a thickening agent in liquid-based foods by mixing it with a lower-temperature liquid to form a paste or slurry, it is sometimes preferred over flour alone because it forms a translucent, rather than opaque mixture. As the starch is heated, the molecular chains unravel, allowing them to collide with other starch chains to form a mesh, thickening the liquid, it is included as an anticaking agent in powdered sugar. A common substitute is arrowroot. Food producers reduce production costs by adding varying amounts of cornstarch to foods, for example to cheese and yogurt. Chicken nuggets with a thin outer layer of cornstarch allows increased oil absorption and crispness after the latter stages of frying. Baby powder may include cornstarch among its ingredients. Cornstarch may be used in the manufacture of airbags.
Cornstarch is the preferred anti-stick agent on medical products made from natural latex, including condoms and medical gloves. Cornstarch has properties enabling supply of glucose to maintain blood sugar levels for people with glycogen storage disease. Cornstarch can be used starting at age 6–12 months allowing glucose fluctuations to be deterred; the corn is steeped for 30 to 48 hours. The germ is separated from the endosperm and those two components are ground separately. Next the starch is removed from each by washing; the starch is separated from the corn steep liquor, the cereal germ, the fibers and the corn gluten in hydrocyclones and centrifuges, dried. This process is called wet milling; the starch may be modified for specific purposes. Like many other powders, cornstarch is susceptible to dust explosions, it is believed that overheating of a cornstarch-based powder on June 27, 2015, initiated the Formosa Fun Coast explosion in Taiwan, despite warnings on the packaging indicating that the material is flammable.
Called cornstarch in the United States and Canada. The term corn flour refers to cornmeal, finely milled. Although not a flour as such, called cornflour in the United Kingdom, Ireland and some Commonwealth countries. Distinct in these countries from cornmeal. Amylomaize, high amylose starch Bird's Custard, the English custard based on cornflour, invented in 1837 Waxy corn, waxy maize starch Corn sauce Corn syrup Corn ethanol Modified starch Potato starch Tapioca starch American Corn Refiners Association