National Library of Israel
The National Library of Israel Jewish National and University Library, is the library dedicated to collecting the cultural treasures of Israel and of Jewish heritage. The library holds more than 5 million books, is located on the Givat Ram campus of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem; the National Library owns the world's largest collections of Hebraica and Judaica, is the repository of many rare and unique manuscripts and artifacts. The B'nai Brith library, founded in Jerusalem in 1892, was the first public library in Palestine to serve the Jewish community; the library was located on B'nai Brith street, between the Meah Shearim neighborhood and the Russian Compound. Ten years the Bet Midrash Abrabanel library, as it was known, moved to Ethiopia Street. In 1920, when plans were drawn up for the Hebrew University, the B'nai Brith collection became the basis for a university library; the books were moved to Mount Scopus. In 1948, when access to the university campus on Mount Scopus was blocked, most of the books were moved to the university's temporary quarters in the Terra Sancta building in Rehavia.
By that time, the university collection included over one million books. For lack of space, some of the books were placed in storerooms around the city. In 1960, they were moved to the new JNUL building in Givat Ram. In the late 1970s, when the new university complex on Mount Scopus was inaugurated and the faculties of Law and Social Science returned there, departmental libraries opened on that campus and the number of visitors to the Givat Ram library dropped. In the 1990s, the building suffered from maintenance problems such as rainwater leaks and insect infestation. In 2007 the library was recognized as The National Library of the State of Israel after the passage of the National Library Law; the law, which came into effect on 23 July 2008, changed the library's name to "National Library of Israel" and turned it temporarily to a subsidiary company of the University to become a independent community interest company, jointly owned by the Government of Israel, the Hebrew University and other organizations.
In 2011, the library launched a website granting public access to books, maps and music from its collections. In 2014, the project for a new home of the Library in Jerusalem was unveiled; the 34,000 square meters building, designed by the Swiss architecture firm Herzog & de Meuron, is scheduled for full completion in 2021. The library's mission is to secure copies of all material published in any language. By law, two copies of all printed matter published in Israel must be deposited in the National Library. In 2001, the law was amended to include audio and video recordings, other non-print media. Many manuscripts, including some of the library's unique volumes such the 13th century Worms Mahzor, have been scanned and are now available on the Internet. Among the library's special collections are the personal papers of hundreds of outstanding Jewish figures, the National Sound Archives, the Laor Map Collection and numerous other collections of Hebraica and Judaica; the library possesses some of Isaac Newton's manuscripts dealing with theological subjects.
The collection, donated by the family of the collector Abraham Yahuda, includes a large number of works by Newton about mysticism, analyses of holy books, predictions about the end of days and the appearance of the ancient Temple in Jerusalem. It contains maps that Newton sketched about mythical events to assist him in his end of days calculations; the library houses the personal archives of Gershom Scholem. Following the occupation of West Jerusalem by Haganah forces in May 1948, the libraries of a number Palestinians who fled the country as well as of other well-to-do Palestinians were transferred to the National Library; these collections included those of Henry Cattan, Khalil Beidas, Khalil al-Sakakini and Aref Hikmet Nashashibi. About 30,000 books were removed from homes in West Jerusalem, with another 40,000 taken from other cities in Mandatory Palestine, it is unclear whether the books were being kept and protected or if they were looted from the abandoned houses of their owners. About 6,000 of these books are in the library today indexed with the label AP – "Abandoned Property".
The books are cataloged, can be viewed from the Library's general catalog and are consulted by the public, including Arab scholars from all over the world. List of national and state libraries Union List of Israel Judaica Archival Project Official website
The Rape of the Sabine Women
The Rape of the Sabine Women was an incident in Roman mythology in which the men of Rome committed a mass abduction of young women from the other cities in the region. It has been a frequent subject of artists during the Renaissance and post-Renaissance eras; the word "rape" is the conventional translation of the Latin word raptio used in the ancient accounts of the incident. Modern scholars tend to interpret the word as "abduction" or "kidnapping" as opposed to a sexual assault. Controversy remains, as to how the acts committed against the women should be judged; the Rape occurred in the early history of Rome, shortly after its founding by Romulus and his male followers. Seeking wives in order to establish families, the Romans negotiated unsuccessfully with the Sabines, who populated the surrounding area; the Sabines feared the emergence of a rival society and refused to allow their women to marry the Romans. The Romans planned to abduct Sabine women during a festival of Neptune Equester, they announced a marvelous festival to attract people from all nearby towns.
According to Livy, many people from Rome's neighboring towns attended, including folk from the Caeninenses and Antemnates, many of the Sabines. At the festival, Romulus gave a signal, at which the Romans grabbed the Sabine women and fought off the Sabine men; the indignant abductees were soon implored by Romulus to accept Roman husbands. Livy claims that no direct sexual assault took place, albeit the fuller evidence, when compared with the history, suggests a seduction based on promises by the Romans and betrayal of those promises. Livy says that Romulus promised civic and property rights to women. According to Livy, Romulus spoke to them each in person, declaring "that what was done was owing to the pride of their fathers, who had refused to grant the privilege of marriage to their neighbours. Outraged at the occurrence, the king of the Caeninenses entered upon Roman territory with his army. Romulus and the Romans met the Caeninenses in battle, killed their king, routed their army. Romulus attacked Caenina and took it upon the first assault.
Returning to Rome, he dedicated a temple to Jupiter Feretrius and offered the spoils of the enemy king as spolia opima. According to the Fasti Triumphales, Romulus celebrated a triumph over the Caeninenses on 1 March 752 BC. At the same time, the army of the Antemnates invaded Roman territory; the Romans retaliated, the Antemnates were defeated in battle and their town captured. According to the Fasti Triumphales, Romulus celebrated a second triumph in 752 BC over the Antemnates; the Crustumini started a war, but they too were defeated and their town captured. Roman colonists subsequently were sent to Antemnae and Crustumerium by Romulus, many citizens of those towns migrated to Rome; the Sabines themselves declared war, led into battle by their king, Titus Tatius. Tatius succeeded in capturing Rome, thanks to the treason of Tarpeia, daughter of Spurius Tarpeius, Roman governor of the citadel on the Capitoline Hill, she opened the city gates for the Sabines in return for "what they bore on their arms", thinking she would receive their golden bracelets.
Instead, the Sabines crushed her to death with their shields, her body was thrown from a rock known since by her name, the Tarpeian Rock. The Romans attacked the Sabines; the Roman advance was led by the Sabine defence by Mettus Curtius. Hostus fell in battle, the Roman line gave way, they retreated to the gate of the Palatium. Romulus rallied his men by promising to build a temple to Jupiter Stator on the site, he led them back into battle. Mettus Curtius was unhorsed and fled on foot, the Romans appeared to be winning. At this point, the Sabine women intervened:, from the outrage on whom the war originated, with hair dishevelled and garments rent, the timidity of their sex being overcome by such dreadful scenes, had the courage to throw themselves amid the flying weapons, making a rush across, to part the incensed armies, assuage their fury. If you are dissatisfied with the affinity between you, if with our marriages, turn your resentment against us, it were better that we perish than live widowed or fatherless without one or other of you."
The battle came to an end, the Sabines agreed to unite in one nation with the Romans. Titus Tatius jointly ruled with Romulus until Tatius's death five years later; the new Sabine residents of Rome settled on the Capitoline Hill, which they had captured in the battle. Many treatments of the incident combined a suitably inspiring example of the hardiness and courage of ancient Romans with the opportunity to depict multiple figures, including heroically semi-nude figures, in intensely passionate struggle; the subject was popular during the Renaissance as symbolising the importance of marriage for the continuity of families and cultures. It was an example of a battle subject in which the artist could demonstrate his skill in depicting female as well as male figures in extreme poses, with the added adva
The Fasti or Fausti, sometimes translated as The Book of Days or On the Roman Calendar, is a six-book Latin poem written by the Roman poet Ovid and published in 8 AD. Ovid is believed to have left the Fasti incomplete when he was exiled to Tomis by the emperor Augustus in 8 AD. Written in elegiac couplets and drawing on conventions of Greek and Latin didactic poetry, the Fasti is structured as a series of eye-witness reports and interviews by the first-person vates with Roman deities, who explain the origins of Roman holidays and associated customs—often with multiple aetiologies; the poem is a significant, in some cases unique, source of fact in studies of religion in ancient Rome. G. Frazer annotated the work for the Loeb Classical Library series; each book covers one month, January through June, of the Roman calendar, was written several years after Julius Caesar replaced the old system of Roman time-keeping with what would come to be known as the Julian calendar. The popularity and reputation of the Fasti has fluctuated more than that of any of Ovid's other works.
The poem was read in the 15th–18th centuries, influenced a number of mythological paintings in the tradition of Western art. However, as scholar Carole E. Newlands has observed, throughout the 20th century "anthropologists and students of Roman religion … found it full of errors, an inadequate and unreliable source for Roman cultic practice and belief. Literary critics have regarded the Fasti as an artistic failure." In the late 1980s, the poem enjoyed a revival of scholarly interest and a subsequent reappraisal. Ovid was exiled from Rome for his subversive treatment of Augustus, yet the Fasti continues this treatment—which has led to the emergence of an argument in academia for treating the Fasti as a politically weighted work. Only the six books which concern the first six months of the year are extant, it may be that Ovid never finished it, that the remaining half is lost, or that only six books were intended. Ovid worked on the poem while he was in exile at Tomis; the Tristia, a collection of elegiac letters on the poet's exile, mentions the Fasti, that its completion had been interrupted by his banishment from Rome.
Ovid mentions that he had written the entire work, finished revising six books. However, no ancient source quotes a fragment from the six missing books; the Fasti is dedicated to a high-ranking member of the emperor Augustus's family. These circumstances have led some to speculate that the poem was written on religious and antiquarian themes in order to improve Ovid's standing with the rulers of Rome and secure his release from exile; the earliest classical calendrical poem which might have inspired Ovid is the Works and Days of Hesiod, which includes mythological lore, astronomical observations, an agricultural calendar. For the astronomical sections, Ovid was preceded by Aratus' Phaenomena as well as lost poetry on constellations and Germanicus' adaptation of Aratus; the most significant influence on Ovid were the Roman fasti, the Roman calendrical lists, which included dates, notices of festivals, ritual prohibitions and proscriptions, anniversaries of important events, sometimes aetiological material.
Ovid mentions consulting these calendars, such as his reference at 1.11 to pictos fastos and his references to the actual annotation marks of the calendar. The most important of these calendars for Ovid were the Fasti Praenestini, a contemporary calendar constructed and annotated by the grammarian Verrius Flaccus, whose fragments include much ritual material that can be found in Ovid's poem; the concept of putting these calendars into verse however, seems to be a uniquely Ovidian concept. Besides his use of calendars and astronomical poetry, Ovid's multi-generic, digressive narrative and learned poem depends on the full range of ancient poetry and prose. In this, one of the most important works for Ovid was Callimachus' Aetia; the Fourth Book of Propertius, who claimed to be the Roman Callimachus, might be a model since it deals with aetiologies of Roman customs and myths. His etymologizing implies an interest in Roman antiquarianism the works of Varro on etymology and Roman religion, he makes use of much Roman history writing, which must include lost historical poetry as well as the annal tradition (Ovid says in the prologue that one of his sources are ancient annals.
In his longer narrative sections, Ovid makes use of tragedy, epic poetry and Hellenistic mythological poems. For some episodes, the sources Ovid used are untraceable. On the Roman side, Ovid focuses on and employs Virgil's Aeneid and Eclogues, most notably in the long section on Anna in Book 3; as in the Metamorphoses, Ovid's use of Virgil is multifaceted. Ovid will deliberately pass over material covered in the Aeneid and expand a small section or a neglected episode into an elaborate narrative; the poem is an extensive treatment on fasti. Each of its separate books discusses one month of the Roman calendar, beginning with January, it contains some brief astronomical notes, but its more significant portions discuss the religious festivals of the Roman religion, the rites per
Marcus Valerius Martialis was a Roman poet from Hispania best known for his twelve books of Epigrams, published in Rome between AD 86 and 103, during the reigns of the emperors Domitian and Trajan. In these short, witty poems he cheerfully satirises city life and the scandalous activities of his acquaintances, romanticises his provincial upbringing, he wrote a total of 1,561 epigrams. Martial has been called the greatest Latin epigrammatist, is considered the creator of the modern epigram. Knowledge of his origins and early life are derived entirely from his works, which can be more or less dated according to the well-known events to which they refer. In Book X of his Epigrams, composed between 95 and 98, he mentions celebrating his fifty-seventh birthday, his place of birth was Augusta Bilbilis in Hispania Tarraconensis. His parents and Flaccilla, appear to have died in his youth, his name seems to imply that he was born a Roman citizen, but he speaks of himself as "sprung from the Celts and Iberians, a countryman of the Tagus".
His home was evidently one of rude comfort and plenty, sufficiently in the country to afford him the amusements of hunting and fishing, which he recalls with keen pleasure, sufficiently near the town to afford him the companionship of many comrades, the few survivors of whom he looks forward to meeting again after his thirty-four years' absence. The memories of this old home, of other spots, the rough names and local associations which he delights to introduce into his verse, attest to the simple pleasures of his early life and were among the influences which kept his spirit alive in the stultifying routines of upper-crust social life in Rome, he was educated in Hispania, a part of the Roman Empire which in the 1st century produced several notable Latin writers, including Seneca the Elder and Seneca the Younger and Quintilian, Martial's contemporaries Licinianus of Bilbilis, Decianus of Emerita and Canius of Gades. Martial professes to be of the school of Catullus and Marsus; the epigram bears to this day the form impressed upon it by his unrivalled skill in wordsmithing.
The success of his countrymen may have been what motivated Martial to move to Rome, from Hispania, once he had completed his education. This move occurred in AD 64. Seneca the Younger and Lucan may have served as his first patrons. Not much is known of the details of his life for the first twenty years or so, he published some juvenile poems of which he thought little in his years, he chuckles at a foolish bookseller who would not allow them to die a natural death. His faculty ripened with experience and with the knowledge of that social life, both his theme and his inspiration. From many answers which he makes to the remonstrances of friends—among others to those of Quintilian—it may be inferred that he was urged to practice at the bar, but that he preferred his own lazy, some would say Bohemian kind of life, he secured the favor of both Titus and Domitian. From them he obtained various privileges, among others the semestris tribunatus, which conferred on him equestrian rank. Martial failed, however, in his application to Domitian for more substantial advantages, although he commemorates the glory of having been invited to dinner by him, the fact that he procured the privilege of citizenship for many persons on whose behalf he appealed to him.
The earliest of his extant works, known as Liber spectaculorum, was first published at the opening of the Colosseum in the reign of Titus. It relates to the theatrical performances given by him, but the book as it now stands was published about the first year of Domitian, i.e. about the year 81. The favour of the emperor procured him the countenance of some of the worst creatures at the imperial court—among them of the notorious Crispinus, of Paris, the supposed author of Juvenal's exile, for whose monument Martial afterwards wrote a eulogistic epitaph; the two books, numbered by editors XIII and XIV, known by the names of Xenia and Apophoreta—inscriptions in two lines each for presents—were published at the Saturnalia of 84. In 86 he produced the first two of the twelve books. From that time till his return to Hispania in 98 he published a volume every year; the first nine books and the first edition of Book X appeared in the reign of Domitian. A revised edition of book X, that which we now possess, appeared in 98, about the time of Trajan's entrance into Rome.
The last book was written after three years' absence in Hispania, shortly before his death about the year 102 or 103. These twelve books bring Martial's ordinary mode of life between the age of forty-five and sixty before us, his regular home for thirty-five years was the bustle of metropolitan Rome. He lived at first up three flights of stairs, his "garret" overlooked the laurels in front of the portico of Agrippa, he had a small villa and unproductive farm near Nomentum, in the Sabine territory, to which he retired from the pestilence and noises of the city. In his years he had a small house on the Quirinal, near the temple of Quirinus. At the t
Penthesilea was an Amazonian queen in Greek mythology, the daughter of Ares and Otrera and the sister of Hippolyta and Melanippe. She assisted Troy in the Trojan War. In the five book epic Aethiopis, part of the Epic Cycle on the Trojan War, the coming to Troy of Penthesilea and Memnon was described in detail; the Aethiopis is attributed to Arctinus of Miletus. The main character of the epic is Achilles, who fights Penthesilea and Memnon before he is himself killed. Although Aethiopis has been lost, the Epic Cycle has been adapted and recycled in different periods of the classical age; the tradition of retelling the epic fall of Troy is indebted to Homer's Iliad and Odyssey, which were grounded in oral storytelling and were only written down when the Greek alphabet was adopted in ancient Greece. In the Aethiopis Penthesilea is a Thracian woman warrior, she was an daughter of Ares, who comes to help the Trojans. She arrived with 12 other Amazon warriors. After a day of distinguishing herself on the battlefield, Penthesilea confronts Achilles.
Achilles kills her. Thersites rebukes Achilles for having fallen in love. Thersites is killed by Achilles, who travels to the island of Lesbos to be purified before returning to Troy and fighting Memnon. According to Homer, the Trojan king Priam had fought the Amazons in his youth on the Sangarius River in Phrygia, some 350 miles east of Troy. Writers of the antiquity located Amazons geographically in Anatolia and started an epic tradition where Greek heroes, such as Heracles and Theseus, fought an Amazon warrior of distinction; the Aethiopis version of the Penthesilea legend has become known as the Homeric tradition. Different traditions of the Penthesilea legend appear to have existed in the time the Epic Cycle was published. In a lost poem of Stesichorus, believed to have been published in the 7th or 6th century, Penthesilea rather than Achilles had killed Hector. At the Temple of Apollo Epicurius, built in the mid- to late-5th century BC, scenes from the Trojan War are preserved in the Bassae Frieze, a high relief marble sculpture in 23 panels.
Here the Greek army is charged by the Amazons, who gain the upper hand, at the height of the battle Achilles slays Penthesilea on a slab known as BM 537. Achilles and Penthesilea are flanked by an Amazon. Penthesilea is identified as a queen by a crown. Penthesilea, shown on the ground just before being struck, Achilles are exchanging a gaze; the final slab of the series on the Amazons depicts a truce between the Greek army and the Amazons at the end of the battle. According to Pausanias, the throne of Zeus at Olympia bore a painting by Panaenus of the dying Penthesilea being supported by Achilles. Pausanias wrote "And, at the extremity of the painting, is Penthesilea breathing her last, Achilles supporting her"; the motive of Achilles supporting a dying or dead Penthesilea has been preserved at the Temple of Aphrodisias and was reinterpreted in sculptures and mosaics in ancient Rome. A black figure vase from about 510–500 BC shows Achilles carrying Penthesilea from the battlefield; the subject of Penthesilea was treated so by the so called Penthesilea Painter, active between 470 and 450 BC, that Adolf Furtwängler dubbed him "The Penthesilea Painter".
A considerable corpus for this innovative and prolific painter, whose work bridged the "Severe style" and Classicism and must have had a workshop of his own, was assembled in part by J. D. Beazley. In the Pseudo-Apollodorus Epitome of the Bibliotheke she is said to have been killed by Achilles, "who fell in love with the Amazon after her death and slew Thersites for jeering at him". In the 3rd century BC Lycophron went against the grain of the Homeric tradition; the poet had been born in Euboea, the site of a shrine to wounded Amazons who had fought in a mythic Battle for Athens. Lycophron tells the story of the young Amazon Clete, Penthesilea's attendant, left behind in Pontus. Clete sets out with a company of Amazons to search for Penthesilea when she does not return from the Trojan War; the ship with Amazons is swept of course and after a shipwreck on the toe of Italy in Bruttium, Clete becomes the queen of the Amazons that settle there. In Virgil's Aeneid, written between 29 and 19 BC, the Trojan army falls back.
Achilles drags the greatest Trojan warrior Hector around the city walls and sells his dead body to king Priam for gold. Penthesilea is cast as a tragic Amazon queen; when Aeneas sees the panel of Penthesilea in the Juno temple of Carthage, he knows that the defeat of Penthesilea and Memnon presage a chain of events that would culminate in the sacking of the city. Penthesilea's fate foreshadows that of Camilla, described in detail by Virgil in the epic. According to Virgil, Penthesilea is a bellatrix who dared to fight men. Virgil based his narrative in Homer's Iliad, while relying on the Epic Cycle for his portrayal of Penthesilea. Virgil reworked oral legends into an epic on the foundation of Rome. In Aeneid the Romans descended from the hero Aeneas and Trojan refugees who sailed to Italy after the Trojan War; this interweaving of the Penthesilea legend with the founding legend of Rome can be traced to Lycophron. In his universal history Bibliotheca historica Diodorus Siculus in the 1st century BC celebrated Penthesilea as the last Amazon to win renown for valour in war.
Diodorus wrote that after the Trojan War the Amazons diminished and tales of their former glor
Augustus was a Roman statesman and military leader, the first emperor of the Roman Empire, reigning from 27 BC until his death in AD 14. His status as the founder of the Roman Principate has consolidated an enduring legacy as one of the most effective and controversial leaders in human history; the reign of Augustus initiated an era of relative peace known as the Pax Romana. The Roman world was free from large-scale conflict for more than two centuries, despite continuous wars of imperial expansion on the Empire's frontiers and the year-long civil war known as the "Year of the Four Emperors" over the imperial succession. Augustus was born Gaius Octavius Thurinus into an old and wealthy equestrian branch of the plebeian gens Octavia, his maternal great-uncle Julius Caesar was assassinated in 44 BC, Octavius was named in Caesar's will as his adopted son and heir. Along with Mark Antony and Marcus Lepidus, he formed the Second Triumvirate to defeat the assassins of Caesar. Following their victory at the Battle of Philippi, the Triumvirate divided the Roman Republic among themselves and ruled as military dictators.
The Triumvirate was torn apart by the competing ambitions of its members. Lepidus was driven into exile and stripped of his position, Antony committed suicide following his defeat at the Battle of Actium by Octavian in 31 BC. After the demise of the Second Triumvirate, Augustus restored the outward façade of the free Republic, with governmental power vested in the Roman Senate, the executive magistrates, the legislative assemblies. In reality, however, he retained his autocratic power over the Republic as a military dictator. By law, Augustus held a collection of powers granted to him for life by the Senate, including supreme military command, those of tribune and censor, it took several years for Augustus to develop the framework within which a formally republican state could be led under his sole rule. He rejected monarchical titles, instead called himself Princeps Civitatis; the resulting constitutional framework became known as the Principate, the first phase of the Roman Empire. Augustus enlarged the Empire, annexing Egypt, Pannonia and Raetia, expanding possessions in Africa, completing the conquest of Hispania, but suffered a major setback in Germania.
Beyond the frontiers, he secured the Empire with a buffer region of client states and made peace with the Parthian Empire through diplomacy. He reformed the Roman system of taxation, developed networks of roads with an official courier system, established a standing army, established the Praetorian Guard, created official police and fire-fighting services for Rome, rebuilt much of the city during his reign. Augustus died in AD 14 at the age of 75 from natural causes. However, there were unconfirmed rumors, he was succeeded as emperor by his adopted son Tiberius. As a consequence of Roman customs and personal preference, Augustus was known by many names throughout his life: Gaius Octavius Thurinus: He received his birth name, after his biological father, in 63 BC. "Gaius" was his praenomen, "Octavius" was his nomen, "Thurinus" was his cognomen. His rival Mark Antony used the name "Thurinus" as an insult, to which Augustus replied, surprised that "using his old name was thought to be an insult".
Gaius Julius Caesar: After he was adopted by Julius Caesar, he adopted Caesar's name in accordance with Roman naming conventions. While he dropped all references to the gens Octavia, people colloquially added the epithet Octavianus to his legal name, either to differentiate him from his adoptive father or to highlight his more modest origins. Modern historians refer to him using the anglicized form "Octavian" between 44 BC and 27 BC. Gaius Julius Caesar Divi Filius: Two years after his adoption, he founded the Temple of Caesar additionally adding the title Divi Filius to his name in attempt to strengthen his political ties to Caesar's former soldiers, following the deification of Caesar. Imperator Caesar Divi Filius: From 38 BC, Octavian opted to use Imperator, the title by which troops hailed their leader after military success, his name is translated as "Commander Caesar, Son of the Divine". Imperator Caesar Divi Filius Augustus: Following his 31 BC defeat of Mark Antony and Cleopatra on his own insistence, the Roman Senate granted him the additional name, "Augustus", which he added to his previous names thereafter.
Historians use this name to refer to him from 27 BC until his death in AD 14. While his paternal family was from the town of Velletri 40 kilometres from Rome, Augustus was born in the city of Rome on 23 September 63 BC, he was born at Ox Head, a small property on the Palatine Hill close to the Roman Forum. He was given the name Gaius Octavius Thurinus, his cognomen commemorating his father's victory at Thurii over a rebellious band of slaves. Suetonius wrote: "There are many indications that the Octavian family was in days of old a distinguished one at Velitrae; this man was leader in a war with a neighbouring town..." Due to the crowded nature of Rome at the time, Octavius was taken to his father's home village at Velletri to be raised. Octavius mentions his father's equestrian family only in his memoirs, his paternal great-grandfather Gaius Octavius was a military tribune in Sicily during the Second Punic War. His grandfather had served in several lo