A playwright, known as a dramatist, is a person who writes plays. The term is not a variant spelling of playwrite, but something quite distinct, hence the prefix and the suffix combine to indicate someone who has wrought words and other elements into a dramatic form - someone who crafts plays. The homophone with write is in this case entirely coincidental, the term playwright appears to have been coined by Ben Jonson in his Epigram 49, To Playwright, as an insult, to suggest a mere tradesman fashioning works for the theatre. Jonson described himself as a poet, not a playwright, since plays during that time were written in meter and this view was held as late as the early 19th century. The term playwright lost this negative connotation, the earliest playwrights in Western literature with surviving works are the Ancient Greeks. These early plays were written for annual Athenian competitions among playwrights held around the 5th century BC, such notables as Aeschylus, Sophocles and Aristophanes established forms still relied on by their modern counterparts.
For the ancient Greeks, playwriting involved poïesis, the act of making and this is the source of the English word poet. In the 4th century BCE, Aristotle wrote his Poetics, the first play-writing manual, in this famous text, Aristotle established the principle of action or praxis as the basis for all drama. He included a hierarchy of elements for the beginning with plot, thought, music. The ends of drama were plot and thought, the means of drama were language and music, since the myths, upon which Greek tragedy were based, were widely known, plot had to do with the arrangement and selection of existing material. Character was equated with choice as rather than psychology, so that character was determined by action, in tragedy, the notion of ethical choice determined the character of the individual. Thought had more to do and the imitation of an action that is serious, thus, he developed his notion of hamartia, or tragic flaw, an error in judgment by the main character or protagonist. It provides the basis for the play, a term still held as the sine qua non of dramaturgy.
The Poetics, while very brief and highly condensed, is studied today. Perhaps the most Aristotelian of contemporary playwrights is David Mamet, who embraces the idea of character as agent of the action, and emphasizes causality in the structure of his plays. His recently revived, Speed-the-Plow, is quintessentially Aristotelian, in that it observes the unities and builds its plot through a causal stream of discoveries and reversals. The Italian Renaissance brought about a stricter interpretation of Aristotle, as this long-lost work came to light in the late 15th century. The neoclassical ideal, which was to reach its apogee in France during the 17th century, dwelled upon the unities, of action and time
CBS is an American commercial broadcast television network that is a flagship property of CBS Corporation. The company is headquartered at the CBS Building in New York City with major facilities and operations in New York City. CBS is sometimes referred to as the Eye Network, in reference to the iconic logo. It has called the Tiffany Network, alluding to the perceived high quality of CBS programming during the tenure of William S. Paley. It can refer to some of CBSs first demonstrations of color television, the network has its origins in United Independent Broadcasters Inc. a collection of 16 radio stations that was purchased by Paley in 1928 and renamed the Columbia Broadcasting System. Under Paleys guidance, CBS would first become one of the largest radio networks in the United States, in 1974, CBS dropped its former full name and became known simply as CBS, Inc. In 2000, CBS came under the control of Viacom, which was formed as a spin-off of CBS in 1971, CBS Corporation is controlled by Sumner Redstone through National Amusements, which controls the current Viacom.
The television network has more than 240 owned-and-operated and affiliated stations throughout the United States. The origins of CBS date back to January 27,1927, Columbia Phonographic went on the air on September 18,1927, with a presentation by the Howard Barlow Orchestra from flagship station WOR in Newark, New Jersey, and fifteen affiliates. Operational costs were steep, particularly the payments to AT&T for use of its land lines, in early 1928 Judson sold the network to brothers Isaac and Leon Levy, owners of the networks Philadelphia affiliate WCAU, and their partner Jerome Louchenheim. With the record out of the picture, Paley quickly streamlined the corporate name to Columbia Broadcasting System. He believed in the power of advertising since his familys La Palina cigars had doubled their sales after young William convinced his elders to advertise on radio. By September 1928, Paley bought out the Louchenheim share of CBS, during Louchenheims brief regime, Columbia paid $410,000 to A. H.
Grebes Atlantic Broadcasting Company for a small Brooklyn station, WABC, which would become the networks flagship station. WABC was quickly upgraded, and the relocated to 860 kHz. The physical plant was relocated – to Steinway Hall on West 57th Street in Manhattan, by the turn of 1929, the network could boast to sponsors of having 47 affiliates. Paley moved right away to put his network on a financial footing. In the fall of 1928, he entered talks with Adolph Zukor of Paramount Pictures. The deal came to fruition in September 1929, Paramount acquired 49% of CBS in return for a block of its stock worth $3.8 million at the time
In Western architecture, a living room, called a lounge room, lounge or sitting room, is a room in a residential house or apartment for relaxing and socializing. Such a room is called a front room when it is near the main entrance at the front of the house. In large formal homes, a room is often a small private living area adjacent to a bedroom, such as the Queens Sitting Room. The term living room was coined in the late 19th or early 20th century, in homes that lack a parlour or drawing room, the living room may function as a reception room. A typical Western living room may contain furnishings such as a sofa, occasional tables, coffee tables, electric lamps, rugs, or other furniture. Traditionally, a room in the United Kingdom and New Zealand has a fireplace. In a Japanese sitting room, called a washitsu, the floor is covered with tatami, sectioned mats, on which people can sit comfortably. Until the late 19th century, the front parlour was the room in the used for formal social events. Lobby Lounge Media related to Living rooms at Wikimedia Commons
Theodore Roosevelt Jr. was an American statesman, explorer, soldier and reformer who served as the 26th president of the United States from 1901 to 1909. As a leader of the Republican Party during this time, he became a force for the Progressive Era in the United States in the early 20th century. Born a sickly child with debilitating asthma, Roosevelt successfully overcame his health problems by embracing a strenuous lifestyle and he integrated his exuberant personality, vast range of interests, and world-famous achievements into a cowboy persona defined by robust masculinity. Home-schooled, he began a lifelong naturalist avocation before attending Harvard College and his first of many books, The Naval War of 1812, established his reputation as both a learned historian and as a popular writer. Upon entering politics, he became the leader of the faction of Republicans in New Yorks state legislature. Returning a war hero, he was elected governor of New York in 1898, the state party leadership distrusted him, so they took the lead in moving him to the prestigious but powerless role of vice presidential candidate as McKinleys running mate in the election of 1900.
Roosevelt campaigned vigorously across the country, helping McKinleys re-election in a victory based on a platform of peace, prosperity. Following the assassination of President McKinley in September 1901, Roosevelt succeeded to the office at age 42, making conservation a top priority, he established a myriad of new national parks and monuments intended to preserve the nations natural resources. In foreign policy, he focused on Central America, where he began construction of the Panama Canal and he greatly expanded the United States Navy and sent the Great White Fleet on a world tour to project the United States naval power around the globe. His successful efforts to end the Russo-Japanese War won him the 1906 Nobel Peace Prize, elected in 1904 to a full term, Roosevelt continued to promote progressive policies, but many of his efforts and much of his legislative agenda were eventually blocked in Congress. Roosevelt successfully groomed his close friend, William Howard Taft, to succeed him in the presidency, after leaving office, Roosevelt went on safari in Africa and toured Europe.
Returning to the United States, he became frustrated with Tafts approach, failing to win the Republican presidential nomination in 1912, Roosevelt founded his own party, the Progressive, so-called Bull Moose Party, and called for wide-ranging progressive reforms. The split among Republicans enabled the Democrats to win both the White House and a majority in the Congress in 1912, Republicans aligned with Taft nationally would control the Republican Party for decades. Frustrated at home, Roosevelt led an expedition to the Amazon basin. During World War I, he opposed President Woodrow Wilson for keeping the country out of the war, and offered his military services, although planning to run again for president in 1920, Roosevelt suffered deteriorating health and died in early 1919. Roosevelt has consistently ranked by scholars as one of the greatest American presidents. Historians admire Roosevelt for rooting out corruption in his administration, but are critical of his 1909 libel lawsuits against the World and his face was carved into Mount Rushmore, alongside those of George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and Abraham Lincoln.
Theodore Roosevelt Jr. was born on October 27,1858, at East 20th Street in New York City and he was the second of four children born to socialite Martha Stewart Mittie Bulloch and glass businessman and philanthropist Theodore Roosevelt Sr
Lock (water navigation)
A lock is a device used for raising and lowering boats and other watercraft between stretches of water of different levels on river and canal waterways. Locks are used to make a more easily navigable, or to allow a canal to cross land that is not level. Later canals used more and larger locks to allow a direct route to be taken. Since 2016 the largest lock worldwide is the Kieldrecht Lock in the Port of Antwerp, a pound lock is a type of lock that is used almost exclusively nowadays on canals and rivers. A pound lock has a chamber with gates at both ends that control the level of water in the pound, in contrast, an earlier design with a single gate was known as a flash lock. Pound locks were first used in medieval China during the Song Dynasty, having been pioneered by the government official and engineer Qiao Weiyue in 984. The gates were hanging gates, when they were closed the water accumulated like a tide until the level was reached. The water level could differ by 4 feet or 5 feet at each lock, in medieval Europe a sort of pound lock was built in 1373 at Vreeswijk, Netherlands.
This pound lock serviced many ships at once in a large basin, yet the first true pound lock was built in 1396 at Damme near Bruges, Belgium. A famous civil engineer of pound locks in Europe was the Italian Bertola da Novate, who constructed 18 of them on the Naviglio di Bereguardo between the years 1452 and 1458. When a stretch of river is navigable, a lock is sometimes required to bypass an obstruction such as a rapid, dam. In large scale river navigation improvements and locks are used together, a river improved by these means is often called a Waterway or River Navigation. Sometimes a river is made entirely non-tidal by constructing a sea lock directly into the estuary, in more advanced river navigations, more locks are required. Where a longer cut bypasses a stretch of river, the upstream end of the cut will often be protected by a flood lock. The longer the cut, the greater the difference in level between start and end of the cut, so that a very long cut will need additional locks along its length.
At this point, the cut is, in effect, a canal, Early completely artificial canals, across fairly flat countryside, would get round a small hill or depression by simply detouring around it. However, locks continued to be built to supplement these solutions, all pound locks have three elements, A watertight chamber connecting the upper and lower canals, and large enough to enclose one or more boats. The position of the chamber is fixed, but its level can vary
The Fulton Theatre was a Broadway theatre located at 210 West 46th Street in New York that was opened in 1911. It was renamed the Helen Hayes Theatre in 1955, the theatre was demolished in 1982. Since a new Helen Hayes Theatre now exists in Manhattan, the Fulton Theatre is now referred to as the First Helen Hayes Theatre. Built by the architects Herts & Tallant for Henry B. Harris and Jesse Lasky, it was opened on April 27,1911. The building featured three murals and a scheme by leading American muralist William de Leftwich Dodge. Eighteen-year-old Mae West was discovered here by The New York Times at her Broadway debut on September 22,1911, closing after that, the theatre reopened on October 20,1911, as the Fulton Theatre. The theatre was managed by Abraham L. Erlanger from 1921, in 1955, the theatre was renamed the Helen Hayes Theatre in honor of the renowned actress Helen Hayes and re-opened under that name on November 21. In 1982, the theatre was demolished, along with the Morosco, Bijou and Astor Theatres, to make way for the Marriott Marquis Hotel, which now houses the Marquis Theatre.
Since Helen Hayes was still living at the time of the demolition of the theatre that bore her name, besides having had Mae West, the Fulton had English actor Robert Morley in the title role of the play Oscar Wilde by Leslie and Sewell Stokes in 1938. The play ran for 247 performances and its success launched Morleys career as an actor on both sides of the Atlantic. Audrey Hepburn starred in the Gilbert Miller production of Gigi, which opened at the Fulton on November 24,1951, and ran for 219 performances. Fancy Gigi The Seven Year Itch As Helen Hayes Theatre, Long Days Journey into Night A Touch of the Poet Period of Adjustment Mary, Mary Philadelphia, Here I Come. The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie Hadrian VII The Crucifer of Blood Strider List of dinner theaters Fulton Theatre At Internet Broadway Database
The directors function is to ensure the quality and completeness of theatre production and to lead the members of the creative team into realizing their artistic vision for it. If the production he or she is mounting is a new piece of writing or a translation of a play, in contemporary theatre, after the playwright, the director is generally the primary visionary, making decisions on the artistic concept and interpretation of the play and its staging. Different directors occupy different places of authority and responsibility, depending on the structure, Directors use a wide variety of techniques and levels of collaboration. In ancient Greece, the birthplace of European drama, the writer bore principal responsibility for the staging of his plays, the author-director would train the chorus, sometimes compose the music, and supervise every aspect of production. The fact that the director was called didaskalos, the Greek word for teacher, a miniature by Jean Fouquet from 1460 bears one of the earliest depictions of a director at work.
Holding a prompt book, the central figure directs, with the aid of a long stick, from Renaissance times up until the 19th century, the role of director was often carried by the actor-manager. This would usually be an actor in a troupe who took the responsibility for choosing the repertoire of work, staging it. This was the case for instance with Commedia dellArte companies and English actor-managers like Colley Cibber, the modern theatre director can be said to have originated in the staging of elaborate spectacles of the Meininger Company under George II, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen. The management of large numbers of extras and complex stagecraft matters necessitated an individual to take on the role of overall coordinator. This gave rise to the role of the director in modern theatre, Constantin Stanislavski, principally an actor-manager, would set up the Moscow Art Theatre in Russia and similarly emancipate the role of the director as artistic visionary. The French regisseur is used to mean a stage director.
A more common term for theatre director in French is metteur en scène, post World War II, the actor-manager slowly started to disappear, and directing become a fully fledged artistic activity within the theatre profession. The director originating artistic vision and concept, and realizing the staging of a production, a cautionary note was introduced by the famed director Sir Tyrone Guthrie who said the only way to learn how to direct a play, is. To get a group of actors simple enough to allow you to let you direct them, most European countries nowadays know some form of professional directing training, usually at drama schools or conservatoires, or at universities. In the early days such programmes typically led to the staging of one major production in the third year. At the University of California, Keith Fowler led for many years a programme based on the premise that directors are autodidacts who need as many opportunities to direct as possible. Under Fowler, graduate student directors would stage between five and ten productions during their residencies, with each production receiving detailed critiques.
Directing is an artform that has grown with the development of theatre theory, with the emergence of new trends in theatre, so too have directors adopted new methodologies and engaged in new practices
Frank Russell Capra was an Italian-American film director and writer who became the creative force behind some of the major award-winning films of the 1930s and 1940s. Born in Italy and raised in Los Angeles from the age of five, during World War II, Capra served in the U. S. Army Signal Corps and produced propaganda films, such as the Why We Fight series. After World War II, Capras career declined as his films such as Its a Wonderful Life. In succeeding decades, these films have been favorably reassessed, outside of directing, Capra was active in the film industry, engaging in various political and social issues. He served as President of the Academy of Motion Pictures Arts and Sciences, worked alongside the Screenwriters Guild, Capra was born Francesco Rosario Capra in Bisacquino, Sicily, a village near Palermo. He was the youngest of seven children of Salvatore Capra, a grower. The name Capra, notes Capras biographer Joseph McBride, represents his familys closeness to the land, and means goat.
For Capra, the journey, which took 13 days, remained in his mind for the rest of his life as one of his worst experiences, very few people have trunks or anything that takes up space. They have just what they can carry in their hands or in a bag, theres no ventilation, and it stinks like hell. Its the most degrading place you could ever be, Capra remembers the ships arrival in New York Harbor, where he saw a statue of a great lady, taller than a church steeple, holding a torch above the land we were about to enter. He recalls his fathers exclamation at the sight, look, thats the greatest light since the star of Bethlehem. The family settled in Los Angeless East Side which Capra described in his autobiography as an Italian ghetto, Capras father worked as a fruit picker and young Capra sold newspapers after school for 10 years, until he graduated from high school. Instead of working after graduating, as his parents wanted, he enrolled in college and he studied chemical engineering and graduated in the spring of 1918.
Capra wrote that his education had changed his whole viewpoint on life from the viewpoint of an alley rat to the viewpoint of a cultured person. Soon after graduating college, Capra was commissioned in the US Army as a second lieutenant, in the Army, he taught mathematics to artillerymen at Fort Point, San Francisco. His father died during the war in an accident, in the Army, Capra contracted Spanish flu and was medically discharged to return home to live with his mother. He became a naturalized U. S. citizen in 1920, living at home with his siblings and mother, Capra was the only family member with a college education, yet he was the only one who remained chronically unemployed. After recovering at home, Capra moved out and spent the few years living in flophouses in San Francisco and hopping freight trains
Erich von Stroheim
Erich von Stroheim was an Austrian-American director and producer, most notable as being a film star of the silent era, subsequently noted as an auteur for his directorial work. He died in 1957 in France, at age 71, Stroheim was born in Vienna, Austria, in 1885 as Erich Oswald Stroheim, the son of Benno Stroheim, a middle-class hat-maker, and Johanna Bondy, both of whom were observant Jews. Stroheim emigrated to America at the end of 1909, Jean Renoir writes in his memoirs, “Stroheim spoke hardly any German. He had to study his lines like a schoolboy learning a foreign language. ”Later, while living in Europe, in Renoirs movie la Grande Illusion, Stroheim speaks German with a strong American accent. By 1914 he was working in Hollywood and he began working in movies in bit-parts and as a consultant on German culture and fashion. His first film, in 1915, was The Country Boy in which he was uncredited and his first credited role came in Old Heidelberg. He began working with D. W. Griffith, taking uncredited roles in Intolerance, Stroheim acted as one of the many assistant directors on Intolerance, a film remembered in part for its huge cast of extras.
Later, with Americas entry into World War I, he played sneering German villains in films as Sylvia of the Secret Service. In The Heart of Humanity, he tears the buttons from a uniform with his teeth. Following the end of the war, Stroheim turned to writing and he starred in the film. As a director, Stroheim was known to be dictatorial and demanding and he is considered one of the greatest directors of the silent era, creating films that represent cynical and romantic views of human nature. His next directorial efforts were the lost film The Devils Pass Key and Foolish Wives, studio publicity for Foolish Wives claimed that it was the first film to cost one million dollars. In 1923, Stroheim began work on Merry-Go-Round and he cast the American actor Norman Kerry as Count Franz Maximilian von Hohenegg, a part written for himself, and newcomer Mary Philbin in the lead actress role. However studio executive Irving Thalberg fired Stroheim during filming and replaced him with director Rupert Julian, probably Stroheims best remembered work as a director is Greed, a detailed filming of the novel McTeague by Frank Norris.
He originally started it as a project with Samuel Goldwyns Goldwyn Pictures, Stroheim had long wanted to do a film version of the book. He originally intended it to be a detailed reproduction of the original, shot mostly at the locations described in the book in San Francisco. Von Stroheim shot in San Francisco with his actors in period dress, automobiles can be seen in the background of some scenes and any extras or passersby are in modern clothing. When the production did move to Death Valley it was in the middle of summer, Greed is considered by some film historians to be the first feature-length film shot on location
The Hartford Courant is the largest daily newspaper in the U. S. state of Connecticut, and is often recognized as the oldest continuously published newspaper in the United States. A morning newspaper serving most of the north of New Haven and east of Waterbury. It reports regional news with a chain of bureaus in smaller cities, beginning in 2000, it was owned by Tribune Company, which combined the papers management and facilities with those of Tribune-owned WTIC-TV in Hartford. In 2014, the newspapers were spun off to corporate parent Tribune Publishing, the Connecticut Courant began as a weekly on October 29,1764, started by Thomas Green. The word courant, borrowed from the French, was a name for English-language newspapers. The daily Hartford Courant traces its existence back to the weekly, thereby claiming the title Americas oldest continuously published newspaper, joseph Roswell Hawley, a leading Republican politician and former governor of the state, in 1867 bought the newspaper, which he combined with the Press.
Under his editorship, this became the most influential newspaper in Connecticut, emile Gauvereau became a reporter in 1916, and the managing editor in 1919. His energetic and often sensational news policies affronted Charles Clark, the owner, Clark fired him when he refused to stop a series of stories about the exploitation of fake medical diplomas. Herbert Brucker was the most prominent editor in the 20th century, the Courant was purchased in 1979 by Times Mirror, the Los Angeles Times parent company. The first years of ownership are described by a former Courant reporter in a book titled Spiked. One criticism was that the new owners were interested in awards. A series of articles about sexual abuse by the head of a worldwide Catholic order, published since February 1997, in 2000, Times Mirror and the Courant became part of the Tribune Company, one of the worlds largest multimedia companies. Ironically, along the way, the Courant acquired the Valley Advocate group of alternative weeklies started by two disgruntled Courant staff members in 1973, under new ownership, it is co-owned with two local television stations, Fox affiliate WTIC-TV and The CW affiliate WCCT-TV.
The Courant is the most recent American newspaper to win the Society for News Designs Worlds Best Designed Newspaper award. In late June 2006, the Tribune Co. announced that Courant publisher Jack W. Davis Jr. would by replaced by Stephen D. Carver, vice president and general manager of Atlanta, Ga. TV station WATL. In March 2009, Tribune replaced Carver with Richard Graziano, who was given a role as Courant publisher. Shortly after that, the Courants two highest ranking editors were let go, after 2010, Courant has offered early retirement and buyout packages to reduce staff as it continues to experience declines in advertising revenue. There have been layoffs and reduction in pages, newsroom staff peaked in 1994 at close to 400 staff, down to 175 staff by 2008, and 135 staff in 2009
The Panama Canal is an artificial 48-mile waterway in Panama that connects the Atlantic Ocean with the Pacific Ocean. The canal cuts across the Isthmus of Panama and is a key conduit for maritime trade. The original locks are 33.5 metres wide, a third, wider lane of locks was constructed between September 2007 and May 2016. The expanded canal began operation on June 26,2016. The new locks allow transit of larger, Post-Panamax ships, capable of handling more cargo, France began work on the canal in 1881 but stopped due to engineering problems and a high worker mortality rate. The United States took over the project in 1904 and opened the canal on August 15,1914, Colombia and the United States controlled the territory surrounding the canal during construction. The U. S. continued to control the canal and surrounding Panama Canal Zone until the 1977 Torrijos–Carter Treaties provided for handover to Panama. After a period of joint American–Panamanian control, in 1999 the canal was taken over by the Panamanian government and is now managed and operated by the government-owned Panama Canal Authority.
Annual traffic has risen from about 1,000 ships in 1914, by 2012, more than 815,000 vessels had passed through the canal. It takes six to eight hours to pass through the Panama Canal, the American Society of Civil Engineers has called the Panama Canal one of the seven wonders of the modern world. Such a route would have given the Spanish a military advantage over the Portuguese, during an expedition from 1788 to 1793, Alessandro Malaspina outlined plans for its construction. Given the strategic location of Panama and the potential offered by its narrow isthmus separating two great oceans, other links in the area were attempted over the years. The ill-fated Darien scheme was launched by the Kingdom of Scotland in 1698 to set up a trade route. Generally inhospitable conditions thwarted the effort, and it was abandoned in April 1700, another effort was made in 1843. They referred to it as the Atlantic and Pacific Canal and it was a wholly British endeavor and it was expected to be completed in five years, but the plan was never carried out.
At nearly the same time, other ideas were floated, including a canal across Mexicos Isthmus of Tehuantepec. Nothing came of that plan either. )In 1846 the Mallarino–Bidlack Treaty, negotiated between the U. S. and New Granada, granted the United States transit rights and the right to intervene militarily in the isthmus. In 1849, the discovery of gold in California created great interest in a crossing between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, the Panama Railway was built by the United States to cross the isthmus and opened in 1855
She was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress in 1938 for her performance as Emily Kilbourne in Merrily We Live and is remembered for her appearances in the Topper series. Billie Burke was the wife of Broadway producer Florenz Ziegfeld, Jr. of Ziegfeld Follies fame and her voice was unique in intonation, which she accentuated in her character roles as dim-witted, spoiled society types. Billie Burke was born Mary William Ethelbert Appleton Burke, the daughter of Blanche and William Billy Burke, in Washington and she toured the United States and Europe with her father, who was a singer and clown and worked for the Barnum & Bailey Circus. Her family ultimately settled in London where she attended plays in the West End, in 1903, she began acting on stage, making her debut in London in The School Girl. Other London shows included The Duchess of Dantzic and The Blue Moon and she eventually returned to America to star in Broadway musical comedies. There she caught the eye of producer Florenz Ziegfeld, marrying him in 1914, two years they had a daughter, Patricia Ziegfeld Stephenson.
Burke was signed for the movies, making her debut in the title role of Peggy. Her success was phenomenal, and she was soon earning what was reputedly the highest salary granted a motion picture actress up to that time and she followed her first feature with the 15-part serial Glorias Romance, another popular and critically acclaimed vehicle. By 1917 Billie Burke was a favorite with silent movie fans, rivaling Mary Pickford, Lillian Gish, Clara Kimball Young, Billie Burke starred primarily in provocative society dramas and comedies, similar in theme to The Mind-the-Paint Girl, her most successful American play. The stars girlish charm rivaled her acting ability, and as she dressed to the hilt in fashionable gowns and jewelry, the actresss beauty and taste made her a major trendsetter throughout the 1910s and 20s. Despite her success in film, Billie Burke eventually returned to the stage, appearing in Caesars Wife, The Intimate Strangers, The Marquise and The Happy Husband. But when the savings were wiped out in the Wall Street Crash of 1929.
In 1932, Burke made her Hollywood comeback, starring as Margaret Fairfield in A Bill of Divorcement, despite the death of Florenz Ziegfeld during the films production, she resumed filming shortly after his funeral. The movie was a success, and revived her career. She subsequently starred in comedies and musicals, typecast as a ditzy, fluffy. In 1936, MGM filmed a biopic of Florenz Ziegfeld. In 1937 Burke appeared in the first of the Topper films and her performance as Emily Kilbourne in Merrily We Live resulted in her only Oscar nomination. In 1938 she was chosen to play Glinda the Good Witch of the North, in the musical The Wizard of Oz, directed by Victor Fleming and she had worked on a Garland film, Everybody Sing, in which she played Judys histrionically hysterical actress-mother