Order of Nakhimov
The Order of Nakhimov is a military decoration of the Russian Federation named in honour of Russian admiral Pavel Nakhimov and bestowed to naval officers for outstanding military leadership. The order was established during World War II by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of March 3, 1944. Following the 1991 dissolution of the USSR, the Order of Nakhimov was retained unchanged by decision of the Supreme Soviet of the Russian Federation № 2424-1 of March 2, 1992 but it was not awarded in this form; the all encompassing Decree of the President of the Russian Federation № 1099 of September 7, 2010 that modernised and reorganised the entire Russian awards system away from its Soviet past amended the Order of Nakhimov to its present form, a ribbon mounted single class Order. From its establishment in 1944 until September 2010, the Order of Nakhimov was awarded in two classes to officers of the Navy for outstanding achievements in the development and prosecution of naval operations resulting in the successful repelling of an opponent's offensive or for active fleet operations that caused considerable damage to the enemy while conserving fleet assets.
The Order of Nakhimov 1st class was awarded to naval officers for: cleverly planned and well executed operations coordinated with all naval forces in defensive positions, which led to the destruction and harassment of numerically superior enemy naval forces. The Order of Nakhimov 1st class was worn on the right side of the chest and when in the presence of other Orders of the USSR, located after the Order of Kutuzov 1st class; the Order 2nd class was worn on the right side and located after the Order of Kutuzov 2nd class. The Order of Nakhimov 1st class was of multi part construction consisting of a gold five pointed star displaying radiant rays, the bottom arm pointing straight down, a silver five pointed star with each arm ending in a naval sea anchor, its upper arm pointing straight up with the rays of the gold star protruding between its arms, a central gold medallion covered with dark enamel and the gold left profile relief image of the bust of admiral Nakhimov over two laurel branches at the center of the medallion, above the admiral's head along the medallion's upper circumference, the inscription in gilt letters "ADMIRAL NAKHIMOV".
The hammer and sickle bisected the laurel branches on the central medallion. Five triangular red rubies were affixed to the silver star, one on each arm pointing out from the central medallion's outer edge. On the reverse of the silver star, a threaded screw and a 33 mm in diameter nut arrangement for attachment to clothing; the maker's mark was located at the upper part of the gold star's reverse, the award serial number was hand etched in the lower part. The Order of Nakhimov 2nd class was of two part construction and made of silver with red enamel in lieu of rubies; the only noticeable difference between the Soviet and early Russian Federation variants was the abrogation of the hammer and sickle from the latter. The Order first class was awarded 82 times, including twice to naval units, such as the 1st torpedo-boat brigade of Sevastopol and the 1st Red Banner torpedo-boat brigade of the Baltic Fleet; the Order second class was awarded 469 times, including twice to naval units. The individuals listed below were awarded the Soviet variant of the Order of Nakhimov 1st class: Admiral Nikolay Mikhaylovich Kharlamov Rear Admiral Ivan Isidorovich Nosenko Admiral Stepan Grigorievich Kucherov Admiral Filipp Sergeyevich Oktyabrskiy Admiral Arseniy Grigoriyevich Golovko Admiral Vladimir Filippovich Tributs Admiral of the Fleet Ivan Matveyevich Kapitanets Rear Admiral Ivan Dmitrievich Papanin Admiral Yuri Aleksandrovich Panteleyev Admiral Nikolai Nikolaevich Amel'ko Coastguard Colonel General Ivan Vasil'evich Rogov Rear Admiral Aleksandr Petrovich Aleksandrov Vice Admiral Aleksandr Grigor'evich Orlov Admiral of the Fleet Simon Fyodorovich Zhavoronkov Admiral Vitaliy Alexeevich Fokin Vice Admiral Ilya Danil
Kira Golovko, née Ivanova was a Soviet and Russian theater and film actress, winner of the Stalin Prize and People's Artist of the RSFSR. Ivanova was born in the great-niece of the poet Vyacheslav Ivanov. In 1937, she entered the Moscow Institute of Philosophy and Art to study Russian literature. In 1938 she was accepted into the auxiliary of the troupe of the Gorky Moscow Art Theatre. In 1957 she returned to the Moscow Art Theater, where she served until 1985. From 1958 to 2007, she taught at the Moscow Art Theater School, her students included Natalia Yegorova, Boris Nevzorov, Nikolai Karachentsov. She died on August 16, 2017, age 98, she was the widow of Soviet Admiral Arseniy Golovko, who served as Soviet Commander of the Red Banner Northern Fleet during World War II. Kira Golovko on IMDb
The Baltic Fleet is the fleet of the Russian Navy in the Baltic Sea. Established 18 May 1703, under Tsar Peter the Great as part of the Imperial Russian Navy, the Baltic Fleet is the oldest Russian Navy formation. In 1918 the fleet was inherited by the Russian SFSR the Soviet Union in 1922, where it was known as the Twice Red Banner Baltic Fleet as part of the Soviet Navy, as during this period it gained the two awards of the Order of the Red Banner. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Baltic Fleet was inherited by the Russian Federation and reverted to its original name as part of the Russian Navy; the Baltic Fleet is headquartered in Kaliningrad and its main base in Baltiysk, both in Kaliningrad Oblast, another base in Kronshtadt, Saint Petersburg in the Gulf of Finland. The Imperial Russian Baltic Fleet was created during the Great Northern War at the initiative of Czar Peter the Great, who ordered the first ships for the Baltic Fleet to be constructed at Lodeynoye Pole in 1702 and 1703.
The first commander was a recruited Dutch admiral, Cornelius Cruys, who in 1723 was succeeded by Count Fyodor Apraksin. In 1703, the main base of the fleet was established in Kronshtadt. One of the fleet's first actions was the taking of Shlisselburg. In 1701 Peter the Great established a special school, the School of Mathematics and Navigation, situated in the Sukharev Tower in Moscow; as the territory to the west around the Gulf of Finland was acquired by Russia for a "warm-water" port giving access for its merchantmen and the buildup of a naval force, the city of St. Petersburg was built and developed an extensive port; the School of Mathematics and Navigation was moved to St. Petersburg and in 1752 it was renamed the Naval Cadet Corps. Today it is the St. Petersburg Naval Institute – Peter the Great Naval Corps; the Baltic Fleet began to receive new vessels in 1703. The fleet's first vessel was the 24-gun three-masted frigate Shtandart, she was the fleet's flagship, is a prime example of the increasing role of the frigate design.
By 1724, the fleet boasted 141 sail hundreds of oar-propelled vessels. During the Great Northern War, the Baltic Fleet assisted in taking Viborg, Riga, the West Estonian archipelago and Turku; the first claimed victories of the new Imperial Russian Navy were the Gangut in 1714 and, the Grengam in 1720. From 1715, the English Royal Navy intervened in the Baltic Sea on behalf of the German principality of Hanover, more or less in a tacit alliance with Russia. During the concluding stages of the war, the Russian fleet would land troops along the Swedish coast to devastate coastal settlements. However, after the death of King Charles XII, the Royal Navy would rather protect Swedish interests after a rapprochement between the Kingdom of Sweden and King George I. A Russian attempt to reach the Swedish capital of Stockholm was checked at the Battle of Stäket in 1719; the losses suffered by the Russian Navy at the Grengam in 1720, as well as the arrival of a Royal Navy squadron under Admiral John Norris prevented further operations of any greater scale before the war ended in 1721.
During the "Seven Years' War", the Russian Baltic Sea fleet was active on the Pomeranian coast of northern Germany and Prussia, helping the infantry to take Memel in 1757 and Kolberg in 1761. The Oresund was blockaded in order to prevent the British Navy from entering the Baltic sea. During the Russo-Swedish War the fleet, commanded by Samuel Greig, checked the Swedes at Hogland and the Viborg. An impetuous Russian attack on the Swedish galley flotilla on 9 July 1790 at the Second Battle of Svensksund resulted in a disaster for the Russian Navy who lost some 9,500 out of 14,000 men and about one third of their flotilla; the Russian defeat in this battle ended the war. During the series of Russo-Turkish Wars, the fleet sailed into the Mediterranean Sea on the First and Second Archipelago Expeditions and destroyed the Ottoman Imperial Navy at the sea Battles of Chesma, the Dardanelles and Navarino. At about the same time, Russian Admiral Ivan Krusenstern circumnavigated the globe, while another Baltic Fleet officer — Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen — discovered the southern ice-covered continent, Antarctica.
In the Crimean War, the fleet – although stymied in its operations by the absence of steamships – prevented the British and French Allies from occupying Hangö, Saint Petersburg. Despite being outnumbered by the technologically superior Allies, it was the Russian Fleet that introduced into naval warfare such novelties as torpedo mines, invented by Boris Yakobi. Other outstanding inventors who served in the Baltic Fleet were Alexander Stepanovich Popov, Stepan Makarov, Alexei Krylov, Alexander Mozhaiski; as early as 1861, the first armor-clad ships were built for the Baltic Fleet. In 1863, during the American Civil War, most of the Fleet's ocean-going ships, including the flagship Alexander Nevsky were sent to New York City. At the same time ten Uragan-class monitors based on the American-designed Passaic- class monitors were launched, it was the policy of the Czar and his government to show support for the Northern Union Army in the United States during their Civil War, observin
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Order of the Red Banner
The Order of the Red Banner was the first Soviet military decoration. The Order was established on 16 September 1918, during the Russian Civil War by decree of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee, it was the highest award of Soviet Russia, subsequently the Soviet Union, until the Order of Lenin was established in 1930. Recipients were recognised for extraordinary heroism and courage demonstrated on the battlefield; the Order was awarded to individuals as well as to military units, ships and social organizations, state enterprises. In years, it was awarded on the twentieth and again on the thirtieth anniversary of military, police, or state security service without requiring participation in combat; the Russian Order of the Red Banner was established during the Russian Civil War by decree of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee of September 16, 1918. The first recipient was Vasily Blyukher on September 28, 1918; the second recipient was Iona Yakir. During the Civil War, there existed named orders and decorations established by the Soviet communist governments of several other constituent and nonconstituent republics.
The August 1, 1924, decree of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee established the all-Soviet Order of the Red Banner for deserving personnel of the Red Army. Other nonmilitary awards used the phrase "Order of the Red Banner" in their title. From 1918 till the late 1930s there was a Soviet collective variant - the Revolutionary Red Banner of Honor; this was in the form of a special military color awarded to distinguished Red Army, Soviet Air Force, Soviet Navy units. It was older than the Order of the Red Banner, having been established on August 3, 1918, a month and several weeks before; as a military decoration, the Order of the Red Banner recognised heroism in combat or otherwise extraordinary accomplishments of military valour during combat operations. Before the establishment of the Order of Lenin on April 5, 1930, the Order of the Red Banner functioned as the highest military order of the USSR. During World War II, under various titles, it was presented to both individuals and military units for acts of extreme military heroism.
In some ways, the Order of the Red Banner was more prestigious, as it could only be awarded for bravery during combat operations whereas the Order of Lenin was sometimes awarded to non-military personnel and political leaders. Nearly all well-known Soviet commanders became recipients of the Order of the Red Banner; when the Order was awarded to whole formations, the prefix "Red Banner" was added to their official designations. Naval vessels flew a special ensign; the Order of the Red Banner was used as a "long service award" between 1944 and 1958 to mark twenty and thirty years of service in the military, state security, or police. Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of September 14, 1957, emphasised the devaluation of certain Soviet high military Orders used as long service awards instead of their intended criteria; this led to the joint January 25, 1958, decree of the Ministers of Defence, of Internal Affairs, of the Chairman of the Committee on State Security of the USSR establishing the Medal "For Impeccable Service," putting an end to the practice of awarding long service variants of the Order of the Red Banner.
The Order consisted of a white-enamelled badge, which had a golden Hammer and Sickle badge surrounded by two golden panicles of wheat on a Red Star, backed by crossed hammer, torch, a red flag bearing the motto Proletarians of the World, Unite!. The whole was surrounded by two golden panicles of wheat. Additional awards of the Order bore a white enamelled shield with a silver sequence number at the bottom of the obverse. A recipient of multiple Orders of the Red Banner would wear a basic badge of the Order with a numeral corresponding to the sequence of the award on a cartouche over the wheat at the bottom of the badge; the early variants of the Order were screw back badges to allow wear on clothing. Variants hung from a standard Soviet pentagonal mount with a ring through the suspension loop; the mount was covered with an overlapping 24mm wide red silk moiré ribbon with 1.5mm wide white edge stripes and a 7mm wide white central stripe. The Order of the Red Banner was worn on the left side of the chest and when in the presence of other Orders and medals of the USSR, was placed after the Order of the October Revolution.
If worn in the presence of Orders or medals of the Russian Federation, the latter have precedence. Baltic Fleet Soviet Northern Fleet Pacific Ocean Fleet Far Eastern Military District First Army First Guards Tank Army Second Guards Tank Army 1st Rifle Division 6th Rifle Division 24th Rifle Division 45th Rifle Division 27th Guards Rifle Division 39th Guards Rifle Division 19th Motor Rifle Division 76th Guards Airborne Division 85th Rifle Division 100th Guards Rifle Division 106th Guards Tula Airborne Division 17th Rifle Regiment, 32nd Rifle Division 72nd Mechanized Brigade French fighter squadron Normandie-Niemen Feats of valour worthy of the award of the Order of the Red Banner were as much against internal as against external enemies of the USSR, as detailed below: Stalin's Chief Executioner Va
Jubilee Medal "30 Years of the Soviet Army and Navy"
The Jubilee Medal "30 Years of the Soviet Army and Navy" was a state military commemorative medal of the Soviet Union established on February 22, 1948 by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR to denote the thirtieth anniversary of the creation of the Soviet Armed Forces. Its statute was amended by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of July 18, 1980; the Jubilee Medal "30 Years of the Soviet Army and Navy" was awarded to all the generals, officers, warrant officers, petty officers and sailors, who were members of the Armed Forces of the USSR, of the troops of the Ministry of Internal Affairs or of the Ministry for State Security on 23 February 1948. The medal was awarded on behalf of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR by commanders of military units and institutions; the Jubilee Medal "30 Years of the Soviet Army and Navy" was worn on the left side of the chest and when in the presence of other medals of the USSR, it was located after the Jubilee Medal "XX Years of the Workers' and Peasants' Red Army".
If worn in the presence or Orders or medals of the Russian Federation, the latter have precedence. The Jubilee Medal "30 Years of the Soviet Army and Navy" was a 32mm in diameter circular brass medal. On the obverse, the right profile busts of Stalin. On the reverse, the circular relief inscription along the entire medal's circumference "TO COMMEMORATE THE THIRTIETH ANNIVERSARY" separated at the bottom by a relief five pointed star; the Jubilee Medal "30 Years of the Soviet Army and Navy" was secured by a ring through the medal suspension loop to a standard Soviet pentagonal mount covered by a 24mm wide silk moiré grey ribbon with two 2mm red edge stripes and a central 8mm red stripe. All individuals listed below are recipients of the Jubilee Medal "30 Years of the Soviet Army and Navy". Army General Semion Pavlovich Ivanov Lieutenant General Nikolai Pavlovich Simoniak Marshal of Aviation Serhi Gnatovich Rudenko Army General Sergei Matveevich Shtemenko Captain 3rd grade Michael Petrovich Tsiselsky Captain 1st grade Ivan Vasilyevich Travkin Lieutenant General Vasily Mikhaylovich Badanov Army General Kuzma Nikitovich Galitsky Marshal of the Soviet Union Sergey Semyonovich Biryuzov Marshal of the Soviet Union Vasily Danilovich Sokolovsky Marshal of the Soviet Union Ivan Ignatyevich Yakubovsky Marshal of the Soviet Union Vasily Ivanovich Chuikov Marshal of the Soviet Union Kliment Yefremovich Voroshilov Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union Nikolay Gerasimovich Kuznetsov Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov Captain Vasily Grigoryevich Zaytsev Marshal of the Soviet Union Semyon Konstantinovich Timoshenko Colonel Pavel Ivanovich Belyayev Dmitriy Feodorovich Ustinov Marshal of the Soviet Union Marshal of Aviation Alexander Ivanovich Pokryshkin Admiral Vladimir Filippovich Tributs Admiral Filipp Sergeyevich Oktyabrskiy Red Army Awards and decorations of the Soviet Union Legal Library of the USSR
Medal "For the Defence of the Soviet Transarctic"
The Medal "For the Defence of the Soviet Transarctic" was a World War II campaign medal of the Soviet Union. The Medal "For the Defence of the Soviet Transarctic" was established on December 5, 1944 by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR to satisfy the petition of the People's Commissariat of Defense of the USSR; the Medal "For the Defence of the Soviet Transarctic" was awarded to all participants in the defence of the Soviet Arctic region - soldiers of the Red Army and troops of the NKVD, as well as persons from the civilian population who took part in the defence of the North. Award of the medal was made on behalf of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR on the basis of documents attesting to actual participation in the defence of the Soviet Transarctic issued by the unit commander, the chief of the military medical establishment or by the Murmansk Regional or Urban Councils of People's Deputies. Serving military personnel received the medal from their unit commander, retirees from military service received the medal from a regional, municipal or district military commissioner in the recipient's community, members of the civilian population, participants in the defence of the Soviet Transarctic received their medal from the Murmansk Oblast or city Councils of People's Deputies.
For the defenders who died in battle or prior to the establishment of the medal, it was awarded posthumously to the family. The Medal "For the Defence of the Soviet Transarctic" was worn on the left side of the chest and in the presence of other awards of the USSR, was located after the Medal "For the Defence of the Caucasus". If worn in the presence of Orders or medals of the Russian Federation, the latter have precedence; the Medal "For the Defence of the Soviet Transarctic" was a 32mm in diameter circular brass medal with a raised rim. On its obverse, the bust of a soldier in a sheepskin coat and fur cap carrying a PPSh sub machine gun. To the left of the soldier, the half hidden image of a warship, on both sides of his head, military aircraft in flight, superimposed on the bottom center and bottom right of his coat, two tanks. Along the entire circumference of the obverse, a 3mm band bearing the relief inscription "FOR THE DEFENSE OF THE SOVIET TRANSARCTIC", at the bottom, a five pointed star bearing the hammer and sickle superimposed on a length of ribbon.
On the reverse near the top, the relief image of the hammer and sickle, below the image, the relief inscription in three rows "FOR OUR SOVIET MOTHERLAND". The Medal "For the Defence of the Soviet Transarctic" was secured by a ring through the medal suspension loop to a standard Soviet pentagonal mount covered by a 24mm wide blue silk moiré ribbon with 2mm white edge stripes and a white 6mm central stripe with 1mm white edge stripes; the individuals below were all recipients of the Medal "For the Defence of the Soviet Transarctic". Marshal of the Soviet Union Kirill Afanasievich Meretskov Marshal of the Soviet Union Nikolai Vasilyevich Ogarkov Marshal of the Soviet Union Sergei Leonidovich Sokolov Sailor and polar explorer Alexey Fyodorovich Tryoshnikov Northern Fleet sailor Lev Efimovich Kerbel Colonel General Valerian Alexandrovich Frolov World War 2 veteran Anatoly Nikolayevich Demitkov Lieutenant General Nikolai Pavlovich Simoniak Wartime Northern Fleet commander Admiral Arseniy Grigoriyevich Golovko Awards and decorations of the Soviet Union Arctic convoys of World War II Murmansk Oblast Murmansk Legal Library of the USSR