Bailly-le-Franc is a commune in the Aube department in the Grand Est region of north-central France. Bailly-le-Franc is located some 20 km south-west of Saint-Dizier and 15 km north-east of Brienne-le-Château; the northern border of the commune is the departmental border between Aube and Marne while the eastern border is the departmental border between Aube and Haute-Marne. Access to the commune is by the D127 road from Margerie-Hancourt in the west which passes through the centre of the commune and continues south-east, changing to the D13 at the commune border, to Droyes; the D655 comes from Outines in the north, changing to the D56 at the communal border and passing through the commune continuing south-west to Chavanges. The south of the commune is forested with the rest farmland; the Ruisseau de Chevry flows out of the Étang de Bailly in the west of the commune and passes through the commune towards the east before turning south to form the eastern border of the commune and the department and continuing through the Étang de la Horre to join the Voire.
The Ruisseau du Pré Darras forms the northern border of the commune and the department as it flows east to join the Droye. List of Successive Mayors In 2010 the commune had 28 inhabitants; the evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger communes that have a sample survey every year. Population change Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 The Church of the Exaltation of Saint Croix is registered as an historical monument; the church contains many items that are registered as historical objects: Communes of the Aube department Bailly-le-Franc on Lion1906 Bailly-le-Franc on Google Maps Bailly-le-Franc on Géoportail, National Geographic Institute website Bailly-le-Franc on the 1750 Cassini Map Bailly-le-Franc on the INSEE website INSEE
Barbuise is a commune in the Aube department in the Grand Est region of north-central France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Barbisiennes. Barbuise is located 20 km east of Provins. Access to the commune is by the D40 from La Villeneuve-au-Châtelot in the east which passes through the heart of the commune south of the village and continues west south-west to join the D40A to Chalautre-la-Grande; the D52 comes from Villenauxe-la-Grande in the north and passes through the village before continuing south-east to Pont-sur-Seine. The D97 goes north-west from the village to Montpothier; the D174 goes north to Plessis-Barbuise. The D197 connects the D97 in the west of the commune; the commune is all farmland with many lakes occupying a significant area of land in a belt across the commune and in the south-east. The Canal de Courtavant crosses the south-east of the commune from south-west to north-east; the Noxe river joins the canal. The Canal de Soulaunoy joins the Noxe south-west of the village.
The area of the commune has been occupied since ancient times as evidenced by many archaeological discoveries and megaliths in the commune. Barbuise appears as Barbuife as Barbuise on the 1790 version. List of Successive Mayors In 2010 the commune had 416 inhabitants; the evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger communes that have a sample survey every year. Population change Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 The Dolmen of Grèves de Fraicul is registered as an historical monument. Were a part of Cerny culture; the parish church contains a large number of items. For a complete list including links to descriptions click here. Communes of the Aube department
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Bagneux-la-Fosse is a French commune in the Aube department in the Grand Est region of north-central France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Bagnolaises. Bagneux-la-Fosse is located some 40 km east of Saint-Florentin and 15 km south-west of Bar-sur-Seine. Access to the commune is by the D32 road from Avirey-Lingey in the north which passes through the village before continuing south to join the D452 which continues to Channes; the D17 goes west from the village the north-west to Pargues. The D26 goes north-east to Neuville-sur-Seine. There is a large forest in the north-west of the commune and a smaller forest in the south-east with the rest of the commune farmland; the Sarce river flows through the commune from south to north just east of the village and continues north to join the Seine at Virey-sous-Bar. List of Successive Mayors In 2010 the commune had 175 inhabitants; the evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793.
From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger communes that have a sample survey every year. Population change Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 The Church is registered as an historical monument; the church contains many items that are registered as historical objects: Communes of the Aube department Bagneux-la-Fosse on the old National Geographic Institute website Bagneux-la-Fosse on Lion1906 Bagneux-la-Fosse on Google Maps Bagneux-la-Fosse on Géoportail, National Geographic Institute website Bagneux on the 1750 Cassini Map Bagneux-la-Fosse on the INSEE website INSEE
Ailleville is a French commune in the Aube department in the Grand Est region of northern-central France. The inhabitants are known as Aillevilloises. Ailleville is located in the valley of the Aube river some 2 km north-west of Bar-sur-Aube; the commune is traversed from Bar-sur-Aube in the south-east crossing the heart of the commune and the town to exit towards Arsonval in the north-west. There are no other highways in the commune other than small country lanes. There are no hamlets other than Ailleville; the north-east of the commune is dominated by the forests of Envers de Bretonvau and Bois de Val Joudry. The rest of the commune is farmland; the southern part of the commune is traversed by a railway line running from Bar-sur-Aube railway station in the south-east to the next station at Arret-de-Jessains in the north-west. There is no station in the commune with the nearest station at Bar-sur-Aube; the nearest cities are Chaumont some 40 km to Troyes some 40 km west. The Aube river crosses the southern boundary of the commune and forms a small portion of the southern border of the commune.
There are no discernible streams in the commune. The village was founded in 6 A. D. with the name "Aquilavilla". This villa was undoubtedly given to a Roman soldier at the end of his military service next to the famous Agrippa Roman road; the name of the village changed many times: Alivilla in 1152 Aquilevilla in 1170 Aillevilla in 1222 Aquilavilla in 1253 Aileville in 1270 Ailleville in 1306. The Merovingians established themselves in the Roman village and in 1076 the village changed with its attachment, along with all the County of Bar sur Aube, to the County of Champagne. With the reputation of the fairs in Champagne and its proximity to Bar sur Aube, the village increased in importance. A Church, an Abbey, a Chateau were built; the old vineyards planted by the Romans became reputable under Louis XIV. The history of Ailleville was peaceful until the Napoleonic Campaign of 1814. In February, during the Bar-sur-Aube battle, the village was devastated as many others in the area. Twenty-two families in all, most of the inhabitants, were sheltered in the castle.
They rebuilt the village afterwards, although several, who were destitute and helpless, had to depart. There are some remains of the Gallo-Roman era in the commune; the inhabitants were once known as "Braments." List of Successive Mayors of Ailleville A Chateau from the time of Henry IV A Roman road from Langres to Chalons-en-Champagne The Presence of Merovingian sarcophagi from the 6th-7th century around the Lavoir. These sarcophagi were found in the 1970s by the local historian Roger Rubaud at a place called Les Longues-Roies above the village. A Cistercian Cross next to the church from the 16th century in Corinthian style proving the existence of a Cistercian Abbey in the valley founded by the Lords of Jaucourt in 1215 at Gué de Ternant. Destroyed rebuilt in 1309 at the foot of Côte Jobert. After being in severe decline in the 18th century it was destroyed in the French Revolution. A Château from the 17th century flanked by four turrets. A Dovecote The Church of Saint Martin; the church is a simple Romanesque building from the 12th century.
The choir is narrower than the nave. The building depended on the chapter of Saint-Maclou of Bar-sur-Aube; the church contains many items that are registered as historical objects: A Statuette: Education of the Virgin 4 Bas-reliefs: the Evangelists A Statue: Saint Nicholas A Statuette: Saint Martin An Altar and Tabernacle A Tombstone of Jean de Lauparet A Tombstone for the Guillard family A Ciborium A Chalice A Chalice A Paten An Incense lamp A Monstrance A Statue: Saint Ambroise A Statue: Saint Radegonde A Statue: Christ on the Cross A Stoup The Furniture in the Church Communes of the Aube department Ailleville on the old IGN website Ailleville on Lion1906 Ailleville on Google Maps Ailleville on Géoportail, National Geographic Institute website Ailleville on the 1750 Cassini Map Ailleville on the INSEE website INSEE
Avirey-Lingey is a French commune in the Aube department in the Grand Est region of north-central France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Arivey-Lingeoises. Avirey-Lingey is located 40 km east of Saint-Florentin. Access to the commune is by the D32 road from Arrelles in the north which passes through the commune and the village and continues south to Bagneux-la-Fosse; the D142 goes west from the village to join the D3 south-west of Chaource. The D184 goes north-east from the village to join the D36 west of Polisy; the village of Lingey is to the north-west of the main village. The commune is mixed farmland; the Sarce river flows through the centre of the commune from south-east to north-west where it continues north to join the Seine at Virey-sous-Bar. The name Avirey comes from a Roman man's name AviriusOlder versions have been attested: Avireium in 1081, Avirey in 1793, Avirey-Luigé in 1801. Avirey-Lingey was created through the merger of two parishes and Lingey, after the French revolution.
A legend tells of a patron saint named Saint Phal who lived in the commune during the 6th century and is registered in the Roman Martyrology. He promoted the fertility of women, its vineyard was appreciated by King Henri IV who invited his minister, Maximilien de Béthune, Duke of Sully, to come and drink a glass of his "good wine from Avirey". During the 17th century there were only few people in the area due to epidemics and famine. In 1872, Avirey-Lingey consisted of four holiday inns, five grocers, a mill, a traditional oil mill. Since 2004 the municipality has launched several major projects related to the conservation and preservation of local heritage, in particular its two main buildings: the church and the town hall; the church was closed in 2004 and a notice of unfitness signed in 2006. In January 2013, the Mayor announced the development of a socio-cultural hall and the repair of the roof of the Town Hall; the roof of the Town Hall, which has the distinction of having a bell, was completed in 2013.
Restoration work for the Church of Saint-Phal began in 2009 and continued in 2013. As the population of the commune is between 100 and 500, the number of members of the municipal council is 11. List of Successive Mayors In 2010 the commune had 220 inhabitants; the evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger communes that have a sample survey every year. Population change Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 Unlike national and departmental allocations, the male population of the town is greater than the female population. Percentage Distribution of Age Groups in Avirey-Lingey and Aube Department in 2010 Sources: Evolution and Structure of the population of the Commune in 2010, INSEE. Evolution and Structure of the population of the Department in 2010, INSEE. Avirey-Lingey is located in the Academy of Reims.
The commune does not administer any elementary school. The commune participates in the theatre festival "From one scene to another" using its multipurpose hall; the third festival was held in 2013. The "Road of Champagne Festival" is a major event that lasts two days and took place in Avirey-Lingey in 2008; the attendance record was broken with over 30,000 visitors. There is no nurse in Avirey-Lingey; the nearest are located in Riceys. The regional daily L'Est-Éclair publication provides local information on the commune; the commune has no ADSL node connection ADSL installed, nor is it connected to a fibre optic network. Telephone lines are connected to an exchange located in Bagneux-la-Fosse. Only Catholic worship is available in Avirey-Lingey; the town is one of the seven communes grouped in the parish of "Riceys", one of the nine parishes in the pastoral area of "Côtes des Bar" in the diocese of Troyes. The place of worship is the parish church of Saint-Phal. In 2011 the median household income tax was €34,189 which placed Avirey-Lingey at the 8933rd rank among the 31,886 communes of more than 49 households in France.
In 2009 36.7% of fiscal households were not taxable. In 2009 the population aged 15–64 years was 141 people of whom there were 88.6% employable, 86.4% employed and 2.1% unemployed. There were 88 jobs in the commune compared to 81 in 1999; the number of active employed residents in the area of employment is 123, the indicator of concentration of jobs is 71.5% which means that the commune offers only three jobs per four employable people. On 31 December 2010 there were 53 businesses in Avirey-Lingey: 35 in agriculture-forestry-fishing, one in industry, one in construction, 13 in various trade-transport-services, 3 were related to the administrative sector. In 2011 two new businesses were created in Avirey Lingey. In 2012, the florist was the only equipment and services business. Avirey-Lingey has been in the appellation d'origine contrôlée zone for Chaource cheese since 1970 and has had a protected designation of origin since 1996; the commune has one religious building, registered as an historical monument: The Church of Saint Phal.
The church was completed in the 19th century. Before the French Revolution it was in the diocese of Langres; the Church contains many items that are registered as historical objects: Views of the exterior of the Church of Saint-Phal. Other sites of interestThe Chapel of Saint-Genevieve at Lingey with a Romanesque nave and choir from
Departments of France
In the administrative divisions of France, the department is one of the three levels of government below the national level, between the administrative regions and the commune. Ninety-six departments are in metropolitan France, five are overseas departments, which are classified as regions. Departments are further subdivided into 334 arrondissements, themselves divided into cantons; each department is administered by an elected body called a departmental council. From 1800 to April 2015, these were called general councils; each council has a president. Their main areas of responsibility include the management of a number of social and welfare allowances, of junior high school buildings and technical staff, local roads and school and rural buses, a contribution to municipal infrastructures. Local services of the state administration are traditionally organised at departmental level, where the prefect represents the government; the departments were created in 1790 as a rational replacement of Ancien Régime provinces with a view to strengthen national unity.
All of them were named after physical geographical features, rather than after historical or cultural territories which could have their own loyalties. The division of France into departments was a project identified with the French revolutionary leader the Abbé Sieyès, although it had been discussed and written about by many politicians and thinkers; the earliest known suggestion of it is from 1764 in the writings of d'Argenson. They have inspired similar divisions in some of them former French colonies. Most French departments are assigned a two-digit number, the "Official Geographical Code", allocated by the Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques. Overseas departments have a three-digit number; the number is used, for example, in the postal code, was until used for all vehicle registration plates. While residents use the numbers to refer to their own department or a neighbouring one, more distant departments are referred to by their names, as few people know the numbers of all the departments.
For example, inhabitants of Loiret might refer to their department as "the 45". In 2014, President François Hollande proposed to abolish departmental councils by 2020, which would have maintained the departments as administrative divisions, to transfer their powers to other levels of governance; this reform project has since been abandoned. The first French territorial departments were proposed in 1665 by Marc-René d'Argenson to serve as administrative areas purely for the Ponts et Chaussées infrastructure administration. Before the French Revolution, France gained territory through the annexation of a mosaic of independent entities. By the close of the Ancien Régime, it was organised into provinces. During the period of the Revolution, these were dissolved in order to weaken old loyalties; the modern departments, as all-purpose units of the government, were created on 4 March 1790 by the National Constituent Assembly to replace the provinces with what the Assembly deemed a more rational structure.
Their boundaries served two purposes: Boundaries were chosen to break up France's historical regions in an attempt to erase cultural differences and build a more homogeneous nation. Boundaries were set so that every settlement in the country was within a day's ride of the capital of a department; this was a security measure, intended to keep the entire national territory under close control. This measure was directly inspired by the Great Terror, during which the government had lost control of many rural areas far from any centre of government; the old nomenclature was avoided in naming the new departments. Most were named after other physical features. Paris was in the department of Seine. Savoy became the department of Mont-Blanc; the number of departments 83, had been increased to 130 by 1809 with the territorial gains of the Republic and of the First French Empire. Following Napoleon's defeats in 1814–1815, the Congress of Vienna returned France to its pre-war size and the number of departments was reduced to 86.
In 1860, France acquired the County of Nice and Savoy, which led to the creation of three new departments. Two were added from the new Savoyard territory, while the department of Alpes-Maritimes was created from Nice and a portion of the Var department; the 89 departments were given numbers based on the alphabetical order of their names. The department of Bas-Rhin and parts of Meurthe, Moselle and Haut-Rhin were ceded to the German Empire in 1871, following France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. A small part of Haut-Rhin became known as the Territoire de Belfort; when France regained the ceded departments after World War I, the Territoire de Belfort was not re-integrated into Haut-Rhin. In 1922, it became France's 90th department; the Lorraine departments were not changed back to their original boundaries, a new Moselle department was created in the regaine