Hud (1963 film)
Hud is a 1963 American Drama Western film directed by Martin Ritt and starring Paul Newman, Melvyn Douglas and Patricia Neal. It was produced by Ritt and Newman's founded company, Salem Productions, was their first film for Paramount Pictures. Hud was filmed on location including Claude, Texas, its screenplay was by Irving Ravetch and Harriet Frank Jr. and was based on Larry McMurtry's 1961 novel, Pass By. The film's title character, Hud Bannon, was a minor character in the original screenplay but was reworked as the lead role. With its main character an antihero, Hud was described as a revisionist Western; the film centers on the ongoing conflict between principled patriarch Homer Bannon and his unscrupulous and arrogant son, during an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease putting the family's cattle ranch at risk. Lonnie, Homer's grandson and Hud's nephew, is caught in the conflict and forced to choose which character to follow. Hud premiered at the Venice International Film Festival, was a critical and commercial success at its general release.
It was nominated for seven Academy Awards. Howe's use of contrast to create space and his selection of black-and-white was favored by critics. In reviews, the film received additional praise. In 2018, the film was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally or aesthetically significant". Hud Bannon is ambitious and self-centered, the opposite of his principled rancher father Homer. Living on the Bannon ranch is Hud's teenage nephew, who looks up to both men but is most impressed by Hud. Lonnie and Hud are attracted to Alma. Although she is attracted to Hud, Alma keeps her distance because she has been mistreated in the past by men like him. After the sudden, inexplicable death of a cow on the ranch, Homer sends Lonnie to town to bring Hud to the ranch for his opinion. Lonnie, finding Hud just in time to take the blame for Hud's tryst with a married woman, protests Hud's putting him in a dangerous situation as they return to the ranch, with Hud driving over Alma's flowers as they arrive.
At the dead animal, Hud shoots several buzzards to scare the flock away against his father's protestations that they keep the land clean and shooting them is illegal. Hud states his immunity to laws. Hud is annoyed by his father's decision to summon the state veterinarian, suggests selling the animals to other ranchers before the news spreads, he blames his father for not realizing that the cheap Mexican cattle were sick before he bought them. Adhering to his principles, Homer waits for the veterinarian. Upon his arrival, the state veterinarian issues a binding State Livestock Transfer Order directing the quarantine of the ranch for a possible foot-and-mouth disease outbreak; this freezes the movement of all livestock to or from the Bannon ranch, while they await the test results. Aware of the possibility of bankruptcy to the ranch, Homer complies. One night, Hud takes Lonnie out and they prevail in a drunken barroom brawl. Back at the ranch he reflects on the past, revealing his feelings about his brother Norman's death and his father's coldness to him.
When they enter the house Homer confronts Hud. They argue, with Hud accusing Homer of resentment of him for Norman's death. Homer replies. Hurt and angry, Hud retorts "she died" as he walks away; when Lonnie tells Homer that he was too harsh and other people act like him, Homer replies that one day he will have to decide for himself what is right and wrong. After learning from Lonnie that Hud is trying to seize the ranch, Homer confronts Hud. Infuriated by his eroded inheritance, Hud threatens to have Homer declared incompetent so he can take over the ranch. Homer tells his son, he admits that he made mistakes raising Hud, was too hard on him. When Hud accuses him of having a "shape up or ship out" policy, Homer wonders aloud how a man like Hud can be his son and storms off to his room. Hud, goes outside and tries to rape Alma before Lonnie comes to her aid; when the herd tests positive for foot-and-mouth disease, the veterinarian orders them to be killed and buried on the ranch under state supervision to keep the disease from spreading.
Hud points out that they could sell some oil leases to keep the ranch profitable, but Homer refuses as he only has pride in cattle, despite his ruinous decision to purchase the Mexican cattle. Alma decides to leave the ranch. After Lonnie drops her off at the bus station, Hud sees her, he apologizes for his drunken assault but not his attraction to her, he would remember her as "the one who got away". Driving back to the ranch, Lonnie sees his grandfather lying on the side of the road after a fall from his horse during a survey of the ranch. Hud pulls up behind Lonnie and, despite their efforts, he dies. Lonnie is repelled by his uncle's treatment of Homer and Alma and leaves the ranch after his grandfather's funeral, uncertain if he will return; when he tells Hud to put his half of their inheritance in the bank, his un
A cartoon is a type of illustration animated in a non-realistic or semi-realistic style. The specific meaning has evolved over time, but the modern usage refers to either: an image or series of images intended for satire, caricature, or humor. Someone who creates cartoons in the first sense is called a cartoonist, in the second sense they are called an animator; the concept originated in the Middle Ages, first described a preparatory drawing for a piece of art, such as a painting, tapestry, or stained glass window. In the 19th century, beginning in Punch magazine in 1843, cartoon came to refer – at first – to humorous illustrations in magazines and newspapers. In the early 20th century, it began to refer to animated films. A cartoon is a full-size drawing made on sturdy paper as a study or modello for a painting, stained glass, or tapestry. Cartoons were used in the production of frescoes, to link the component parts of the composition when painted on damp plaster over a series of days; such cartoons have pinpricks along the outlines of the design so that a bag of soot patted or "pounced" over a cartoon, held against the wall, would leave black dots on the plaster.
Cartoons by painters, such as the Raphael Cartoons in London, examples by Leonardo da Vinci, are prized in their own right. Tapestry cartoons colored, were followed with the eye by the weavers on the loom. In print media, a cartoon is an illustration or series of illustrations humorous in intent; this usage dates from 1843, when Punch magazine applied the term to satirical drawings in its pages sketches by John Leech. The first of these parodied the preparatory cartoons for grand historical frescoes in the then-new Palace of Westminster; the original title for these drawings was Mr Punch's face is the letter Q and the new title "cartoon" was intended to be ironic, a reference to the self-aggrandizing posturing of Westminster politicians. Cartoons can be divided into gag cartoons, which include editorial cartoons, comic strips. Modern single-panel gag cartoons, found in magazines consist of a single drawing with a typeset caption positioned beneath, or—less often—a speech balloon. Newspaper syndicates have distributed single-panel gag cartoons by Mel Calman, Bill Holman, Gary Larson, George Lichty, Fred Neher and others.
Many consider New Yorker cartoonist Peter Arno the father of the modern gag cartoon. The roster of magazine gag cartoonists includes Charles Addams, Charles Barsotti, Chon Day. Bill Hoest, Jerry Marcus, Virgil Partch began as magazine gag cartoonists and moved to syndicated comic strips. Richard Thompson illustrated numerous feature articles in The Washington Post before creating his Cul de Sac comic strip; the sports section of newspapers featured cartoons, sometimes including syndicated features such as Chester "Chet" Brown's All in Sport. Editorial cartoons are found exclusively in news publications and news websites. Although they employ humor, they are more serious in tone using irony or satire; the art acts as a visual metaphor to illustrate a point of view on current social or political topics. Editorial cartoons include speech balloons and sometimes use multiple panels. Editorial cartoonists of note include Herblock, David Low, Jeff MacNelly, Mike Peters, Gerald Scarfe. Comic strips known as cartoon strips in the United Kingdom, are found daily in newspapers worldwide, are a short series of cartoon illustrations in sequence.
In the United States, they are not called "cartoons" themselves, but rather "comics" or "funnies". Nonetheless, the creators of comic strips—as well as comic books and graphic novels—are referred to as "cartoonists". Although humor is the most prevalent subject matter and drama are represented in this medium; some noteworthy cartoonists of humorous comic strips are Scott Adams, Steve Bell, Charles Schulz, E. C. Segar, Mort Walker and Bill Watterson. Political cartoons are like illustrated editorial that serve visual commentaries on political events, they offer subtle criticism which are cleverly quoted with humour and satire to the extent that the criticized does not get embittered. The pictorial satire of William Hogarth is regarded as a precursor to the development of political cartoons in 18th century England. George Townshend produced some of caricatures in the 1750s; the medium began to develop in the latter part of the 18th century under the direction of its great exponents, James Gillray and Thomas Rowlandson, both from London.
Gillray explored the use of the medium for lampooning and caricature, has been referred to as the father of the political cartoon. By calling the king, prime ministers and generals to account for their behaviour, many of Gillray's satires were directed against George III, depicting him as a pretentious buffoon, while the bulk of his work was dedicated to ridiculing the ambitions of revolutionary France and Napoleon. George Cruikshank became the leading cartoonist in the period following Gillray, from 1815 until the 1840s, his career was renowned for his social caricatures of English life for popular publications. By the mid 19th century, major political newspapers in many other countries featured cartoons commenting on the politics of the day. Thomas Nast, in New York City, showed how realistic German drawing techniques could redefine American cartooning, his 160 cartoons relentlessly pursued the criminal c
A pin-up model is a model whose mass-produced pictures see wide appeal as popular culture. Pin-ups are intended for informal display, i.e. meant to be "pinned-up" on a wall. Pin-up models may be fashion models, or actors; these pictures are sometimes known as cheesecake photos. Cheesecake was an American slang word, considered a publicly acceptable term for seminude women because pin-up was considered taboo in the early twentieth century; the term pin-up may refer to drawings and other illustrations as well as photographs. The term was first attested to in English in 1941. Pin-up images could be cut out on a postcard or lithograph; such pictures appear on walls, desks, or calendars. Posters of pin-ups were mass-produced, became popular from the mid-20th century. Male pin-ups were less common than their female counterparts throughout the 20th century, although a market for homoerotica has always existed as well as pictures of popular male celebrities targeted at women or girls. Examples include Jim Morrison.
Beginning in the early nineteenth century, pin-up modeling had "theatrical origins", burlesque performers and actresses sometimes used photographic advertisement as business cards to advertise shows. These adverts and business cards could be found backstage in every theater's green room, pinned-up or stuck into "frames of the looking-glasses, in the joints of the gas-burners, sometimes lying on-top of the sacred cast-case itself." Understanding the power of photographic advertisements to promote their shows, burlesque women self-constructed their identity to make themselves visible. Being recognized not only within the theater itself but outside challenged the conventions of women's place and women's potential in the public sphere. "To understand both the complicated identity and the subversive nature of the 19th-century actress, one must understand that the era's views on women's potential were inextricably tied to their sexuality, which in turn was tied to their level of visibility in the public sphere: regardless of race, class or background, it was assumed that the more public the woman, the more'public,' or available, her sexuality, according to historian Maria Elena Buszek.
Being sexually fantasized, famous actresses in early-20th-century film were both drawn and photographed and put on posters to be sold for personal entertainment. Among the celebrities who were considered sex symbols, one of the most popular early pin-up girls was Betty Grable, whose poster was ubiquitous in the lockers of G. I.s during World War II. In Europe, prior to the First World War, the likes of Fernande Barrey, were arguably the world's first pin-ups as is known in the modern sense. Miss Barrey displayed full frontal nudity, her pictures were cherished by soldiers on both sides of the First World War conflict. Other pin-ups were artwork depicting idealized versions of what some thought a beautiful or attractive woman should look like. An early example of the latter type was the Gibson Girl, a representation of the New Woman drawn by Charles Dana Gibson. "Because the New Woman was symbolic of her new ideas about her sex, it was inevitable that she would come to symbolize new ideas about sexuality."
Unlike the photographed actresses and dancers generations earlier, fantasy gave artists the freedom to draw women in many different ways. The 1932 Esquire "men's" magazine featured many drawings and "girlie" cartoons but was most famous for its Vargas girls. Prior to World War II they were praised for their beauty and less focus was on their sexuality. However, during the war, the drawings transformed into women playing dress-up in military drag and drawn in seductive manners, like that of a child playing with a doll; the Vargas girls became so popular that from 1942–46, owing to a high volume of military demand, "9 million copies of the magazine-without adverts and free of charge was sent to American troops stationed overseas and in domestic bases." The Vargas Girls were adapted as nose art on many World War II fighter aircraft. Among the other well-known artists specializing in the field were Earle K. Bergey, Enoch Bolles, Gil Elvgren, George Petty, Rolf Armstrong, Zoë Mozert, Duane Bryers and Art Frahm.
Notable contemporary pin-up artists include Olivia De Berardinis, known for her pin-up art of Bettie Page and her pieces in Playboy. Many people believe that since its beginnings the pin-up "...has presented women with models for expressing and finding pleasure in their sexual subjectivity". According to Joanne Meyerowitz in "Women and Borderline Material" an article in Journal of Women's History, "As sexual images of women multiplied in the popular culture, women participated in constructing arguments to endorse as well as protest them."As early as 1869, women have been supporters and protesters of the pin-up. Female supporters of early pin-up content considered these to be a "positive post-Victorian rejection of bodily shame and a healthy respect for female beauty."Additionally, pin-up allows for women to change the everyday culture. The models "...succeed in the feminist aim of changing the rigid, patriarchal terms". It has further been argued by some critics that in the early 20th century, these drawings of women helped define certain body images—such as being clean, being healthy, being wholesome—and were enjoyed by both men and
Chicago the City of Chicago, is the most populous city in Illinois, as well as the third most populous city in the United States. With an estimated population of 2,716,450, it is the most populous city in the Midwest. Chicago is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area referred to as Chicagoland, the county seat of Cook County, the second most populous county in the United States; the metropolitan area, at nearly 10 million people, is the third-largest in the United States, the fourth largest in North America and the third largest metropolitan area in the world by land area. Located on the shores of freshwater Lake Michigan, Chicago was incorporated as a city in 1837 near a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed and grew in the mid-nineteenth century. After the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, which destroyed several square miles and left more than 100,000 homeless, the city made a concerted effort to rebuild; the construction boom accelerated population growth throughout the following decades, by 1900 Chicago was the fifth largest city in the world.
Chicago made noted contributions to urban planning and zoning standards, including new construction styles, the development of the City Beautiful Movement, the steel-framed skyscraper. Chicago is an international hub for finance, commerce, technology, telecommunications, transportation, it is the site of the creation of the first standardized futures contracts at the Chicago Board of Trade, which today is the largest and most diverse derivatives market gobally, generating 20% of all volume in commodities and financial futures. O'Hare International Airport is the one of the busiest airports in the world, the region has the largest number of U. S. highways and greatest amount of railroad freight. In 2012, Chicago was listed as an alpha global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, it ranked seventh in the entire world in the 2017 Global Cities Index; the Chicago area has one of the highest gross domestic products in the world, generating $680 billion in 2017. In addition, the city has one of the world's most diversified and balanced economies, not being dependent on any one industry, with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce.
Chicago's 58 million domestic and international visitors in 2018, made it the second most visited city in the nation, behind New York City's approximate 65 million visitors. The city ranked first place in the 2018 Time Out City Life Index, a global quality of life survey of 15,000 people in 32 cities. Landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, the Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Grant Park, the Museum of Science and Industry, Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicago's culture includes the visual arts, film, comedy and music jazz, soul, hip-hop and electronic dance music including house music. Of the area's many colleges and universities, the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, the University of Illinois at Chicago are classified as "highest research" doctoral universities. Chicago has professional sports teams in each of the major professional leagues, including two Major League Baseball teams; the name "Chicago" is derived from a French rendering of the indigenous Miami-Illinois word shikaakwa for a wild relative of the onion, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum and known more as ramps.
The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as "Checagou" was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir. Henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the eponymous wild "garlic" grew abundantly in the area. According to his diary of late September 1687:...when we arrived at the said place called "Chicagou" which, according to what we were able to learn of it, has taken this name because of the quantity of garlic which grows in the forests in this region. The city has had several nicknames throughout its history such as the Windy City, Chi-Town, Second City, the City of the Big Shoulders, which refers to the city's numerous skyscrapers and high-rises. In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, who had taken the place of the Miami and Sauk and Fox peoples; the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable arrived in the 1780s, he is known as the "Founder of Chicago".
In 1795, following the Northwest Indian War, an area, to be part of Chicago was turned over to the United States for a military post by native tribes in accordance with the Treaty of Greenville. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn and rebuilt; the Ottawa and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis; the Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833. On August 12, 1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people. On June 15, 1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. S. Receiver of Public Monies; the City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4, 1837, for several decades was the world's fastest-growing city. As the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States.
Chicago's first railway and Chicago Union Railroad, the Illi
A hobo is a migrant worker or homeless vagrant one, impoverished. The term originated in the Western—probably Northwestern—United States around 1890. Unlike a "tramp", who works only when forced to, a "bum", who does not work at all, a "hobo" is a traveling worker; the origin of the term is unknown. According to etymologist Anatoly Liberman, the only certain detail about its origin is the word was first noticed in American English circa 1890. Liberman points out that many folk etymologies fail to answer the question: "Why did the word become known in California by the early Nineties?" Author Todd DePastino has suggested it may be derived from the term hoe-boy meaning "farmhand", or a greeting such as Ho, boy! Bill Bryson suggests in Made in America that it could either come from the railroad greeting, "Ho, beau!" or a syllabic abbreviation of "homeward bound". It could come from the words "homeless boy". H. L. Mencken, in his The American Language, wrote: Tramps and hobos are lumped together, but see themselves as differentiated.
A hobo or bo is a migrant laborer. Lower than either is the bum, who neither works nor travels, save when impelled to motion by the police, it is unclear when hobos first appeared on the American railroading scene. With the end of the American Civil War in the 1860s, many discharged veterans returning home began hopping freight trains. Others looking for work on the American frontier followed the railways west aboard freight trains in the late 19th century. In 1906, Professor Layal Shafee, after an exhaustive study, put the number of tramps in the United States at about 500,000, his article "What Tramps Cost Nation" was published by The New York Telegraph in 1911, when he estimated the number had surged to 700,000. The number of hobos increased during the Great Depression era of the 1930s. With no work and no prospects at home, many decided to travel for free by freight train and try their luck elsewhere. Life as a hobo was dangerous. In addition to the problems of being itinerant and far from home and support, plus the hostility of many train crews, they faced the railroads' security staff, nicknamed "bulls", who had a reputation of violence against trespassers.
Moreover, riding on a freight train is dangerous in itself. British poet W. H. Davies, author of The Autobiography of a Super-Tramp, lost a foot when he fell under the wheels when trying to jump aboard a train, it was easy to be trapped between cars, one could freeze to death in bad weather. When freezer cars were loaded at an ice factory, any hobo inside was to be killed. According to Ted Conover in Rolling Nowhere, at some unknown point in time, as many as 20,000 people were living a hobo life in North America. Modern freight trains are much faster and thus harder to ride than in the 1930s, but they can still be boarded in railyards. Many hobo terms have become part of common language, such as "big House", "glad rags", "main drag", others. To cope with the uncertainties of hobo life, hobos developed a system of a visual code. Hobos would write this code with chalk or coal to provide directions and warnings to others in "the brotherhood". A symbol would indicate "turn right here", "beware of hostile railroad police", "dangerous dog", "food available here", so on.
Some used signs: A cross signifies "angel food", that is, food served to the hobos after a sermon. A triangle with hands signifies. A horizontal zigzag signifies a barking dog. A square missing its top line signifies. A top hat and a triangle signify wealth. A spearhead signifies a warning to defend oneself. A circle with two parallel arrows means get out fast. Two interlocked circles, representing handcuffs, warn. A caduceus symbol signifies. A cross with a smiley face in one of the corners means the doctor at this office will treat hobos free of charge. A cat signifies. A wavy line above an X means a campsite. Three diagonal lines mean. A square with a slanted roof with an X through it means that the house has been "burned" or "tricked" by another hobo and is not a trusting house. Two shovels signify. Another version of the hobo code exists as a display in the Steamtown National Historic Site at Scranton, operated by the National Park Service. There is an exhibit of hobo codes at the National Cryptologic Museum in Annapolis Junction, Maryland.
The Free Art and Technology Lab released a QR Hobo Code, with a QR stenciler, in July 2011. An ethical code was created by Tourist Union #63 during its 1889 National Hobo Convention in St. Louis, Missouri; this code was voted upon as a concrete set of laws to govern the Nationwide Hobo Body. When in town, always respect the local law and officials, try to be a gentleman at all times. Don't take advantage of someone, in a vulnerable situation, locals or other hobos. Always try to find work if temporary, always seek out jobs nobody wants. By doing so you not only help a business along, but ensure employment should you return to that town again; when no employment is available, make your own work by using your added talents at crafts. Do not allow yourself to become a stupid drunk and set a bad example for locals' treatment of other hobos; when jungling in town, respect handouts, do not
Damsel in distress
The damsel-in-distress, persecuted maiden, or princess in jeopardy is a classic theme in world literature, art and video games. This trope involves beautiful, innocent, or helpless young female leads, placed in a dire predicament by a villain, monster or alien, who requires a male hero to achieve her rescue; these young women are stereotyped as physically weak and completely dependent on the male lead. After rescuing her, the hero obtains her hand in marriage, she has become a stock character of fiction of melodrama. Though she is human, she can be of any other species, including fictional or folkloric species; the word "damsel" derives from the French demoiselle, meaning "young lady", the term "damsel in distress" in turn is a translation of the French demoiselle en détresse. It is an archaic term not used in modern English in expressions such as this, it can be traced back to the knight-errant of Medieval songs and tales, who regarded protection of women as an essential part of his chivalric code which includes a notion of honour and nobility.
The English term "damsel in distress" itself first seems to have appeared in Richard Ames' 1692 poem "Sylvia’s Complaint of Her Sexes Unhappiness." The damsel in distress theme featured in the stories of the ancient Greeks. Greek mythology, while featuring a large retinue of competent goddesses contains helpless maidens threatened with sacrifice. For example, Andromeda's mother offended Poseidon. To appease him Andromeda's parents fastened her to a rock in the sea; the hero Perseus slew the beast. Andromeda in her plight, chained naked to a rock, became a favorite theme of painters; this theme of the Princess and dragon is pursued in the myth of St George. Another early example of a damsel in distress is Sita in the ancient Indian epic Ramayana. In the epic, Sita is taken to Lanka, her husband Rama goes on a quest to rescue her, with the help of the monkey-god Hanuman. European fairy tales feature damsels in distress. Evil witches trapped Rapunzel in a tower, cursed the princess to die in "Snow White", put Sleeping Beauty into a magical sleep.
In all of these, a valorous prince comes to the maiden's aid, saves her, marries her. The damsel in distress was an archetypal character of medieval romances, where she was rescued from imprisonment in a tower of a castle by a knight-errant. Chaucer's The Clerk's Tale of the repeated trials and bizarre torments of patient Griselda was drawn from Petrarch; the Emprise de l'Escu vert à la Dame Blanche was a chivalric order with the express purpose of protecting oppressed ladies. The theme entered the official hagiography of the Catholic Church – most famously in the story of Saint George who saved a princess from being devoured by a dragon. A late addition to the official account of this Saint's life, not attested in the several first centuries when he was venerated, it is nowadays the main act for which Saint George is remembered. Obscure outside Norway is Hallvard Vebjørnsson, the Patron Saint of Oslo, recognised as a martyr after being killed while valiantly trying to defend a woman – most a slave – from three men accusing her of theft.
In the 17th century English ballad The Spanish Lady, a Spanish lady captured by an English captain falls in love with her captor and begs him not to set her free but to take her with him to England, in this appeal describes herself as "A lady in distress". The damsel in distress makes her debut in the modern novel as the title character of Samuel Richardson's Clarissa, where she is menaced by the wicked seducer Lovelace. Reprising her medieval role, the damsel in distress is a staple character of Gothic literature, where she is incarcerated in a castle or monastery and menaced by a sadistic nobleman, or members of the religious orders. Early examples in this genre include Matilda in Horace Walpole's The Castle of Otranto, Emily in Ann Radcliffe's The Mysteries of Udolpho, Antonia in Matthew Lewis' The Monk; the perils faced by this Gothic heroine were taken to an extreme by the Marquis de Sade in Justine, who exposed the erotic subtext which lay beneath the damsel-in-distress scenario. One exploration of the theme of the persecuted maiden is the fate of Gretchen in Goethe's Faust.
According to the philosopher Schopenhauer: The great Goethe has given us a distinct and visible description of this denial of the will, brought about by great misfortune and by the despair of all deliverance, in his immortal masterpiece Faust, in the story of the sufferings of Gretchen. I know of no other description in poetry, it is a perfect specimen of the second path, which leads to the denial of the will not, like the first, through the mere knowledge of the suffering of the whole world which one acquires voluntarily, but through the excessive pain felt in one's own person. It is true that many tragedies bring their violently willing heroes to this point of complete resignation, the will-to-live and its phenomenon end at the same time, but no description known to me brings to us the essential point of that conversion so distinctly and so free from everything extraneous as the one mentioned in Faust The misadventures of the damsel in distress of the Gothic continued in a somewhat caricatured form in Victorian melodrama.
According to Michael Booth in his classic study En
Celery is a marshland plant in the family Apiaceae, cultivated as a vegetable since antiquity. Celery has a long fibrous stalk tapering into leaves. Depending on location and cultivar, either its stalks, leaves, or hypocotyl are eaten and used in cooking. Celery seed is used as a spice and its extracts have been used in herbal medicine. Celery leaves are pinnate to bipinnate with rhombic leaflets 3–6 cm long and 2–4 cm broad; the flowers are creamy-white, 2–3 mm in diameter, are produced in dense compound umbels. The seeds are broad ovoid to globose, 1.5 -- 2 mm wide. Modern cultivars have been selected for leaf stalks. A celery stalk separates into "strings" which are bundles of angular collenchyma cells exterior to the vascular bundles. Wild celery, Apium graveolens var. graveolens, grows to 1 m tall. It occurs around the globe; the first cultivation is thought to have happened in the Mediterranean region, where the natural habitats were salty and wet, or marshy soils near the coast where celery grew in agropyro-rumicion-plant communities.
North of the alps wild celery is found only in the foothill zone on soils with some salt content. It prefers nutrient rich, muddy soils, it cannot be found in Austria and is rare in Germany. First attested in English in 1664, the word "celery" derives from the French céleri, in turn from Italian seleri, the plural of selero, which comes from Late Latin selinon, the latinisation of the Ancient Greek: σέλινον, translit. Selinon, "celery"; the earliest attested form of the word is the Mycenaean Greek se-ri-no, written in Linear B syllabic script. Celery was described by Carl Linnaeus in Volume One of his Species Plantarum in 1753; the plants are raised from seed, sown either in a hot bed or in the open garden according to the season of the year, after one or two thinnings and transplantings, they are, on attaining a height of 15–20 cm, planted out in deep trenches for convenience of blanching, effected by earthing up to exclude light from the stems. In the past, celery was grown as a vegetable for winter and early spring.
By the 19th century, the season for celery had been extended, to last from the beginning of September to late in April. In North America, commercial production of celery is dominated by the cultivar called'Pascal' celery. Gardeners can grow a range of cultivars, many of which differ from the wild species in having stouter leaf stems, they are ranged under two classes and red. The stalks grow in tight, parallel bunches, are marketed fresh that way, without roots and just a little green leaf remaining; the stalks are eaten raw, or as an ingredient in salads, or as a flavoring in soups and pot roasts. In Europe, another popular variety is celeriac, Apium graveolens var. rapaceum, grown because its hypocotyl forms a large bulb, white on the inside. The bulb can be kept for months in winter and serves as a main ingredient in soup, it can be shredded and used in salads. The leaves are used as seasoning. Leaf celery is a cultivar from East Asia. Leaf celery is most the oldest cultivated form of celery. Leaf celery has characteristically thin skin stalks and a stronger taste and smell compared to other cultivars.
It is sometimes pickled as a side dish. The wild form of celery is known as "smallage", it has a furrowed stalk with wedge-shaped leaves, the whole plant having a coarse, earthy taste, a distinctive smell. The stalks are not eaten, but the leaves may be used in salads, its seeds are those sold as a spice. With cultivation and blanching, the stalks lose their acidic qualities and assume the mild, aromatic taste particular to celery as a salad plant; because wild celery is eaten, yet susceptible to the same diseases as more well-used cultivars, it is removed from fields to help prevent transmission of viruses like celery mosaic virus. Harvesting occurs; the petioles and leaves are harvested. During commercial harvesting, celery is packaged into cartons which contain between 36 and 48 stalks and weigh up to 27 kg. Under optimal conditions, celery can be stored for up to seven weeks between 0 to 2 °C. Inner stalks may continue growing if kept at temperatures above 0 °C. Shelf life can be extended by packaging celery in micro-perforated shrink wrap.
Freshly cut petioles of celery are prone to decay, which can be prevented or reduced through the use of sharp blades during processing, gentle handling, proper sanitation. Celery stalk may be preserved through pickling by first removing the leaves boiling the stalks in water before adding vinegar and vegetable oil. In the past, restaurants used to store celery in a container of water with powdered vegetable preservative, but it was found that the sulfites in the preservative caused allergic reactions in some people. In 1986, the U. S. Food and Drug Administration banned the use of sulfites on fruits and vegetables intended to be eaten ra