In baseball, a home run is scored when the ball is hit in such a way that the batter is able to circle the bases and reach home safely in one play without any errors being committed by the defensive team in the process. In modern baseball, the feat is achieved by hitting the ball over the outfield fence between the foul poles without first touching the ground, resulting in an automatic home run. There is the "inside-the-park" home run where the batter reaches home safely while the baseball is in play on the field; when a home run is scored, the batter is credited with a hit and a run scored, an RBI for each runner that scores, including himself. The pitcher is recorded as having given up a hit, a run for each runner that scores including the batter. Home runs are among the most popular aspects of baseball and, as a result, prolific home run hitters are the most popular among fans and the highest paid by teams—hence the old saying, "Home run hitters drive Cadillacs, singles hitters drive Fords.
In modern times a home run is most scored when the ball is hit over the outfield wall between the foul poles before it touches the ground, without being caught or deflected back onto the field by a fielder. A batted ball is a home run if it touches either foul pole or its attached screen before touching the ground, as the foul poles are by definition in fair territory. Additionally, many major-league ballparks have ground rules stating that a batted ball in flight that strikes a specified location or fixed object is a home run. In professional baseball, a batted ball that goes over the outfield wall after touching the ground becomes an automatic double; this is colloquially referred to as a "ground rule double" because the rule is not written into the rules of baseball, but is rather a rule of the field being used. A fielder is allowed to reach over the wall to attempt to catch the ball as long as his feet are on or over the field during the attempt, if the fielder catches the ball while it is in flight the batter is out if the ball had passed the vertical plane of the wall.
However, since the fielder is not part of the field, a ball that bounces off a fielder and over the wall without touching the ground is still a home run. A fielder may not deliberately throw his glove, cap, or any other equipment or apparel to stop or deflect a fair ball, an umpire may award a home run to the batter if a fielder does so on a ball that, in the umpire's judgment, would have otherwise been a home run. A home run accomplished in any of the above manners is an automatic home run; the ball is dead if it rebounds back onto the field, the batter and any preceding runners cannot be put out at any time while running the bases. However, if one or more runners fail to touch a base or one runner passes another before reaching home plate, that runner or runners can be called out on appeal, though in the case of not touching a base a runner can go back and touch it if doing so won't cause them to be passed by another preceding runner and they have not yet touched the next base; this stipulation is in Approved Ruling of Rule 7.10.
An inside-the-park home run occurs when a batter hits the ball into play and is able to circle the bases before the fielders can put him out. Unlike with an outside-the-park home run, the batter-runner and all preceding runners are liable to be put out by the defensive team at any time while running the bases; this can only happen. In the early days of baseball, outfields were much more spacious, reducing the likelihood of an over-the-fence home run, while increasing the likelihood of an inside-the-park home run, as a ball getting past an outfielder had more distance that it could roll before a fielder could track it down. Modern outfields are much less spacious and more uniformly designed than in the game's early days, therefore inside-the-park home runs are now a rarity, they occur when a fast runner hits the ball deep into the outfield and the ball bounces in an unexpected direction away from the nearest outfielder, or an outfielder misjudges the flight of the ball in a way that he cannot recover from the mistake.
The speed of the runner is crucial as triples are rare in most modern ballparks. If any defensive play on an inside-the-park home run is labeled an error by the official scorer, a home run is not scored. All runs scored on such a play, still count. An example of an unexpected bounce occurred during the 2007 Major League Baseball All-Star Game at AT&T Park in San Francisco on July 10, 2007. Ichiro Suzuki of the American League team hit a fly ball that caromed off the right-center field wall in the opposite direction from where National League right fielder Ken Griffey, Jr. was expecting it to go. By the time the ball was relayed, Ichiro had crossed the plate standing up; this was the first inside-the-park home run in All-Star Game history, led to Suzu
A baseball field called a ball field, sandlot or a baseball diamond, is the field upon which the game of baseball is played. The term can be used as a metonym for a baseball park. Unless otherwise noted, the specifications discussed in this section refer to those described within the Official Baseball Rules, under which Major League Baseball is played; the starting point for much of the action on the field is home plate, a five-sided slab of whitened rubber, 17 inches square with two of the corners removed so that one edge is 17 inches long, two adjacent sides are 8.5 inches and the remaining two sides are 12 inches and set at an angle to make a point. The plate is set into the ground such. Adjacent to each of the two parallel 8.5-inch sides is a batter's box. The point of home plate where the two 12-inch sides meet at right angles is at one corner of a 90-foot square; the other three corners of the square, in counterclockwise order from home plate, are called first and third base. Three canvas or rubber bases 15 inches square and 3–5 inches in thickness made of soft material mark the three bases.
Near the center of the square is an artificial hill known as the pitcher's mound, atop, a white rubber slab known as the pitcher's plate, colloquially the "rubber." The specifications for the pitcher's mound are described below. All the bases, including home plate, lie within fair territory. Thus, any batted ball that touches those bases must be in fair territory. While the first and third base bags are placed so that they lie inside the 90-foot square formed by the bases, the second base bag is placed so that its center coincides with the "point" of the ninety-foot square. Thus, although the "points" of the bases are 90 feet apart, the physical distance between each successive pair of base markers is closer to 88 feet; the lines from home plate to first and third bases extend to the nearest fence, stand or other obstruction and are called the foul lines. The portion of the playing field between the foul lines is fair territory; the area within the square formed by the bases is called the infield, though colloquially this term includes fair territory in the vicinity of the square.
Most baseball fields are enclosed with a fence. The fence is set at a distance ranging from 300 to 420 feet from home plate. Most professional and college baseball fields have a right and left foul pole; these poles are at the intersection of the foul lines and the respective ends of the outfield fence and, unless otherwise specified within the ground rules, lie in fair territory. Thus, a batted ball that passes over the outfield wall in flight and touches the foul pole is a fair ball and the batter is awarded a home run. First base is the first of four bases that must be touched by a player on the batting team in order to score a run. Unlike when an offensive player reaches second or third base, it is permissible for a batter-runner to overrun first base without being in jeopardy of being put out. After contact is made with the base, the batter-runner may slow down and return to first base at his leisure, so long as he makes no move or attempt to advance to second base; the first baseman is the defensive player responsible for the area near first base.
A professional first baseman is a slow runner and tall. A tall first baseman presents a large target to which other fielders can throw, his height gives him a larger range in reaching and catching errant throws. Players who are left-handed are marginally preferable for first base because: first, it is easier for a left-handed fielder to catch a pick-off throw from the pitcher and tag the baserunner. A right-handed first baseman must, when setting himself up to receive a throw from an infielder, execute a half-pivot near the base. There are three infield positions that can only be occupied by right-handed players: 2nd base, 3rd base, shortstop; this is. It takes a left-handed thrower more time to make that pivot and in the fast-paced major league game, that time is critical; as a result, there are fewer positions a left-handed player can occupy, if that player is not fast, the outfield may not be a good fit. In the numbering system used to record defensive plays, the first baseman is assigned the number 3.
Second base is the second of four stations on a baseball diamond which must be touched in succession by a base runner in order to score a run for that player's team. Second base is defended by the second baseman and the shortstop. Second base is known as the keystone sack. A runner on second base is said to be in "scoring position," owing to the high likelihood of reaching home plate and scoring a run from second base on most base hits. Since second is the farthest base from home plate, it is the most common target of base stealing. Ideally, the second baseman and shortstop possess quick hands and feet and the ability to release the ball and with accuracy. One will cover second base when the other attempts to field the ball. Both players must communicate well to be able to make a double play. Particular agility is required of the second baseman in double play situations, which forces the player to t
Cincinnati is a major city in the U. S. state of Ohio, is the government seat of Hamilton County. Settled in 1788, the city is located at the northern side of the confluence of the Licking and Ohio rivers, the latter of which marks the state line with Kentucky; the city drives the Cincinnati–Middletown–Wilmington combined statistical area, which had a population of 2,172,191 in the 2010 census making it Ohio's largest metropolitan area. With a population of 296,943, Cincinnati is the third-largest city in Ohio and 65th in the United States, its metropolitan area is the fastest growing economic power in the Midwestern United States based on increase of economic output and it is the 28th-largest metropolitan statistical area in the U. S. Cincinnati is within a day's drive of 49.70% of the United States populace. In the nineteenth century, Cincinnati was an American boomtown in the middle of the country. Throughout much of the 19th century, it was listed among the top 10 U. S. cities by population, surpassed only by New Orleans and the older, established settlements of the United States eastern seaboard, as well as being the sixth-biggest city for a period spanning 1840 until 1860.
As Cincinnati was the first city founded after the American Revolution, as well as the first major inland city in the country, it is regarded as the first purely "American" city. Cincinnati developed with fewer immigrants and less influence from Europe than East Coast cities in the same period. However, it received a significant number of German immigrants, who founded many of the city's cultural institutions. By the end of the 19th century, with the shift from steamboats to railroads drawing off freight shipping, trade patterns had altered and Cincinnati's growth slowed considerably; the city was surpassed in population by other inland cities Chicago, which developed based on strong commodity exploitation and the railroads, St. Louis, which for decades after the Civil War served as the gateway to westward migration. Cincinnati is home to three major sports teams: the Cincinnati Reds of Major League Baseball; the city's largest institution of higher education, the University of Cincinnati, was founded in 1819 as a municipal college and is now ranked as one of the 50 largest in the United States.
Cincinnati is home to historic architecture with many structures in the urban core having remained intact for 200 years. In the late 1800s, Cincinnati was referred to as the "Paris of America", due to such ambitious architectural projects as the Music Hall, Cincinnatian Hotel, Shillito Department Store. Cincinnati is the birthplace of the 27th President of the United States. Cincinnati began in 1788 when Mathias Denman, Colonel Robert Patterson, Israel Ludlow landed at a spot at the northern bank of the Ohio opposite the mouth of the Licking and decided to settle there; the original surveyor, John Filson, named it "Losantiville". In 1790, Arthur St. Clair, the governor of the Northwest Territory, changed the name of the settlement to "Cincinnati" in honor of the Society of the Cincinnati, made up of Revolutionary War veterans, of which he was a member; the introduction of steamboats on the Ohio River in 1811 opened up the city's trade to more rapid shipping, the city established commercial ties with St. Louis and New Orleans downriver.
Cincinnati was incorporated as a city on March 1, 1819. Exporting pork products and hay, it became a center of pork processing in the region. From 1810 to 1830 its population nearly tripled, from 9,642 to 24,831. Completion of the Miami and Erie Canal in 1827 to Middletown, Ohio further stimulated businesses, employers struggled to hire enough people to fill positions; the city had a labor shortage until large waves of immigration by Irish and Germans in the late 1840s. The city grew over the next two decades, reaching 115,000 people by the year 1850. Construction on the Miami and Erie Canal began on July 21, 1825, when it was called the Miami Canal, related to its origin at the Great Miami River; the first section of the canal was opened for business in 1827. In 1827, the canal connected Cincinnati to nearby Middletown. During this period of rapid expansion and prominence, residents of Cincinnati began referring to the city as the Queen City. After the steamboats, railroads were the next major form of commercial transportation to come to Cincinnati.
In 1836, the Little Miami Railroad was chartered. Construction began soon after, to connect Cincinnati with the Mad River and Lake Erie Railroad, provide access to the ports of the Sandusky Bay on Lake Erie. Cincinnati acted as a "border town" during the slave-owning period between 1810 and 1863, its location, on the border between the free state of Ohio and the slave state of Kentucky, made it a prominent location for slaves to escape the slave-owning south. Many prominent abolitionists called Cincinnati their home during this period, made it a popular stop on the Underground Railroad. In 2004, the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center was completed along Freedom Way in Downtown, honoring the city's past involvement in the Underground Railroad. In 1859, Cincinnati laid out six streetcar lines. By 1872, Cincinnatians could travel on the streetcars within the city and transfer to rail cars for travel to the hill communities; the Cincinnati Inclined Plane Company began transporting people t
Shortstop, abbreviated SS, is the baseball or softball fielding position between second and third base, considered to be among the most demanding defensive positions. The position was assigned to defensive specialists who were poor at batting and were placed at the bottom of the batting order. Today shortstops are able to hit well and many are placed at the top of the lineup. In the numbering system used by scorers to record defensive plays, the shortstop is assigned the number 6. More hit balls go to the shortstop than to any other position, as there are more right-handed hitters in baseball than left-handed hitters, most hitters have a tendency to pull the ball slightly. Like a second baseman, a shortstop must be agile, for example. Like a third baseman, the shortstop fields balls hit to the left side of the infield, where a strong arm is needed to throw out a batter-runner before they reach the safety of first base. Doc Adams of the Knickerbockers created the concept of the shortstop position, according to baseball historian John Thorn and Baseball Hall of Fame researcher Freddy Berowski.
In the first five years the Knickerbockers played, the team fielded anywhere from eight to eleven players. The only infielders were the players covering each of the bases; the outfielders had difficulty throwing baseballs into the infield, because of the balls' light weight. Adams' shortstop position, which he started playing at some time from 1849 to 1850, was used to field throws from the outfielders and throw to the three infielders. With the advent of higher-quality baseballs, Adams moved to the infield, since the distance the balls could travel increased. Adams had a long playing career with the Knickerbockers: he remained a player with the team until 1860. Unlike the pitcher and catcher, who must start every play in a designated area the shortstop and the other fielders can vary their positioning in response to what they anticipate will be the actions of the batter and runner once the play begins; the shortstop ordinarily is positioned near second base on the third-base side. Because right-handed hitters tend to hit the ball more toward third base, a shortstop will move closer to third base if the batter is batting right-handed, more toward first base if the batter is batting left-handed.
A shortstop has a strong throwing arm, because he has a long throw to first base, has less time in which to make a throw, given that the ground balls he fields have traveled far. A shortstop must be agile, because balls hit to or near the shortstop position are hit harder than to other infield positions. Shortstops are required to cover second base in double play situations when the ball is hit to the second baseman or first baseman, they cover second when a runner is attempting a stolen base, but only when a left-handed hitter is batting. This is because the infield will respond to a left-handed batter by shifting toward first base, resulting in the shortstop being the infielder, closest to second base. Shortstops must cover third at various times, including the rotation play. Shortstops are given precedence on catching pop-ups in the infield as well, so they end up calling off other players many times, although on deep pop-ups they fall back when called off by an outfielder, they become the cutoff man on balls to any part of the outfield that are being directed towards third base and all balls to left and center field that are destined for second base.
Depending on the system the shortstop may cut balls from left field heading home. The emphasis on defense makes the position unusually difficult to fill. A strong shortstop did not have to be a good hitter; some of the weakest hitters in Major League Baseball have played the position, including Mario Mendoza, for whom George Brett popularized the eponymous Mendoza Line to describe a batting average below.200. Since the 1960s, such mediocre hitting has become rarer as teams demand players with ability to both field and hit. In practice, a marginal fielder as a shortstop who hits well can be moved to any other position second base or third base, whether early in their careers or due to diminished fielding range, slower reflexes, weaker throwing arms, increased risk of injury, or co-existence with another dominant shortstop, as with Ernie Banks, Cal Ripken Jr. Alex Rodríguez, Michael Young, or Miguel Tejada; the year in which the player was inducted is given in brackets after his name. John Henry Lloyd and Willie Wells were elected for their play in the Negro Leagues.
George Wright was elected as a pioneer, but starred as a shortstop in the 1860s and 1870s. Robin Yount started his career as a shortstop, moved to the outfield where he played his last nine seasons. Ernie Banks played shortstop for the first half of first base for the remainder. Ozzie Smith: 621 Glenn Wright: 601 Dave Bancroft: 598 (Philadelphia Phillies/New York Gia
In baseball, a stolen base occurs when a runner advances to a base to which he is not entitled and the official scorer rules that the advance should be credited to the action of the runner. The umpires determine whether the runner is safe or out at the next base, but the official scorer rules on the question of credit or blame for the advance under Rule 10. A stolen base most occurs when a base runner advances to the next base while the pitcher is pitching the ball to home plate. Successful base stealers have good baserunning instincts and timing. Ned Cuthbert, playing for the Philadelphia Keystones in either 1863 or 1865, was the first player to steal a base in a baseball game, although the term stolen base was not used until 1870. For a time in the 19th century, stolen bases were credited when a baserunner reached an extra base on a base hit from another player. For example, if a runner on first base reached third base on a single, it counted as a steal. In 1887, Hugh Nicol set a still-standing Major League record with 138 stolen bases, many of which would not have counted under modern rules.
Modern steal rules were implemented in 1898. Base stealing was popular in the game's early decades, with speedsters such as Ty Cobb and Clyde Milan stealing nearly 100 bases in a season, but the tactic fell into relative disuse after Babe Ruth introduced the era of the home run – in 1955, for example, no one in baseball stole more than 25 bases, Dom DiMaggio won the AL stolen base title in 1950 with just 15. However, in the late 1950s and early 1960s, base-stealing was brought back to prominence by Luis Aparicio and Maury Wills, who broke Cobb's modern single-season record by stealing 104 bases in 1962. Wills' record was broken in turn by Lou Brock in 1974, Rickey Henderson in 1982; the stolen base remained a popular tactic through the 1980s best exemplified by Vince Coleman and the St. Louis Cardinals, but began to decline again in the 1990s as the frequency of home runs reached record heights and the steal-friendly artificial turf ballparks began to disappear. Base stealing is an important characteristic of the "small ball" managing style.
Such managers emphasize "doing the little things" to advance runners and score runs relying on pitching and defense to keep games close. The Los Angeles Dodgers of the 1960s, led by pitcher Sandy Koufax and speedy shortstop Maury Wills, were a successful example of this style; the antithesis of this is reliance on power hitting, exemplified by the Baltimore Orioles of the 1970s, which aspired to score most of its runs via home runs. The "small ball" model is associated with the National League, while power hitting is associated with the American League. However, some successful recent American League teams, including the 2002 Anaheim Angels, the 2001 Seattle Mariners and the 2005 Chicago White Sox have excelled at "small ball." The Kansas City Royals have embodied this style leading the league in stolen bases but finishing last in home runs in 2013 and 2014. Successful teams combine both styles, with speedy runners complementing power hitters—such as the 2005 White Sox, who hit 200 home runs, fifth most in the majors, had 137 stolen bases, fourth.
Baseball's Rule 8 specifies the pitching procedure in detail. For example, in the Set Position, the pitcher must "com to a complete stop". A runner intending to "steal on the pitcher" breaks for the next base the moment the pitcher commits to pitch to home plate; the pitcher can not try to put the runner out. If the runner breaks too soon, the pitcher may throw to a base rather than pitch, the runner is picked off by being tagged out between the bases. Past this moment, any delay in the runner's break makes it more that the catcher, after receiving the pitch, will be able to throw the runner out at the destination base. Before the pitch, the runner takes a lead-off, walking several steps away from the base as a head start toward the next base. A runner who does not intend to steal takes a secondary lead of a few more steps, once the pitcher has committed to complete the pitch; the pitcher may, without limit, throw the ball to the runner's base. The runner must return to that risk being tagged out.
The more adept base stealers are proficient at reading the pickoff, meaning that they can detect certain tells in a pitcher's pre-pitch movements or mannerisms that indicate the pickoff attempt is or is not imminent. For example, one experienced base stealer noted that careless pitchers dig the toes on their back foot into the ground when they are about to pitch in order to get a better push off, but when they intend to turn and throw a pickoff, they do not. If a batted ball is caught on the fly, the runner must return to his original base. In this case, a runner trying to steal is more to be caught off his original base, resulting in a double play; this is a minor risk of a steal attempt. It is offset by the fact. In the hit-and-run play, coaches coordinate the actions of batter; the runner tries to steal and the batter swings at any pitch, if only to distract the catcher. If the batter makes contact, the runner has a greater chance of reaching the next base.
In baseball, innings pitched are the number of innings a pitcher has completed, measured by the number of batters and baserunners that are put out while the pitcher is on the pitching mound in a game. Three outs made is equal to one inning pitched. One out counts as one-third of an inning, two outs counts as two-thirds of an inning. Sometimes, the statistic is written 34.1, 72.2, or 91.0, for example, to represent 34 1⁄3 innings, 72 2⁄3 innings, 91 innings respectively. Runners left on base by a pitcher are not counted in determining innings pitched, it is possible for a pitcher to enter a game, give up several hits and even several runs, be removed before achieving any outs, thereby recording a total of zero innings pitched. The only active players in the top 100 all-time at the end of the 2009 season were Tom Glavine, Randy Johnson, Jamie Moyer and John Smoltz. By the end of the 2018 season, only two active players were in the top 100 all-time: CC Sabathia, Bartolo Colón; this is. Several factors are responsible for this decline: From 1876–1892, pitchers threw from fifty feet and exerted less stress on their arms.
In this era, season totals of 600 innings pitched were not uncommon. In 1892, pitchers moved back to the current distance of six inches. However, they still threw 400 innings in a season; this was because the home run was far less common and pitchers conserved arm strength throughout the game. From 1920 to the 1980s, the four-man pitching rotation was well established. Pitchers could no longer throw 400 innings in a season, as the home run meant a run could be scored at any time; the league leader in innings pitched threw somewhat more than 300 innings. Innings pitched would spike, as in the early 1970s, when Wilbur Wood pitched 376 2⁄3 innings in 1972 and 359 1⁄3 innings in 1973. From the 1980s to the present, the four-man rotation was replaced with the five-man rotation, with a weak fifth man who would be skipped on off days. Managers starting using their bullpens more and more, accelerating the decline in innings pitched. Today, only a few pitchers pitch more than 250 innings in a season. Per Baseball Reference: All-time innings pitched leaders
Earned run average
In baseball statistics, earned run average is the mean of earned runs given up by a pitcher per nine innings pitched. It is determined by dividing the number of earned runs allowed by the number of innings pitched and multiplying by nine. Runs resulting from defensive errors are recorded as unearned runs and omitted from ERA calculations. Henry Chadwick is credited with devising the statistic, which caught on as a measure of pitching effectiveness after relief pitching came into vogue in the 1900s. Prior to 1900—and, in fact, for many years afterward—pitchers were expected to pitch a complete game, their win-loss record was considered sufficient in determining their effectiveness. After pitchers like James Otis Crandall and Charley Hall made names for themselves as relief specialists, gauging a pitcher's effectiveness became more difficult using the traditional method of tabulating wins and losses; some criterion was needed to capture the apportionment of earned-run responsibility for a pitcher in games that saw contributions from other pitchers for the same team.
Since pitchers have primary responsibility for putting opposing batters out, they must assume responsibility when a batter they do not retire at the plate moves to base, reaches home, scoring a run. A pitcher is assessed an earned run for each run scored by a batter who reaches base while batting against that pitcher; the National League first tabulated official earned run average statistics in 1912, the American League accepted this standard and began compiling ERA statistics. Written baseball encyclopedias display ERAs for earlier years, but these were computed retroactively. Negro League pitchers are rated by RA, or total runs allowed, since the statistics available for Negro League games did not always distinguish between earned and unearned runs; as with batting average, the definition of a good ERA varies from year to year. During the dead-ball era of the 1900s and 1910s, an ERA below 2.00 was considered good. In the late 1920s and through the 1930s, when conditions of the game changed in a way that favored hitters, a good ERA was below 4.00.
In the 1960s, sub-2.00 ERAs returned, as other influences such as ballparks with different dimensions were introduced. Today, an ERA under 4.00 is again considered good. The all-time single-season record for the lowest ERA is held by Dutch Leonard, who in 1914 had an earned run average of 0.96, pitching 224.2 innings with a win-loss record of 19-5. The all-time record for the lowest single season earned run average by a pitcher pitching 300 or more innings is 1.12, set by Bob Gibson in 1968. The record for the lowest career earned run average is 1.82, held by Ed Walsh, who played from 1904 through 1917. Some researchers dissent from the official Major League Baseball record and claim that the pitcher with the all-time lowest earned run average is Tim Keefe, who had an earned run average of 0.86 in 1880 while appearing in 12 of his team's 83 games and pitching 105 innings. But a purported record based on so few innings pitched is misleading. Over the years, more than a dozen part-time pitchers have pitched 105 or more innings and had an earned run average lower than 0.86.
Major League Baseball recognizes many records from the 19th century—including Will White's 1879 record of 680 innings pitched, Charles Radbourne's 1884 record of 59 wins, Pud Galvin's 1883 record for 75 games started, but does not recognize Keefe as the pitcher having the all-time lowest single season earned run average. Some sources may list players with infinite ERAs; this can happen. Additionally, an undefined ERA occurs at the beginning of a baseball season, it is sometimes incorrectly displayed as zero or as the lowest ranking ERA though it is more akin to the highest. At times it can be misleading to judge relief pitchers on ERA, because they are charged only for runs scored by batters who reached base while batting against them. Thus, if a relief pitcher enters the game with his team leading by 1 run, with 2 outs and the bases loaded, gives up a single which scores 2 runs, he is not charged with those runs. If he retires the next batter, his ERA for that game will be 0.00 despite having surrendered the lead.
Starting pitchers operate under the same rules but are not called upon to start pitching with runners on base. In addition, relief pitchers know beforehand that they will only be pitching for a short while, allowing them to exert themselves more for each pitch, unlike starters who need to conserve their energy over the course of a game in case they are asked to pitch 7 or more innings; the reliever's freedom to use their maximum energy for a few innings, or for just a few batters, helps relievers keep their ERAs down. ERA, taken by itself, can be misleading when trying to objectively judge starting pitchers, though not to the extent seen with relief pitchers; the advent of the designated hitter rule in the American League in 1973 made the pitching environment different. Since pitchers spending all or most of their careers in the AL have been at a disadvantage in maintaining low ERAs, compared to National League pitchers who can get an easy