A toy is an item, used in play one designed for such use. Playing with toys can be an enjoyable means of training young children for life in society. Different materials like wood, clay and plastic are used to make toys. Many items are designed to serve as toys, but goods produced for other purposes can be used. For instance, a small child may fold an ordinary piece of paper into an airplane shape and "fly it". Newer forms of toys include interactive digital entertainment; some toys are produced as collectors' items and are intended for display only. The origin of toys is prehistoric; the origin of the word "toy" is unknown, but it is believed that it was first used in the 14th century. Toys are made for children; the oldest known doll toy is thought to be 4,000 years old. Playing with toys is considered to be important when it comes to growing up and learning about the world around us. Younger children use toys to discover their identity, help their bodies grow strong, learn cause and effect, explore relationships, practice skills they will need as adults.
Adults on occasion use toys to form and strengthen social bonds, help in therapy, to remember and reinforce lessons from their youth. Most children have been said to play such as sticks and rocks. Toys and games have been unearthed from the sites of ancient civilizations, they have been written about in some of the oldest literature. Toys excavated from the Indus valley civilization include small carts, whistles shaped like birds, toy monkeys which could slide down a string; the earliest toys are made from materials found in nature, such as rocks and clay. Thousands of years ago, Egyptian children played with dolls that had wigs and movable limbs which were made from stone and wood. In Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome, children played with dolls made of wax or terracotta, sticks and arrows, yo-yos; when Greek children girls, came of age it was customary for them to sacrifice the toys of their childhood to the gods. On the eve of their wedding, young girls around fourteen would offer their dolls in a temple as a rite of passage into adulthood.
The oldest known mechanical puzzle comes from Greece and appeared in the 3rd century BCE. The game consisted of a square divided into 14 parts, the aim was to create different shapes from these pieces. In Iran "puzzle-locks" were made as early as the 17th century. Toys became more widespread with the changing attitudes towards children engendered by the Enlightenment. Children began to be seen as people in and of themselves, as opposed to extensions of their household and that they had a right to flourish and enjoy their childhood; the variety and number of toys that were manufactured during the 18th century rose. He created puzzles on eight themes – the World, Asia, America and Wales, Ireland and Scotland; the rocking horse was developed at the same time in England with the wealthy as it was thought to develop children's balance for riding real horses. Blowing bubbles from leftover washing up soap became a popular pastime, as shown in the painting The Soap Bubble by Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin.
Other popular toys included hoops, toy wagons, spinning wheels and puppets. The first board games were produced by John Jefferys in the 1750s, including A Journey Through Europe; the game was similar to modern board games. In the nineteenth century, the emphasis was put on toys that had an educational purpose to them, such as puzzles, books and board games. Religiously themed toys were popular, including a model Noah's Ark with miniature animals and objects from other Bible scenes. With growing prosperity among the middle class, children had more leisure time on their hands, which led to the application of industrial methods to the manufacture of toys. More complex mechanical and optics-based toys were invented. Carpenter and Westley began to mass-produce the kaleidoscope, invented by Sir David Brewster in 1817, had sold over 200,000 items within three months in London and Paris; the company was able to mass-produce magic lanterns for use in phantasmagoria and galanty shows, by developing a method of mass production using a copper plate printing process.
Popular imagery on the lanterns included royalty and fauna, geographical/man-made structures from around the world. The modern zoetrope was invented in 1833 by British mathematician William George Horner and was popularized in the 1860s. Wood and porcelain dolls in miniature doll houses were popular with middle class girls, while boys played with marbles and toy trains; the golden age of toy development was at the turn of the 20th century. Real wages were rising in the Western world, allowing working-class families to afford toys for their children, industrial techniques of precision engineering and mass production was able to provide the supply to meet this rising demand. Intellectual emphasis was increasingly being placed on the importance of a wholesome and happy childhood for the future development of children. William Harbutt, an English painter, invented plasticine in 1897, in 1900 commercial production of the material as a children's toy began. Frank Hornby was a visionary in toy development and manufacture and was responsible for the invention and production of
Josh Simpson (glass artist)
Josh Simpson is an American glass artist. His work has been exhibited in numerous galleries around the world, is held in the collections of museums such as the Corning Museum of Glass. Simpson's career began in 1972. At the time, seniors were permitted to pursue their own interests during the month of January, so he spent that period practicing glass blowing in Vermont. Simpson became so enamored of working with glass that a month became a year, while he did return to Hamilton to complete his psychology degree, he has been pursuing this passion since, he is well known for his planets, glass paperweights ranging in size from about an inch in diameter to the 107-pound Megaplanet the Corning Museum of Glass commissioned in 2005. He began making planets in the mid-1970s, when he was trying to capture the interest of eighth-graders during glass blowing demonstrations. Inspired by the story of the Apollo astronauts seeing the earth hanging in space like a blue marble, he began creating marble-sized planets for the students.
This early inspiration developed into a major artistic direction. In addition to exhibiting and selling these works, Simpson hides them in various settings across the globe, offers the public the opportunity to participate through his Infinity Project. Other significant portions of Simpson's body of work are formed from materials he refers to as "New Mexico glass" and "Tektite glass"; the vibrant blue color of New Mexico glass evokes the night sky in summer, is an attempt to duplicate the color of Cherenkov radiation, which Simpson saw while touring nuclear power plants. The Tektite glass is based on a spectrographic analysis, he recreated this material in his furnace, discovering in the process that it is difficult to work. While he uses the New Mexico glass to create elegant platters and vases, the greyish-black Tektite glass resembles lava, seeming to have taken its shape without human intervention. In 2014, Josh collaborated with Westfield State University and "Westfield on Weekends" to have a nearly year-long celebration of the "Universe according to Josh Simpson".
Several gallery exhibits and displays of Josh's work were displayed in Westfield Universities Downtown Art Gallery and The Westfield Anthanaeum. The final big event in the series was "Megaplanet Palooza" a street and music festival held on Westfield's downtown Park Square. Simpson graduated from Kent School in 1968, he is married to the American astronaut Catherine Coleman. He has two children and Jamey
Dichroic glass is glass which displays two different colors by undergoing a color change in certain lighting conditions. One dichroic material is a modern composite non-translucent glass, produced by stacking layers of glass and micro-layers of metals or oxides which give the glass shifting colors depending on the angle of view, causing an array of colors to be displayed as an example of thin-film optics; the resulting glass is used for decorative purposes such as stained glass and other forms of glass art. The commercial title of "dichroic" can display three or more colors and iridescence in some cases; the term dichroic is used more when labelling interference filters for laboratory use. Another dichroic glass material first appeared in a few pieces of Roman glass from the 4th century and consists of a translucent glass containing colloidal gold and silver particles dispersed in the glass matrix in certain proportions so that the glass has the property of displaying a particular transmitted color and a different reflected color, as certain wavelengths of light either pass through or are reflected.
In ancient dichroic glass, as seen in the most famous piece, the 4th-century Lycurgus cup in the British Museum, the glass has a green color when lit from in front in reflected light, another, purple-ish red, when lit from inside or behind the cup so that the light passes through the glass. This is not due to alternating thin metal films but colloidal silver and gold particles dispersed throughout the glass, in an effect similar to that seen in gold ruby glass, though that has only one color whatever the lighting. Modern dichroic glass is available as a result of materials research carried out by NASA and its contractors, who developed it for use in dichroic filters. However, color changing glass dates back to at least the 4th century AD, though only a few pieces fragments, survive, it was made in the Renaissance in Venice and by imitators elsewhere. Multiple ultra-thin layers of different metals; the vapor condenses on the surface of the glass in the form of a crystal structure. A protective layer of quartz crystal is sometimes added.
Other variants of such physical vapor deposition coatings are possible. The finished glass can have as many as 30 to 50 layers of these materials, yet the thickness of the total coating is 30 to 35 millionths of an inch; the coating, created is similar to a gemstone and, by careful control of thickness, different colors may be obtained. The total light that hits the dichroic layer equals the wavelengths reflected plus the wavelengths passing through the dichroic layer. A plate of dichroic glass can be fused with other glass in multiple firings. Due to variations in the firing process, individual results can never be predicted, so each piece of fused dichroic glass is unique. Over 45 colours of dichroic coatings are available to be placed on any glass substrate. Dichroic glass is used in various dichroic optical filters to select narrow bands of spectral colors, for example in fluorescence microscopy, LCD projectors, or 3D movies. Dichroic glass is now available to artists through dichroic coating manufacturers.
Glass artists refer to dichroic glass as "dichro". Images can be formed by removing the dichroic coating from parts of the glass, creating everything from abstract patterns to letters, animals, or faces; the standard method for precision removal of the coating involves a laser. Dichroic glass is designed to be hotworked but can be used in its raw form. Sculpted glass elements that have been shaped by extreme heat and fused together may be coated with dichroic afterwards to make them reflect an array of colors; the corporate headquarters of Amazon.com in Seattle, Washington incorporates dichroic glass into the exterior of its high-rise building, reflecting light into various colors that depend on the time of the day. Thesis – University of Neufchatel, PDF in English and French
Glass art refers to individual works of art that are or wholly made of glass. It ranges in size from monumental works and installation pieces, to wall hangings and windows, to works of art made in studios and factories, including glass jewelry and tableware; as a decorative and functional medium, glass was extensively developed in Assyria. Invented by the Phoenicians, was brought to the fore by the Romans. In the Middle Ages, the builders of the great Norman and Gothic cathedrals of Europe took the art of glass to new heights with the use of stained glass windows as a major architectural and decorative element. Glass from Murano, in the Venetian Lagoon, is the result of hundreds of years of refinement and invention. Murano is still held as the birthplace of modern glass art; the turn of the 19th century was the height of the old art glass movement while the factory glass blowers were being replaced by mechanical bottle blowing and continuous window glass. Great ateliers like Tiffany, Daum, Gallé, the Corning schools in upper New York state, Steuben Glass Works took glass art to new levels.
The first uses of glass were in other small pieces of jewelry and decoration. Beads and jewelry are still among the most common uses of glass in art, can be worked without a furnace, it became fashionable to wear functional jewelry with glass elements, such as pocketwatches and monocles. Starting in the late 20th century, glass couture refers to the creation of exclusive custom-fitted clothing made from sculpted glass; these are made to order for the body of the wearer. They are or made of glass with extreme attention to fit and flexibility; the result is delicate, not intended for regular use. Some of the earliest and most practical works of glass art were glass vessels. Goblets and pitchers were popular as glassblowing developed as an art form. Many early methods of etching and forming glass were honed on these vessels. For instance the millefiori technique dates back at least to Rome. More lead glass or crystal glass were used to make vessels that rang like a bell when struck. In the 20th century, mass-produced glass work including artistic glass vessels were sometimes known as factory glass.
Starting in the Middle Ages, glass became more produced, used for windows in buildings. Stained glass became common for windows in grand civic buildings; the invention of plate glass and the Bessemer process allowed for glass to be used in larger segments, to support more structural loads, to be produced at larger scales. A striking example of this was the Crystal Palace in 1851, one of the first buildings to use glass as a primary structural material. In the 20th century, glass became used for tables and shelves, for internal walls, for floors; some of the best known glass sculptures are statuesque or monumental structures such as the statues by Livio Seguso, or by Stanislav Libenský and Jaroslava Brychtová. Another example is René Roubícek's "Object" 1960, a blown and hot-worked piece of 52.2 cm shown at the "Design in an Age of Adversity" exhibition at the Corning Museum of Glass in 2005. A chiselled and bonded plate glass tower by Henry Richardson serves as the memorial to the Connecticut victims of the 9/11 terrorist attacks.
In the early 20th century, most glass production happened in factories. Individual glassblowers making their own personalized designs would do their work in those large shared buildings; the idea of "art glass", small decorative works made of art with designs or objects inside, flourished. Pieces produced in small production runs, such as the Lampwork figures of Stanislav Brychta, are called art glass. By the 1970s, there were good designs for smaller furnaces, in the United States this gave rise to the "studio glass" movement of glassblowers who blew their glass outside of factories in their own studios; this coincided with a move towards smaller production runs of particular styles. This movement spread to other parts of the world as well. Examples of 20th-century studio glass: There has been a massive explosion in the underground art scene revolving around functional glass art. Many people agree that Bob Snodgrass was the first to popularize glass smoking vessels as well as fume; as he traveled with the Grateful Dead he was able to share his techniques to many different people in many different communities before settling down in Oregon and creating the Eugene Glass School.
As time went on, more and more artists got involved with pipe making and with the introduction of social media the market exploded. Top artists such as Quave and Sagan are able to bring in upwards of one hundred thousand dollars per piece with the market only expanding as the prohibition on marijuana comes to an end. Combining many of the above techniques, but focusing on art represented in the glass rather than its shape, glass panels or walls can reach tremendous sizes; these may be hung from a ceiling. Large panels can be found for interior use. Dedicated lighting is part of the artwork. Techniques used include stained glass, frosting and gilding. An artist may combine techniques through silkscreening. Glass panels or walls may be complemented by running water or dynamic lights. Several of the most common techniques for producing glass art include: blowing, kiln-casting, slumping, pâté-de-verre, flame-working, hot-sculpting and cold-working. Cold work includes traditional stained glass work as well as other methods of
A marble is a small spherical toy made from glass, steel, plastic or agate. These balls vary in size. Most they are about 1 cm in diameter, but they may range from less than 1 mm to over 8 cm, while some art glass marbles for display purposes are over 30 cm wide. Marbles can be used for a variety of games called marbles, they are collected, both for nostalgia and for their aesthetic colors. In the North of England the objects and the game are called "taws", with larger taws being called bottle washers after the use of a marble in Codd-neck bottles, which were collected for play. In the early twentieth century, small balls of stone, identified by archaeologists as marbles, were found on excavation near Mohenjo-daro. Marbles are mentioned in Roman literature, as in Ovid's poem Nux, there are many examples of marbles from excavations of sites associated with Chaldeans of Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt, they were made of clay, stone or glass. Marbles arrived during the medieval era. In 1503 the town council of Nuremberg, limited the playing of marble games to a meadow outside the town.
It is unknown where marbles were first manufactured, but the "original" marbles were designated "made in Germany". The game has become popular throughout other countries. Ceramic marbles entered inexpensive mass production in the 1870s. A German glassblower invented marble scissors, a device for making marbles, in 1846; the first mass-produced toy marbles made in the US were made in Akron, Ohio, by S. C. Dyke, in the early 1890s; some of the first US-produced glass marbles were made in Akron, by James Harvey Leighton. In 1903, Martin Frederick Christensen—also of Akron, Ohio—made the first machine-made glass marbles on his patented machine, his company, The M. F. Christensen & Son Co. manufactured millions of toy and industrial glass marbles until they ceased operations in 1917. The next US company to enter the glass marble market was Akro Agate; this company was located in Clarksburg, West Virginia. Today, there are only two American-based toy marble manufacturers: Jabo Vitro in Reno and Marble King, in Paden City, West Virginia.
In Australia, games were played with marbles of different sizes. The smallest and most common was about 15 mm in diameter; the two larger, more valuable sizes were referred to as semi-bowlers and tom-bowlers, being about 20 mm and 25 mm in diameter respectively. They were used in much the same way as ordinary marbles, although sometimes they would be declared invalid because of the advantage of their larger mass and inertia. Owners of large marbles were afraid to use them lest they be lost to another player as "keepsies", they were of the clear "cat's eye" or milk glass type, just bigger. "Firing" a marble meant that a player had to flick his/her marble from a stationary position of his hand. No part of the hand firing the marble was permitted to be in front of the position where the marble had been resting on the ground. Using that hand, he would flick or fire the marble from his/her hand with the knuckle on the back of his/her hand resting on the ground, using the thumb of that hand to do so.
All shots of the game were conducted in this manner throughout except the initial pitch towards the bunny hole that started the game. Once a player was able to land his/her marble within the hole, he would then fire his marble at his opponents' marbles. However, if any player hit another player's marble before his/her own marble had been to'visit' the bunny hole, the act would be referred to as "a kiss". This, of course, could be quite annoying or frustrating if a player had built up quite a few hits on another player's marble. So, most skilled players did not resort to this kind of tactic; the overall aim was to hit a particular marble 3 times after getting into the hole you had to "run away", before the final contact shot was allowed to be played -, called "the kill". Once a player made a kill on another marble, if the game was'for keeps', he would get to keep the marble he had'killed'; the format of playing this game was that each time you hit another player's marble, you were to have another shot - if it was not the marble you had intended to hit.
Of course, the ploy was to hit the particular opponent marble 3 times, then'run away' to the bunny hole, because once you rested the marble into the hole, you had your shot again, thus leaving no opportunity at all for your opponent to retreat his/her marble before "the Kill" was made on it. In India, there are many games with marbles. One simple game with marbles is called "Cara" in which every player puts one or more marbles in a long line of marbles with each marble being one centimeter or more, apart from each other. After this, each player throws another marble as far perpendicularly. In this game, the player whose marble is farthest from the line of marbles gets the first chance to hit the marble's line and subsequent players who get to hit the line have their distance from the line in decreasing order. Any player who hits and displaces a marble in the line of marbles gets to take that and all marbles to the right of it. Marbles in the line are smaller marbles and the players have bigger marbles for hitting the line of smaller marbles.
This game needs the playground to be flat and hard and with no loose soil for ef
Art glass is an item, made as an artwork for decoration but also for utility, from glass, sometimes combined with other materials. Techniques include stained glass windows, leaded lights, glass, placed into a kiln so that it will mould into a shape, sandblasted glass, copper-foil glasswork. In general the term is restricted to modern pieces made by people who see themselves as artists who have chosen to work in the medium of glass and both design and make their own pieces as fine art, rather than traditional glassworker craftsmen, who produce pieces designed by others, though their pieces may form part of art. Studio glass is another term used for modern glass made for artistic purposes. Art glass has grown in popularity in recent years with many artists becoming famous for their work. Stained glass, such as the windows that are seen in churches, are windows that contain an element of painting in them; the window is designed. After the glass has been cut to shape, paint that contains ground glass is applied, so that, when it is fired in a kiln, the paint fuses onto the glass surface.
Following this process, the sections of glass are placed together and held in place with lead came, soldered at the joints. Leadlights and stained glass are manufactured in the same way, but leadlights do not contain any sections of glass that have been painted. Glassblowing is one of the most used technique for creating "art glass" and is still favoured by most of today's studio glass artists; this is because of the artist's intimacy with the material, an infinite opportunity for creativity and variation at every stage of the process. Glassblowing can be used to create a multitude of shapes and can incorporate color through a wide range of techniques. Coloured glass can be gathered out of a crucible, clear glass can be rolled in powdered colored glass to coat the outside of a bubble, it can be rolled in chips of glass, it can be stretched into rods and incorporated through caneworking, or it can be layered and fused into tiles, incorporated into a bubble of glass for intricate patterns through murrine.
"Blown glass" refers only to individually hand-made items but can include the use of moulds for shaping and spiking to produce decorative bubbles. Glass blown articles must be made of compatible glass or the stress in the piece will cause a failure. Kiln formed glass is referred to as warm glass, can be either made up from a single piece of glass, slumped into or over a mould or different colours and sheets of glass fused together; the process of hot glass is scientific in that the types of glass and temperatures that they must be fired at is quite complicated operation to undertake correctly. Art glass, kiln formed take the form of dishes, plates or tiles. Glass, fused in a kiln must be of the same co-efficient of expansion. If glass that does not have the same CoE is used for fusing, the differing rates of contraction will cause minute stress fractures to form and, over time, these fractures will cause a piece to crack; the use of polarizing filters to inspect the work will determine. Cold glass is worked by any method.
Processes include sandblasting, sawing, chiseling and gluing. Glass can be decorated by sandblasting the surface of a piece in order to remove a layer of glass, thereby making a design stand out. Items that are sandblasted are thick slabs of glass into which a design has been carved by means of high pressure sandblasting; this technique provides a three-dimensional effect but is not suitable for toughened glass as the process could shatter it. The technique of using copperfoil is used in the construction of smaller pieces such as Tiffany style lamps, it was, in fact used by Louis Comfort Tiffany, it consists of wrapping cut sections of glass in a self-adhesive tape, made out of thin copper foil. This technique requires a great deal of dexterity and is very time-consuming. After the sections have been foiled, they are soldered together. Most antique art glass was made in factories in the UK, the United States, Bohemia, where items were made to a standard, or "pattern"; this would seem contrary to the idea that art glass shows individual skill.
However, the importance of decoration – in the Victorian era in particular – meant that much of the artistry lay with the decorator. Any assumption today that factory-made items were made by machine is incorrect. Up to about 1940, most of the processes involved in making decorative art glass were performed by hand. Manufacturers got around the problem of an inherent similarity in their products in various ways. First, they would change designs according to demand; this was so in the export-dependent factories of Bohemia where salesmen would report sales trends back to the factory during each trip. Second, the decoration for mid- and lower-market items done by contracted "piece" workers, was a variation on a theme; such was the skill of these subcontractors that a reasonable standard of quality and a high rate of output were maintained. A high degree of differentiation could be gained from the multiplication of shapes and decorative designs, yielding many different combinations. Concurrently, from the same factories came distinctive, artistic items produced in more limited quantities for the upper-market consumer.
These were decorated in-house where decorators could work with designers and management in order