Despotate of Epirus
The Despotate of Epirus was one of the successor states of the Byzantine Empire established in the aftermath of the Fourth Crusade in 1204 by a branch of the Angelos dynasty. It claimed to be the successor of the Byzantine Empire, along the Empire of Nicaea. The term Despotate of Epirus is, like Byzantine Empire itself, the Despotate was centred on the region of Epirus, encompassing Albania and the western portion of Greek Macedonia and included Thessaly and western Greece as far south as Nafpaktos. After that, the Epirote state contracted to its core in Epirus and Thessaly and it nevertheless managed to retain its autonomy until conquered by the restored Palaiologan Byzantine Empire in ca. His successor Theodore Komnenos Doukas did not use it either, earlier historians assumed that Michael I was indeed named Despot by the deposed emperor Alexios III Angelos after ransoming him from Latin captivity, this has been disproven by more modern research. Consequently, it was borne by the princes sent to govern semi-autonomous appanages.
The term Despotate of Epirus is thus replaced by State of Epirus in more recent historiography. The Epirote realm itself did not have an official name, the Epirote state was founded in 1205 by Michael Komnenos Doukas, a cousin of the Byzantine emperors Isaac II Angelos and Alexios III Angelos. Epirus soon became the new home of refugees from Constantinople and the Peloponnese. Henry of Flanders demanded that Michael submit to the Latin Empire, Michael did not honour this alliance, assuming that mountainous Epirus would be mostly impenetrable by any Latins with whom he made and broke alliances. Meanwhile, Bonifaces relatives from Montferrat made claims to Epirus as well, Michael was excessively cruel to his prisoners, in some cases crucifying Latin priests. Pope Innocent III excommunicated him in response, henry forced Michael into a renewed nominal alliance that year. Michael turned his attention to capturing other strategically important Latin-held towns, including Larissa and he took control of the ports on the Gulf of Corinth.
In 1214 he captured Corcyra from Venice, but he was assassinated that year and was succeeded by his half-brother Theodore, Theodore Komnenos Doukas immediately set out to attack Thessalonica, and he fought with the Bulgarians along the way. Henry of Flanders died on the way to counterattack, and in 1217 Theodore captured his successor Peter of Courtenay, the Latin Empire, became distracted by the growing power of Nicaea and could not stop Theodore from capturing Thessalonica in 1224. Theodore now challenged Nicaea for the title and crowned himself emperor. In 1225, after John III Doukas Vatatzes of Nicaea had taken Adrianople, Theodore arrived, Theodore allied with the Bulgarians and drove the Latins out of Thrace. In 1227 Theodore crowned himself Byzantine emperor, although this was not recognized by most Greeks, in 1230 Theodore broke the truce with Bulgaria, hoping to remove Ivan Asen II, who had held him back from attacking Constantinople
The Pindus mountain range is located in northern Greece and southern Albania. It is roughly 160 km long, with an elevation of 2,637 m. Because it runs along the border of Thessaly and Epirus, the Pindus range is called the spine of Greece. The mountain range stretches from near the Greek-Albanian borders in Northern Epirus, entering the Epirus region, geologically it constitutes an extension of the Dinaric Alps, which dominate the western region of the Balkan Peninsula. This vast complex of mountains, plateaus and its length reaches almost 230 kilometers and its largest width is 70 kilometers. Historically, the name Pindos refers to the territory that separates the greater Epirus region from the regions of Macedonia. P. Sustal says that, according to John Tzetzes, the Pindos range was called Metzovon at the time. We cannot be sure how valid this testimony is, but it indicates a popular name given to the mountain range. When Anastasios Gordios translated to a conversational language the initial praise to St.
”The identification of the name Metsovo with the Pindos mountain range is reproduced in a French encyclopedia of 1756. Furthermore, a series of sources refer to Pindos as the “mountains of Metsovo. ”Evidently, the word Pindos is part of the legacy, while the folk name for the mountain range from medieval times up to the 19th century was either “Metsovo” or “the mountains of Metsovo. ”Most probably this name did not include the whole range as it is meant today. It is further noteworthy that this coincides with the mountainous region which the ancient Greeks used to call Pindos. Some mountains in Southern Greece are considered part of the extended Pindos range and its highest peak is on Mount Smolikas at an altitude of 2,637 meters. There are many villages in the Pindus, one of them being Samarina, many of the villages such as Perivoli and Smixi include communities of Aromanians, originally shepherds and farmers. In the last decades, a number of villages, such as Metsovo, the Egnatia Odos highway serves the region and connects it with the rest of Greece.
Besides the imposing mountainous terrain of the range, two of the most magnificent gorges in Europe are located in the area, the Vikos Gorge, together with the mountain valley of Valia Kalda they have been declared protected regionsand constitute the National Park of Northern Pindos. Furthermore, many settlements with long history and unique architecture are located throughout the range. The Pindus ecoregion covers a range of elevations and habitats. A mixed broadleaf forest zone dominates the valleys and canyons of the middle, large breeding colonies of herons, spoonbills and pelicans fish the cool waters of the mountain lakes of the Pindus Mountain Conifer and Broadleaf Mixed Forests ecoregion
The Ambracian Gulf, known as the Gulf of Arta or the Gulf of Actium, and in some official documents as the Amvrakikos Gulf, is a gulf of the Ionian Sea in northwestern Greece. About 40 km long and 15 km wide, it is one of the largest enclosed gulfs in Greece, the towns of Preveza and Vonitsa lie on its shores. The gulf takes its name from the ancient city of Ambracia located near its shores and its alternative name comes from the medieval city of Arta, located in the same place as ancient Ambracia. The entrance to the gulf is through a 700-meter wide channel between Aktio on the south and Preveza on the north, a recent road tunnel connects the two. The gulf is shallow, and its shore is broken by numerous marshes. The Louros and Arachthos rivers drain into it, for this reason it is warmer and less salty than the Ionian, and it is rich in grey mullet and eel. The Ambracian Gulf was the site of the Battle of Actium, in which Augustus forces defeated those of Mark Antony, from Greek independence until the Second Balkan War, the gulf formed part of the border between the Kingdom of Greece and the Ottoman Empire.
The remains of ancient cities lie on its shores, Actium at the entrance, where the famous Battle of Actium was fought in 31 BC, Argos Ippatum, Limnaea. Since 2002, the northern and southern sides at the mouth of the gulf are connected by the Aktio-Preveza Undersea Tunnel, the tunnel greatly shortens the travel distance across the gulf, which used to be possible only by ferry. Preveza Weather Station SV6GMQ - Live Weather Conditions
The Achelous, Acheloos, is a river in western Greece. It formed the boundary between Acarnania and Aetolia of antiquity and it empties into the Ionian Sea. In ancient times its spirit was venerated as the river god Achelous, in particular, there is the Achelous, which flows through Acarnania into the sea and has already turned half the Echinades islands into mainland. It is rarely known as Thestios and Axenos, the river Achelous begins at about 2,000 metres elevation on the eastern slope of Lakmos mountain in the Pindus range, near the village Anthousa in the westernmost part of the Trikala regional unit. One of its first tributaries is the Aspropotamos, meaning the white river, the river flows generally southwards, and forms part of the boundary between the regional units of Arta and Trikala, which is the boundary between Epirus and Thessaly. Further downstream, it forms the boundary of Arta and Karditsa, the river runs into the Kremasta reservoir, which is fed by the rivers Agrafiotis and Megdovas.
On exiting the Kremasta reservoir, the river flows southwest into Aetolia-Acarnania, feeding the Kastraki reservoir,10 to 15 kilometres downstream from this lake, it flows into the Stratos reservoir. Further downstream, it runs through the lowlands west of Agrinio and it finally empties into the Ionian Sea,29 km west of Missolonghi. From upstream to downstream there is the Mesochora Dam which was completed in 2001 but has not impounded its reservoir, below that is the Sykia Dam which is partly constructed. Further down is the Kremasta and Stratos Dams, in 1359 the Battle of Achelous between Albanian forces under Peter Losha and the Despotate of Epirus under Nikephoros II Orsini took place near the river Achelous. Nikephoros II was defeated and killed during the battle, and two new states were established in the area, the Despotate of Arta and the Despotate of Angelokastron, in the 1960s, the Kremasta Dam in the Aitoloacarnania-Evrytania boundary was under construction. The dam, made of concrete, took years to complete, the dam includes a power station with transformer lines in the east.
The dam powers electricity for the part of Greece and the central part. It caused some erosion in some flooded valleys. The Kastraki Dam is downstream and was completed in 1969, downstream of Katsiki, the Stratos Dam was completed in 1989. The arch bridges includes the Karafilio and the Ardanovo, the Acheloos River Diversion project has been the center of debate since the 1980s. It calls for four large dams, the Sykia, Mesochora and Pyli, along with a 17.4 km-long channel. The goal of the project is to divert 600,000,000 m3 annually from the river west towards the Thessaly plains in order to help irrigate 240, construction on the project has been stalled several times, the latest in 2005, because of environmental and social concerns
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or Medieval Period lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance, the Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history, classical antiquity, the medieval period, and the modern period. The medieval period is subdivided into the Early, High. Population decline, counterurbanisation and movement of peoples, the large-scale movements of the Migration Period, including various Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire. In the seventh century, North Africa and the Middle East—once part of the Byzantine Empire—came under the rule of the Umayyad Caliphate, although there were substantial changes in society and political structures, the break with classical antiquity was not complete. The still-sizeable Byzantine Empire survived in the east and remained a major power, the empires law code, the Corpus Juris Civilis or Code of Justinian, was rediscovered in Northern Italy in 1070 and became widely admired in the Middle Ages.
In the West, most kingdoms incorporated the few extant Roman institutions, monasteries were founded as campaigns to Christianise pagan Europe continued. The Franks, under the Carolingian dynasty, briefly established the Carolingian Empire during the 8th, the Crusades, first preached in 1095, were military attempts by Western European Christians to regain control of the Holy Land from Muslims. Kings became the heads of centralised nation states, reducing crime and violence, intellectual life was marked by scholasticism, a philosophy that emphasised joining faith to reason, and by the founding of universities. Controversy and the Western Schism within the Catholic Church paralleled the conflict, civil strife. Cultural and technological developments transformed European society, concluding the Late Middle Ages, the Middle Ages is one of the three major periods in the most enduring scheme for analysing European history, classical civilisation, or Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and the Modern Period.
Medieval writers divided history into periods such as the Six Ages or the Four Empires, when referring to their own times, they spoke of them as being modern. In the 1330s, the humanist and poet Petrarch referred to pre-Christian times as antiqua, leonardo Bruni was the first historian to use tripartite periodisation in his History of the Florentine People. Bruni and argued that Italy had recovered since Petrarchs time. The Middle Ages first appears in Latin in 1469 as media tempestas or middle season, in early usage, there were many variants, including medium aevum, or middle age, first recorded in 1604, and media saecula, or middle ages, first recorded in 1625. The alternative term medieval derives from medium aevum, tripartite periodisation became standard after the German 17th-century historian Christoph Cellarius divided history into three periods, Ancient and Modern. The most commonly given starting point for the Middle Ages is 476, for Europe as a whole,1500 is often considered to be the end of the Middle Ages, but there is no universally agreed upon end date.
English historians often use the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485 to mark the end of the period
Karditsa (regional unit)
Karditsa is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the region of Thessaly and its name is derived from its capital Karditsa, a small city of approximately 40,000 people. Karditsa borders the regional units of Trikala to the north, Larissa to the east, Phthiotis to the southeast, Evrytania to the south, Aetolia-Acarnania to the southwest and Arta to the west. The main rivers are Megdovas in the south, the Pineios in the north, the Plastiras Dam and Lake Plastiras, located to the west of the city of Karditsa, supply water to the plains and the central part of Greece. Located in south-western Thessaly, it is primarily an agricultural area, farmlands dominate the central and the eastern part, which belongs to the Thessalian Plain. The western and southern part of the unit is mountainous. The Agrafa region, straddling the border with Evrytania, is known for its resistance against Ottoman rule. The regional unit Karditsa is subdivided into 6 municipalities and these are, Argithea Karditsa Lake Plastiras Mouzaki Palamas Sofades Karditsa was created as a prefecture in 1899, and again in 1947.
As a part of the 2011 Kallikratis government reform, the regional unit Karditsa was created out of the former prefecture Karditsa, the prefecture had the same territory as the present regional unit. At the same time, the municipalities were reorganised, according to the table below and its economy and agriculture boomed during that period, Karditsa was administered as the Trikala–Karditsa prefecture until 1947. It was affected by World War II and the Greek Civil War which saw many buildings destroyed and inhabitants left homeless, the prefecture was rebuilt and received electricity and motorised transport, while emigration began in the 1950s, when construction of Lake Plastiras was added. Television arrived in the 1970s and the 1980s for its villages, the population was 121,775 in 2001. The Public Market of Karditsa is one of UNESCOs protected cultural monuments, There is a Police Academy. Anagennisi Karditsa - Karditsa - second division A. O, Karditsa - Karditsa - fourth division Iraklis Sofades - Sofades Tavropos - Karditsa - fourth division There are a number of highways E75 and the main railway from Volos to Meteora crosses Thessaly.
The region is linked to the rest of Europe through International Airport of Central Greece located in Nea Anchialos in a small distance from Karditsa. Greek National Road 30, NW, Cen