The Belgae were a large Gallic-Germanic confederation of tribes living in northern Gaul, between the English Channel, the west bank of the Rhine, northern bank of the river Seine, from at least the third century BC. They were discussed in depth by Julius Caesar in his account of his wars in Gaul; some peoples in Britain were called Belgae and O'Rahilly equated them with the Fir Bolg in Ireland. The Belgae gave their name to the Roman province of Gallia Belgica and, much to the modern country of Belgium; the consensus among linguists is that the ethnic name Belgae comes from the Proto-Celtic root *belg- or *bolg- meaning "to swell", cognate with the Dutch adjective gebelgd, "to be angry" and verbolgen, "being angry", the Old English verb belgan, "to be angry", derived from the Proto-Indo-European root *bhelgh-. Thus, a Proto-Celtic ethnic name *Bolgoi could be interpreted as "The People who Swell". Julius Caesar describes Gaul at the time of his conquests as divided into three parts, inhabited by the Aquitani in the southwest, the Gauls of the biggest central part, who in their own language were called Celtae, the Belgae in the north.
Each of these three parts was different in terms of customs and language. He noted that the Belgae, were "the bravest, because they are furthest from the civilization and refinement of Province, merchants least resort to them, import those things which tend to effeminate the mind. Ancient sources such as Caesar are not always clear about the things used to define ethnicity today. While Caesar or his sources described the Belgae as distinctly different from the Gauls, Strabo stated that the differences between the Celts and Belgae, in countenance, language and way of life was a small one, unlike the difference between the Aquitanians and Celts; the fact that the Belgae were living in Gaul means. This may be Caesar's meaning when he says "The Belgae have the same method of attacking a fortress as the rest of the Gauls". Caesar in Bello Gallico, II.4 wrote: "When Caesar inquired of them what states were in arms, how powerful they were, what they could do, in war, he received the following information: that the greater part of the Belgae were sprung, from the Germans, that having crossed the Rhine at an early period, they had settled there, on account of the fertility of the country, had driven out the Gauls who inhabited those regions.
So Caesar's used the word "Germani" in two ways. He described a grouping of tribes within the Belgic alliance as the "Germani", distinguishing them from their neighbours; the most important in his battles were the Eburones. The other way he uses the term is to refer to those related tribes east of the Rhine, who were not Celtic. So the Germani among the Belgae are called, based on Caesar's account, the Germani cisrhenani, to distinguish them from other Germani living east of the Rhine in what he understood to be their homeland. However, the historian Tacitus was informed that the name Germania was known to have changed in meaning: "The first people to cross the Rhine and oust the Gauls, those now called Tungri, were called Germani, it was the name of this nation, not a race, that came into general use. And so, to begin with, they were all called Germani after the conquerors because of the terror these inspired, once the name had been devised, they adopted it themselves."In other words, Tacitus understood that the collective name Germani had first been used in Gaul, for a specific people there with connections beyond the Rhine, the Tungri being the name of the people living where the Eburones had lived in imperial times, was adopted as a collective name for the non-Celtic peoples beyond the Rhine, the other, better-known way that Caesar used the term.
Caesar's book The Gallic Wars begins: "All Gaul is divided into three parts, one of which the Belgae inhabit, the Aquitani another, those who in their own language are called Celts, in ours Gauls, the third. All these differ from each other in language and laws." However, many modern scholars believe. On the other hand, at least part of the Belgae may have had significant genetic and historical connections to peoples east of the Rhine, including Germanic peoples, judging from archaeological and textual evidence, it has been argued based on placename studies that the older language of the area, though Indo-European, was not Celtic and that Celtic, though influential amongst the elite, might never have been the main language of the part of the Belgic area north of the Ardennes. For example, Maurits Gysseling, suggest that prior to Celtic and Germanic influences the Belgae may have comprised a distinct Indo-European branch, termed Belgian. However, most of the Belgic tribal and personal names recorded are identifiably Gaulish, including those of the Germani cisrhenani, this is indeed true of the tribes over the Rhine at this time, such as the Tencteri and Usipetes.
Surviving inscriptions indicate that Gaulish wa
Claudius Ptolemy was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer and astrologer. He lived in the city of Alexandria in the Roman province of Egypt, wrote in Koine Greek, held Roman citizenship; the 14th-century astronomer Theodore Meliteniotes gave his birthplace as the prominent Greek city Ptolemais Hermiou in the Thebaid. This attestation is quite late, and, according to Gerald Toomer, the translator of his Almagest into English, there is no reason to suppose he lived anywhere other than Alexandria, he died there around AD 168. Ptolemy wrote several scientific treatises, three of which were of importance to Byzantine and Western European science; the first is the astronomical treatise now known as the Almagest, although it was entitled the Mathematical Treatise and known as the Great Treatise. The second is the Geography, a thorough discussion of the geographic knowledge of the Greco-Roman world; the third is the astrological treatise in which he attempted to adapt horoscopic astrology to the Aristotelian natural philosophy of his day.
This is sometimes known as the Apotelesmatika but more known as the Tetrabiblos from the Greek meaning "Four Books" or by the Latin Quadripartitum. Ptolemaeus is a Greek name, it occurs once in Greek mythology, is of Homeric form. It was common among the Macedonian upper class at the time of Alexander the Great, there were several of this name among Alexander's army, one of whom made himself pharaoh in 323 BC: Ptolemy I Soter, the first king of the Ptolemaic Kingdom. All male kings of Hellenistic Egypt, until Egypt became a Roman province in 30 BC ending the Macedonian family's rule, were Ptolemies; the name Claudius is a Roman nomen. It would have suited custom if the first of Ptolemy's family to become a citizen took the nomen from a Roman called Claudius, responsible for granting citizenship. If, as was common, this was the emperor, citizenship would have been granted between AD 41 and 68; the astronomer would have had a praenomen, which remains unknown. The ninth-century Persian astronomer Abu Maʿshar presents Ptolemy as a member of Egypt's royal lineage, stating that the descendants of Alexander's general Ptolemy I, who ruled Egypt, were wise "and included Ptolemy the Wise, who composed the book of the Almagest".
Abu Maʿshar recorded a belief that a different member of this royal line "composed the book on astrology and attributed it to Ptolemy". We can evidence historical confusion on this point from Abu Maʿshar's subsequent remark "It is sometimes said that the learned man who wrote the book of astrology wrote the book of the Almagest; the correct answer is not known." There is little evidence on the subject of Ptolemy's ancestry, apart from what can be drawn from the details of his name. Ptolemy can be shown to have utilized Babylonian astronomical data, he was a Roman citizen, but was ethnically either a Greek or a Hellenized Egyptian. He was known in Arabic sources as "the Upper Egyptian", suggesting he may have had origins in southern Egypt. Arabic astronomers and physicists referred to him by his name in Arabic: بَطْلُمْيوس Baṭlumyus. Ptolemy's Almagest is the only surviving comprehensive ancient treatise on astronomy. Babylonian astronomers had developed arithmetical techniques for calculating astronomical phenomena.
Ptolemy, claimed to have derived his geometrical models from selected astronomical observations by his predecessors spanning more than 800 years, though astronomers have for centuries suspected that his models' parameters were adopted independently of observations. Ptolemy presented his astronomical models in convenient tables, which could be used to compute the future or past position of the planets; the Almagest contains a star catalogue, a version of a catalogue created by Hipparchus. Its list of forty-eight constellations is ancestral to the modern system of constellations, but unlike the modern system they did not cover the whole sky. Across Europe, the Middle East and North Africa in the Medieval period, it was the authoritative text on astronomy, with its author becoming an mythical figure, called Ptolemy, King of Alexandria; the Almagest was preserved, in Arabic manuscripts. Because of its reputation, it was sought and was translated twice into Latin in the 12th century, once in Sicily and again in Spain.
Ptolemy's model, like those of his predecessors, was geocentric and was universally accepted until the appearance of simpler heliocentric models during the scientific revolution. His Planetary Hypotheses went beyond the mathematical model of the Almagest to present a physical realization of the universe as a set of nested spheres, in which he used the epicycles of his planetary model to compute the dimensions of the universe, he estimated the Sun was at an average dis
The Celts are an Indo-European ethnolinguistic group of Europe identified by their use of Celtic languages and cultural similarities. The history of pre-Celtic Europe and the exact relationship between ethnic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial; the exact geographic spread of the ancient Celts is disputed. According to one theory, the common root of the Celtic languages, the Proto-Celtic language, arose in the Late Bronze Age Urnfield culture of Central Europe, which flourished from around 1200 BC. According to a theory proposed in the 19th century, the first people to adopt cultural characteristics regarded as Celtic were the people of the Iron Age Hallstatt culture in central Europe, named for the rich grave finds in Hallstatt, Austria, thus this area is sometimes called the "Celtic homeland". By or during the La Tène period, this Celtic culture was supposed to have expanded by trans-cultural diffusion or migration to the British Isles and the Low Countries, Bohemia and much of Central Europe, the Iberian Peninsula and northern Italy and, following the Celtic settlement of Eastern Europe beginning in 279 BC, as far east as central Anatolia in modern-day Turkey.
The earliest undisputed direct examples of a Celtic language are the Lepontic inscriptions beginning in the 6th century BC. Continental Celtic languages are attested exclusively through inscriptions and place-names. Insular Celtic languages are attested beginning around the 4th century in Ogham inscriptions, although they were being spoken much earlier. Celtic literary tradition begins with Old Irish texts around the 8th century CE. Coherent texts of Early Irish literature, such as the Táin Bó Cúailnge, survive in 12th-century recensions. By the mid-1st millennium, with the expansion of the Roman Empire and migrating Germanic tribes, Celtic culture and Insular Celtic languages had become restricted to Ireland, the western and northern parts of Great Britain, the Isle of Man, Brittany. Between the 5th and 8th centuries, the Celtic-speaking communities in these Atlantic regions emerged as a reasonably cohesive cultural entity, they had a common linguistic and artistic heritage that distinguished them from the culture of the surrounding polities.
By the 6th century, the Continental Celtic languages were no longer in wide use. Insular Celtic culture diversified into that of the Gaels and the Celtic Britons of the medieval and modern periods. A modern Celtic identity was constructed as part of the Romanticist Celtic Revival in Great Britain and other European territories, such as Portugal and Spanish Galicia. Today, Scottish Gaelic and Breton are still spoken in parts of their historical territories, Cornish and Manx are undergoing a revival; the first recorded use of the name of Celts – as Κελτοί – to refer to an ethnic group was by Hecataeus of Miletus, the Greek geographer, in 517 BC, when writing about a people living near Massilia. In the fifth century BC, Herodotus referred to Keltoi living around the head of the Danube and in the far west of Europe; the etymology of the term Keltoi is unclear. Possible roots include Indo-European *kʲel'to hide', IE *kʲel'to heat' or *kel'to impel'. Several authors have supposed it to be Celtic in origin, while others view it as a name coined by Greeks.
Linguist Patrizia De Bernardo Stempel falls in the latter group, suggests the meaning "the tall ones". In the 1st century BC, Julius Caesar reported that the people known to the Romans as Gauls called themselves Celts, which suggests that if the name Keltoi was bestowed by the Greeks, it had been adopted to some extent as a collective name by the tribes of Gaul; the geographer Strabo, writing about Gaul towards the end of the first century BC, refers to the "race, now called both Gallic and Galatic," though he uses the term Celtica as a synonym for Gaul, separated from Iberia by the Pyrenees. Yet he reports Celtic peoples in Iberia, uses the ethnic names Celtiberi and Celtici for peoples there, as distinct from Lusitani and Iberi. Pliny the Elder cited the use of Celtici in Lusitania as a tribal surname, which epigraphic findings have confirmed. Latin Gallus might stem from a Celtic ethnic or tribal name perhaps one borrowed into Latin during the Celtic expansions into Italy during the early fifth century BC.
Its root may be the Proto-Celtic *galno, meaning "power, strength", hence Old Irish gal "boldness, ferocity" and Welsh gallu "to be able, power". The tribal names of Gallaeci and the Greek Γαλάται most have the same origin; the suffix -atai might be an Ancient Greek inflection. Classical writers did not apply the terms Κελτοί or Celtae to the inhabitants of Britain or Ireland, which has led to some scholars preferring not to use the term for the Iron Age inhabitants of those islands. Celt is a modern English word, first attested in 1707, in the writing of Edward Lhuyd, whose work, along with that of other late 17th-century scholars, brought academic attention to the languages and history of the early Celtic inhabitants of Great Britain; the English form Gaul (first recorded in the 17th cent
The Arevaci or Aravaci, were a Celtic people who settled in the Meseta Central of northern Hispania and which dominated most of Celtiberia from the 4th to late 2nd centuries BC. The Vaccaei were their allies; the Arevaci were of Celtic part of the Celtiberians. There is an overwhelming amount of evidence that the ancestors of the Celtiberian groups were installed in the Meseta area of the Iberian peninsula from at least 1000 BC and much earlier; some think their ancestors were early ‘Q-Celtic’ speakers from Gaul who migrated to the peninsula around the mid-6th century BC, arriving at about the same time as the powerful Vaccaei people of the western meseta. This led some modern historians to state that the Arevaci were an offshoot of the latter, thus their tribal name which means ‘Are-Vaccei’ or ‘eastern’ Vacceians. However, an alternative etymology is given by the Roman geographer Pliny the elder who calls them Celtiberi Arevaci, adding that they borrowed their name from the river Areva and thus their designation could be translated as ‘those who dwell at the Areva’ or ‘on the Areva’.
The nucleus of the Arevaci homeland was centered on the modern provinces of Soria and most of Guadalajara up to the Tagus sources, extending to the eastern half of Segovia and the southeastern Burgos, but for a while they dominated parts of neighbouring Zaragoza province. They founded or seized several important city-states in northern Celtiberia, namely: Clunia, Voluce/Veluka, Uxama Argelae, Termantia named Termes or Termesos, Savia Numantia. Other towns mentioned in the sources, such as Segovia, Comfluenta, Lutia, Mallia and Colenda have not yet been located, they shared with the Vaccaei the same social structure of collectivist type which enabled the latter to exploit the wheat- and grass-growing areas of the western plateau, though archeological evidence suggests that the Arevaci were predominantly stock-raisers who practiced transhumance in the grazing lowlands of the upper Ebro valley. They reared sheep and oxen, as attested by the tribute of thirty talents imposed upon Numantia and Termantia by Consul Quintus Aulus Pompeius in 139 BC, for which the numantines and termantines paid in the form of 3,000 ox-hides, 800 horses, 9,000 Sagum woolen cloaks.
They practiced the rite of excarnation by exposing the corpses of warriors slain in battle to the vultures, as described by Silius Italicus and Claudius Aelianus, attested by funerary stelae and painted pottery from Numantia. Regarded by the Greeks and Romans as the most militaristic people of the eastern Meseta, the Arevaci were said by Herodotus to have embarked early on an expansionist policy by taking part in the Celtici migrations of the 5th century BC alongside off-shots of Lusones and Vaccaei peoples to settle in the Iberian southwest. In the late 4th-early 3rd centuries BC however, the Arevaci shifted the direction of their expansion to the east, towards the upper Duero and south into the central Iberian system mountains. Here they displaced the earlier inhabitants the Pellendones, conquering the towns of Savia and Numantia and submitted the Uraci, thus gaining control over the strategic towns of Aregrada, Cortona and Arcobriga. In around the mid-3rd century BC, the Arevaci founded with their neighbours the Lusones and Titii a tribal federation designated the Celtiberian confederacy, with Numantia as federal capital.
During the Second Punic War the confederacy kept itself neutral, though Celtiberian mercenaries are mentioned fighting for both sides on a number of occasions. The first Roman incursion into the Celtiberian heartland occurred around 195 BC under Consul Cato the Elder, who attacked unsuccessfully the towns of Seguntia Celtiberorum and Numantia, where he delivered a speech to the numantines; the Arevaci and the Belli revolted against Roman rule in the Celtiberian War. Upon the fall of Numantia in 134-133 BC, the Romans forcibly disbanded the Celtiberian confederacy and allowed the Pellendones and Uraci to regain their independence from the Arevaci, who were now technically submitted and absorbed into Hispania Citerior province; the remaining Arevacian cities managed to keep much of their military capabilities intact, led by Clunia and Termantia they helped defending Celtiberia from invasion attempts by both the Lusitani in 114 BC and the Cimbri, who poured from the Pyrenees around 104-103 BC.
Emboldened by these successes – and resented by the lack of Roman recognition for their efforts – the Arevaci began secretly hatching plots against Roman rule by stirring up their disgruntled Celtiberian neighbours into the 99-81 BC uprisings. However, not only were the Arevacians ruthlessly quashed by Proconsul Titus Didius in 92 BC, but had to endure the destruction of their new capital, Termantia. In spite of being technically submitted and aggregated to Hispania Citerior after 93 BC, the Arevacians’ own relationship with Rome remained uneasy. During the Sertorian Wars, the Arevaci sided with Quintus Sertorius and provided unspecified troops to his army. In fact, they still continued to resist Roman integration and assimilation policies for decades, a situation coupled by fiscal abuse that led to sporadic outbursts of violence well into the 1st century AD
Gallaecia known as Hispania Gallaecia, was the name of a Roman province in the north-west of Hispania present-day Galicia, northern Portugal and Leon and the Suebic Kingdom of Gallaecia. The Roman cities included the port Cale, the governing centers Bracara Augusta, Lucus Augusti and Asturica Augusta and their administrative areas Conventus bracarensis, Conventus lucensis and Conventus asturicensis; the Romans gave the name Gallaecia to the northwest part of the Iberian peninsula after the tribes of the area, the Gallaeci or Gallaecians. The Gallaic Celts make their entry in written history in the first-century epic Punica of Silius Italicus on the First Punic War: Fibrarum et pennae divinarumque sagacem flammarum misit dives Callaecia pubem, barbara nunc patriis ululantem carmina linguis, nunc pedis alterno percussa verbere terra, ad numerum resonas gaudentem plaudere caetras."Rich Gallaecia sent its youths, wise in the knowledge of divination by the entrails of beasts, by feathers and flames— who, now crying out the barbarian song of their native tongue, now alternately stamping the ground in their rhythmic dances until the ground rang, accompanying the playing with sonorous caetrae".
Gallaecia, as a region, was thus marked for the Romans as much for its Celtic culture, the culture of the castros—hillforts of Celtic origin—as it was for the lure of its gold mines. This civilization extended over present day Galicia, the north of Portugal, the western part of Asturias, the Berço, Sanabria and was distinctive from the neighbouring Lusitanian civilization to the south, according to the classical authors Pomponius Mela and Pliny the Elder. At a far date, the mythic history, encapsulated in Lebor Gabála Érenn credited Gallaecia as the point from which the Gaels sailed to conquer Ireland, as they had Gallaecia, by force of arms. Strabo in his Geography lists the people of the northwestern Atlantic coast of Iberia as follows:...then the Vettonians and the Vaccaeans, through whose territory the Durius River flows, which affords a crossing at Acutia, a city of the Vaccaeans. For this reason, since they were hard to fight with, the Callaicans themselves have not only furnished the surname for the man who defeated the Lusitanians but they have brought it about that now the most of the Lusitanians are called Callaicans.
After the Punic Wars, the Romans turned their attention to conquering Hispania. The tribe of the Gallaeci 60,000 strong, according to Paulus Orosius, faced the Roman forces in 137 BC in a battle at the river Douro, which resulted in a great Roman victory, by virtue of which the Roman proconsul Decimus Junius Brutus returned a hero, receiving the agnomen Gallaicus. From this time, Gallaic fighters joined the Roman legions, to serve as far away as Dacia and Britain; the final extinction of Celtic resistance was the aim of the violent and ruthless Cantabrian Wars fought under the Emperor Augustus from 26 to 19 BC. The resistance was appalling: collective suicide rather than surrender, mothers who killed their children before committing suicide, crucified prisoners of war who sang triumphant hymns, rebellions of captives who killed their guards and returned home from Gaul. For Rome Gallaecia was a region formed by two conventus—the Lucensis and the Bracarensis—and was distinguished from other zones like the Asturica, according to written sources: Legatus iuridici to per ASTURIAE ET GALLAECIAE.
Procurator ASTURIAE ET GALLAECIAE. Cohors ASTURUM ET GALLAECORUM. Pliny: ASTURIA ET GALLAECIAIn the 3rd century, Diocletian created an administrative division which included the conventus of Gallaecia and Cluniense; this province took the name of Gallaecia since Gallaecia was the most populous and important zone within the province. In 409, as Roman control collapsed, the Suebi conquests transformed Roman Gallaecia into the kingdom of Galicia. Fabius Aconius Catullinus Philomathius, praeses before 338 On the night of 31 December 406 AD, several Germanic barbarian tribes, the Vandals and Suebi, swept over the Roman frontier on the Rhine, they advanced south, pillaging Gaul, crossed the Pyrenees. They set about dividing up the Roman provinces of Carthaginiensis, Tarraconensis and Baetica; the Suebi took part of Gallaecia, where they established a kingdom. After the Vandals and Alans left for North Africa, the Suevi took control of much of the Iberian Peninsula. However, Visigothic campaigns took much of this territory back.
The Visigoths emerged victorious in the wars that followed, annexed Gallaecia. After the Visigothic defeat and the annexation of much of Hispania by the Moors, a group of Visigothic states survived in the northern mountains, including Gallaecia. In Beatus of Liébana, Gallaecia became used to refer to the Christian part of the Iberian peninsula, whereas Hispania was used for the Muslim one; the emirs found it not worth their while to conquer these mountains filled with warlike tribes and lacking oil or wine. In Charlemagne's time, bishops of Gallaecia attended the Council of Frankfurt in 794. During his residence in Aachen, he received embassies from Alfonso II of Asturias, according to the Frankish chronicles. Sancho III of Navarre in 1029 refers to Vermudo III. Gallaecian lang
San Cibrao, is an industrial and fishing town, part of Cervo in Northwestern Spain. The population of San Cibrao is about 2,000 year-round. Commercial port Fishing port Sport port During the High Middle Ages caravels were built in the port; the area does not draw many tourists. The nearby peninsula has fine sand beaches, it is undeveloped and receives strong north-easterly winds throughout the winter, which makes the comarca or administrative unit of la Mariña Lucense, like much of the Asturian and Basque coast, excellent for surfing and water sports. Part of the town of San Cibrao lies on the "Peace Peninsula", surrounded by the Cantabrian Sea, whose waters in this area reach a high summer temperature of 18°C; as of 2004, neither the shellfish and fish populations, nor any seafood related industries seems to be still affected in any way by the contamination from the Prestige oil spill The fiesta of A Maruxaina is celebrated on the second Saturday of August. It is related to a popular legend about a siren who lives on some small islands, Os farallons, near San Cibrao.
This festival has been distinguished by the National Centers of Cultural Interest. Most of the townspeople dress on this day as Maruxainos, that is, in costumes that resemble the dress of days past. Ritually, at noon, the mariners bring the siren from the islands onto shore, were in front of the museum they create a mock-trial to judge the Maruxaina on whether she is good or bad. After this the townsfolk serve a potent brew of "Queimada". Bauxite mining and Alcoa's alumina refinery. Fishing port; the Royal Factory of Sargadelos in Cervo nearby San Cibrao. This is a tourist destination. Ferrol – City and naval station in northwestern Spain. Isaac Díaz Pardo - Galician intellectual attached to both Sargadelos and Cerámica do Castro. Ferrol-San Cibrao Port Authority Alumina Espanola S. A. plant at "San Cibrao"
The Cantabri or Ancient Cantabrians, were a pre-Roman people Celtic or pre-Celtic European, large tribal federation that lived in the northern coastal region of ancient Iberia in the second half of the first millennium BC. These peoples and their territories were incorporated into the Roman Province of Hispania Tarraconensis in the year 19 BC, following the Cantabrian Wars. Cantabri is a Latinized form of a local name meaning "Highlanders" and deriving from the reconstructed root *cant- in Ancient Ligurian. Cantabria, the land of the Cantabri comprised much of the highlands of the northern Spanish Atlantic coast, including the whole of modern Cantabria province, eastern Asturias, nearby mountainous regions of Castile and León, the northern of province of Palencia and province of Burgos and northeast of province of León. Following the Roman conquest, this area was, much reduced, making up only Cantabria and eastern Asturias; the ancestors of the Cantabri were thought by the Romans to have migrated to the Iberian Peninsula around the 4th Century BC, were said by them to be more mixed than most peninsular Celtic peoples, their eleven or so tribes, assessed by Roman writers according to their names, were supposed to have included Gallic, Indo-Aryan and Ligurian origins.
A detailed analysis of place-names in ancient Cantabria shows a strong Celtic element along with an equally strong "Para-Celtic" element and thus disproves the idea of a substantial pre-Indo-European or Basque presence in the region. This supports the earlier view that Untermann considered the most plausible, coinciding with archaeological evidence put forward by Ruiz-Gálvez in 1998, that the Celtic settlement of the Iberian Peninsula was made by people who arrived via the Atlantic Ocean in an area between Brittany and the mouth of the River Garonne settling along the Galician and Cantabrian coast. Regarded as savage and untamable mountaineers, the Cantabri long defied the Roman legions and made a name for themselves for their independent spirit and freedom. Indeed, Cantabri warriors were regarded as being tough and fiercest fighters, suitable for mercenary employment, but prone to banditry; the earliest references to them are found in the texts of ancient historians such as Livy and Polybius who mention Cantabrian mercenaries in Carthaginian service fighting at the Battle of the Metaurus in 207 BC.
Another author, Cornelius Nepos, claims that the Cantabrian tribes first submitted to Rome upon Cato the Elder’s campaigns in Celtiberia in 195 BC, Cantabri warbands fought for the Vaccaei and Celtiberians in the Celtiberian Wars of the 2nd century BC. Such was their reputation that when a battered Roman army under consul Gaius Hostilius Mancinus was besieging Numantia in 137 BC, the rumor of the approach of a large combined Cantabri-Vaccaei relief force was enough to cause the rout of 20,000 panic-stricken Roman legionaries, forcing Mancinus to surrender under humiliating peace terms. By the 1st century BC they comprised eleven or so tribes—Avarigines, Camarici or Tamarici, Coniaci or Conisci, Noegi, Plentuisii, Salaeni and Vellici or Velliques—gathered into a tribal confederacy with the town of Aracillum, located at the strategic Besaya river valley, as their political seat. Other important Cantabrian strongholds included Villeca/Vellica and Amaya/Amaia. In early 1st century BC, the Cantabri began to play a double game by lending their services to individual Roman generals on occasion but, at same time, supported rebellions within Roman Spanish provinces and carried out raids in times of unrest.
This opportunistic policy led them to side with Pompey during the final phase of the Sertorian Wars, they continued to follow the Pompeian cause until the defeat of his generals Afranius and Petreius at the battle of Ilerda in 49 BC. Prior to that, the Cantabri had unsuccessfully intervened in the Gallic Wars by sending in 56 BC an army to help the Aquitani tribes of south-eastern Gaul against Publius Crassus, the son of Marcus Crassus serving under Julius Caesar. Under the leadership of the chieftain Corocotta, the Cantabri’s own predatory raids on the Vaccaei and Autrigones whose rich territories they coveted, according to Florus, coupled with their backing of a Vaccaei anti-Roman revolt in 29 BC led to the outbreak of the First Cantabrian Wars, which resulted in their conquest and partial annihilation by Emperor Augustus; the remaining Cantabrian population and their tribal lands were absorbed into the newly created Transduriana Province. The harsh measures devised by Augustus and implemented by his general Marcus Vispanius Agrippa to pacify the province in the aftermath of the campaign only contributed to further instability in Cantabria.
Near-constant tribal uprisings and guerrilla warfare continued to plague the Cantabrian lands until the early 1st century AD, when the region was granted a form of local self-rule upon being included in the new Hispania Tarraconensis province. Although the Romans founded colonies and established military garrisons at Castra Legio Pisoraca and Iuliobriga, Cantabria never became romanized and its people preserved many aspects of Celtic language and culture well into the Roman period; the Cantabri did not lose their warrior skills either, providing auxiliary troo