Artaxerxes II Mnemon was the King of Kings of Persia from 404 BC until his death in 358 BC. He was a son of Darius Parysatis. Greek authors gave him the epithet "Mnemon". Darius II died in 404 BC, just before the final victory of the Egyptian general, over the Persians in Egypt, his successor was his eldest son Arsames, crowned as Artaxerxes II in Pasargadae. Before Artaxerxes II could take the throne, he encountered an issue that would threaten his legitimacy as ruler of the Achaemenid Empire. Cyrus the Younger, who at the time was the appointed governor of Asia Minor, had made claims to the throne; these claims of dethroning Artaxerxes II came to his attention from Tissaphernes, a satrap of Caria at the time. Tissapherenes noted that Cyrus the Younger's claims to be on a military expedition to attack the Pisidians had many flaws that led him to believe that Cyrus was planning to revolt; these claims became. Cyrus found support with Sparta, who sent soldiers to aid the campaign against Artaxerxes II.
Notably, Cyrus found support with a Persian kingdom of Cilicia, who contributed to the effort through funds. During this time, due to Tissaphernes' reports, Artaxerxes II began to build up a force to contend with his younger brother's revolt. By the time of Darius II's death, Cyrus had been successful in defeating the Syrians and Cilicians and was commanding a large army made up of his initial supporters plus those who had joined him in Phrygia and beyond. Upon hearing of his father's death, Cyrus the Younger declared his claim to the throne, based on the argument that he was born to Darius and Parysatis after Darius had ascended to the throne, while Artaxerxes was born prior to Darius II's gaining the throne. Artaxerxes II wanted to resolve the conflict peacefully, but the negotiations fell through. Cyrus ran into issues with the locals, who were loyal to Artaxerxes. Artaxerxes defended his position against his brother Cyrus the Younger, who with the aid of a large army of Greek mercenaries called the "Ten Thousand", attempted to usurp the throne.
Though Cyrus' mixed army fought to a tactical victory at the Battle of Cunaxa in Babylon, Cyrus himself was killed in the exchange by Mithridates, rendering his victory irrelevant. Greek historian Xenophon, himself one of the leaders of the Greek troops, would recount this battle in the Anabasis, focusing on the struggle of the now-stranded Greek mercenaries to return home.) Artaxerxes became involved in a war with Persia's erstwhile allies, the Spartans, during the Corinthian War. The Spartans under their king Agesilaus II had started by invading Asia Minor in 396-395 BC. To redirect the Spartans' attention to Greek affairs, Artaxerxes subsidized their enemies through his envoy Timocrates of Rhodes. Tens of thousands of darics, the main currency in Achaemenid coinage, were used to bribe the Greek states to start a war against Sparta; these subsidies helped to engage the Spartans in. According to Plutarch, Agesilaus said upon leaving Asia Minor, "I have been driven out by 10,000 Persian archers", a reference to "Archers" the Greek nickname for the darics from their obverse design, because that much money had been paid to politicians in Athens and Thebes to start a war against Sparta.
The Achaemenids, allied with Athens, managed to utterly destroy the Spartan fleet at the Battle of Cnidus. After that, the Achaemenid satrap of Hellespontine Phrygia, Pharnabazus II, together with former Athenian admiral Conon, raided the coasts of Peloponnesia, putting increased pressure on the Spartans; this encouraged the resurgence of Athens, which started to bring back under her control the Greek cities of Asia Minor, thus worrying Artaxerxes II that his Athenian allies were becoming too powerful. In 386 BC, Artaxerxes II betrayed his allies and came to an arrangement with Sparta, in the Treaty of Antalcidas, he forced his erstwhile allies to come to terms; this treaty restored control of the Greek cities of Ionia and Aeolis on the Anatolian coast to the Persians, while giving Sparta dominance on the Greek mainland. In 385 BC, he campaigned against the Cadusians. Although successful against the Greeks, Artaxerxes had more trouble with the Egyptians, who had revolted against him at the beginning of his reign.
An attempt to reconquer Egypt in 373 BC under the command of Pharnabazus, satrap of Hellespontine Phrygia, was unsuccessful, but in his waning years, the Persians did manage to defeat a joint Egyptian–Spartan effort to conquer Phoenicia. In 377 BC, Pharnabazus was reassigned by Artaxerxes II to help command a military expedition into rebellious Egypt, having proven his ability against the Spartans. After four years of preparations in the Levant, Pharnabazus gathered an expeditionary force of 200,000 Persian troops, 300 triremes, 200 galleys, 12,000 Greeks under Iphicrates; the Achaemenid Empire had been applying pressure on Athens to recall the Greek general Chabrias, in the service of the Egyptians, but in vain. The Egyptian ruler Nectanebo I was thus supported by his mercenaries; the Achaemenid force landed in Egypt with the Athenian general Iphicrates near Mendes in 373 BC. The expedition force was too slow. Pharnabazus and Iphicrates appeared before Pelusium, but retired without attacking it, Nectanebo I, king of Egypt, having added to its form
Eleanor Millard is a Canadian writer and former politician. Born in North Vancouver, British Columbia, Millard graduated from the University of British Columbia in 1965. After graduation, Millard moved to the Yukon, where she worked as a barmaid at a hotel in Dawson City before finding a permanent job as a social worker, she was elected to the Yukon Territorial Council in the 1974 election, representing the district of Ogilvie, served as Minister responsible for Education, Recreation and Housing in her final months in office. In the 1978 election, the first partisan election to the new Yukon Legislative Assembly, she ran for reelection as an independent candidate in the district of Klondike, losing to Meg McCall of the Yukon Progressive Conservative Party, she has since published three books as a writer, the short story collection River Child, the memoir Journeys Outside and In and the novel Summer Snow. She leads the Grandparents’ Rights Association of the Yukon, an organization which advocates for kinship care rights in the territory, where for various demographic reasons the number of children being raised by their grandparents instead of their biological parents is three times higher than the norm elsewhere in Canada.
Kinect Joy Ride is a racing game for Xbox 360 and a launch title for its Kinect hardware in 2010. The game was published by Microsoft Game Studios. Playing as a person's Avatar, the game is controlled by the player holding their arms out as if they are grabbing an invisible steering wheel, turning them in such a manner to steer. Pushing hips forward allows the player to drift, while pulling the'wheel' towards the player and pushing forward produces a chargeable turbo boost. While airborne, players spins for extra points; as the player progresses, he/she will earn fans which unlock content, such as new tracks and game modes. Game modes include Races, Stunt, Trick modes and more; the game can be played with either two players locally or up to 8 players online via Xbox Live, praised by critics by having "no noticeable lag". Two free downloadable content packages are available which provide players with stylized versions of the Chevrolet Camaro, Cruze and Volt. Known as Joyride, the game was announced at E3 2009 with the intention of it being released as a free Xbox Live Arcade title that year.
However it was moved to 2010 and was made into a full retail title for the Kinect hardware. The game has received mixed reviews from critics; the game received a rating of 6/10 from IGN, criticizing the loose controls and inconsistencies with the boost mechanic. Most reviewers agreed that, although Kinect Joy Ride offered lightweight fun, it was not a satisfying game compared to the other launch titles, forgettable. Video game talk show Good Game's two presenters gave the game a 5 and 4 out of 10 stating that the steering felt too unreliable and that it would be a lot more fun if were playing it with a regular controller and it's an experiment gone wrong; as well saying "You can have SOME fun pretending to drive, but I don't want to have to pretend to have fun too." Joy Ride Turbo "Kinect Joy Ride" Xbox.com page Kinect Joy Ride News Kinect Joy Ride Achievements