Artemisia Gentileschi or Artemisia Lomi was an Italian Baroque painter, today considered one of the most accomplished painters in the generation following that of Caravaggio. In an era when female painters were not accepted by the artistic community or patrons, she was the first woman to become a member of the Accademia di Arte del Disegno in Florence and had international clientele, she specialized in painting pictures of strong and suffering women from myths and the Bible—victims, warriors. Some of her best known themes are Susanna and the Elders and Judith Slaying Holofernes and Judith and Her Maidservant, she was known for being able to convincingly depict the female figure, anywhere between nude and clothed. Artemisia was famous for her skill and talent in handling color, both overall in the composition but in building depth; that she was a woman painting in the seventeenth century and that she was raped as a young woman by Agostino Tassi and participated in the prosecution of her rapist long overshadowed her achievements as an artist.
For many years she was regarded as a curiosity. Today she is regarded as one of the most expressive painters of her generation. Artemisia Gentileschi was born Artemisia Gentileschi Lomi in Rome on July 8, 1593, although her birth certificate from the Archivio di Stato indicated she was born in 1590, the eldest child of the Tuscan painter Orazio Gentileschi and Prudenzia di Ottaviano Montoni. Artemisia was introduced to painting in her father's workshop, showing much more talent than her brothers, who worked alongside her, she learned drawing, how to mix color, how to paint. "By 1612, when she was not yet nineteen years old, her father could boast of her extraordinary talents, claiming that in the profession of painting, which she had practiced for three years, she had no peer". Since her father's style took inspiration from Caravaggio during that period, her style was just as influenced in turn, her approach to subject matter was different from her father's, however, as her paintings are naturalistic, where Orazio's are idealized.
At the same time, Artemisia had to resist the "traditional attitude and psychological submission to this brainwashing and jealousy of her obvious talent". By doing so, she gained great recognition for her work; the first surviving work of the seventeen-year-old Artemisia was the Elders. At the time some, influenced by the prevailing misconceptions, suspected that she was helped by her father; the painting shows how Artemisia assimilated the realism of Caravaggio without being indifferent to the language of Annibale Carracci and the Bologna school. It is one of the few paintings on the theme of Susanna showing the sexual accosting by the two Elders as a traumatic event. In 1611, her father was working with Agostino Tassi to decorate the vaults of Casino delle Muse inside the Palazzo Pallavicini-Rospigliosi in Rome, so Orazio hired the painter to tutor his daughter privately. During this tutelage, Tassi raped Artemisia. Another man, Cosimo Quorli, was involved. After the rape, Artemisia continued to have sexual relations with Tassi, with the expectation that they were going to be married and with the hope to restore her dignity and her future.
Tassi reneged on his promise to marry Artemisia. Nine months after the rape, when he learnt that Artemisia and Tassi were not going to be married, Orazio pressed charges against Tassi. Orazio claimed that Tassi stole a painting of Judith from the Gentileschi household; the major issue of this trial was the fact. If Artemisia had not been a virgin before Tassi raped her, the Gentileschis would not have been able to press charges. During the ensuing seven-month trial, it was discovered that Tassi had planned to murder his wife, had engaged in adultery with his sister-in-law, planned to steal some of Orazio's paintings. At the end of the trial Tassi was exiled from Rome. Artemisia was tortured with thumbscrews with the intention of verifying her testimony. Artemisia was surrounded by males since the loss of her mother at age 12; when Artemisia was 17, Orazio rented the upstairs apartment of their home to Tuzia. Artemisia befriended Tuzia; the day the rape occurred, Artemisia cried for the help of Tuzia, but Tuzia ignored Artemisia and pretended she knew nothing of what happened.
Artemisia felt betrayed by Tuzia, Tuzia's role in facilitating the rape has been compared to the role of a procuress, complicit in the sexual exploitation of a prostitute. The painting called Child is attributed to those early years; the baby has been interpreted as an indirect reference to Agostino Tassi, her rapist, as it dates to 1612, just 2 years after the rape. The painting appeared in a Swedish private collection during the 1960s, it depicts a strong and suffering woman and casts light on her anguish and expressive artistic capability. A month after the trial, Orazio arranged for his daughter to marry Pierantonio Stiattesi, a modest artist from Florence. Shortly afterward the couple moved to Florence, where Artemisia received a commission for a painting at Casa Buonarroti, she became a successful court painter, enjoying the patronage of the House of Medici and Charles I of England. It has been proposed that during this period Artemisia p
Artemisia is a 1997 French-German-Italian biographical film about Artemisia Gentileschi, the female Italian Baroque painter. The film was directed by Agnès Merlet, stars Valentina Cervi and Michel Serrault. Seventeen-year-old Artemisia Gentileschi, the daughter of Orazio Gentileschi, a renowned Italian painter, exhibits her father's talent, is encouraged by her father, who has no sons and wishes his art to survive after him. However, in the chauvinistic world of the early 17th century, Italian women are forbidden to paint human nudes or enter the Academy of Arts. Orazio allows his daughter to study in his studio, although he draws the line at letting her view nude males, she is direct and determined, bribes the fisherman Fulvio with a kiss to let her observe his body and draw him. Artemisia seeks the tutelage of Agostino Tassi, her father's collaborator in painting frescoes, to learn from him the art of perspective. Tassi is a man notorious for his night-time debauchery; the two hone their skills as artists, but they fall in love, their relationship moves into the realm of physical pleasure.
Artemisia's father files a lawsuit against Tassi for rape. In the subsequent trial, Artemisia's physical state is investigated by two nuns, she is tortured by thumbscrews. Under torture, Artemisia denies being raped, proclaims their mutual love. Tassi himself, devastated by her plight, admits to raping her. Merlet said of her film, "I didn't want to show her as a victim but like a more modern woman who took her life into her own hands." Valentina Cervi - Artemisia Gentileschi Michel Serrault - Orazio Gentileschi Miki Manojlović - Agostino Tassi Luca Zingaretti - Cosimo Quorli Emmanuelle Devos - Costanza Frédéric Pierrot - Roberto Brigitte Catillon - Tuzia Yann Trégouët - Fulvio Maurice Garrel - The Judge Liliane Rovère - The Rich Merchant's Wife Jacques Nolot - The Lawyer The film focuses on the incident of Artemisia's rape and its immediate aftermath, was advertised as "a true story" by Miramax Zoe, its American distributor. However, In the transcript, Gentileschi describes the rape in graphic detail and states that Tassi continued to have sex with her... with the understanding that he would protect her honor by wedding her...
In the movie, by contrast, she's a willing partner in lust. During the trial, she says only that "I love him". In the movie, Gentileschi refuses to testify that she was raped under torture, a sacrifice that prompts a devastated Tassi to make a sham confession... Just as problematic, says Garrard, is the way the movie ascribes Gentileschi's creative maturation to the influence of, of all people, the man whom history records as her assailant... At the same time, many inconvenient details -- most glaringly, Tassi's relentless campaign during the trial to smear Gentileschi as a slut -- didn't make it into the movie... Art historian Mary Garrard and feminist Gloria Steinem, incensed by the misinformation in the film, organized a campaign to inform audiences for "Artemisia" that what they were seeing was not, as was promised in early advertisements, "The Untold True Story of an Extraordinary Woman.". They put up a website attacking the film as untruthful in presenting what they say was Artemisia's rape by her teacher, Agostino Tassi.
At the New York premiere screening of the film on April 28, Gloria Steinem and other women in the audience circulated a fact sheet prepared by Steinem and Garrard. This intervention led Miramax to retract its claim. Steinem and Garrard's intention was not to interfere with the filmmaker's creative freedom, nor with Miramax's distribution of the film, but rather to counter its historical distortions with concrete factual information about the subject. Feminist Germaine Greer points out in her chapter on Artemisia in her book on women painters, The Obstacle Race, that the rape trial transcripts are not transparent, that there is evidence that supports Merlet's construction; the rape trial records may be found in an appendix to Garrard's book. Garrard interprets them one way. Garrard's account was savaged by a number of feminist reviewers, most challenged by Griselda Pollock in Differencing the Canon: Merlet's film is, I would argue, not a biography, for there is no analysis of the impact of the early death of the artist's mother and her bereavement, no exploration of how she made a massively successful career in Italy and beyond after the horrors of the trial and her torture, how she married and mothered several daughters who became artists, how she negotiated with some of the major patrons of her time for the commissions on which she lived and through which she, not their father, accumulated dowries for her daughter.
No one wants to tell that story. New York Times film critic Stephen Holden is favourable of the film: This handsomely photographed film, whose indoor scenes recreate the heavy chiaroscuro of Caravaggio paintings, takes a decidedly 90s view of a woman whom feminist art historians rescued from obscurity in the 1970s. If the central character emerges as a feminist heroine for flouting patriarchical taboos, she happens to be a tantalizing sex kitten whose artistic curiosity smacks of voyeurism; as portrayed by Valentina Cervi, Artemisia is two distinctly different entities. One is a gorgeous early-17th-century Lolita; the other is a fearlessly ambitious
Society for Creative Anachronism
The Society for Creative Anachronism is an international living history group with the aim of studying and recreating Medieval European cultures and their histories before the 17th century. A quip used within the SCA describes it as a group devoted to the Middle Ages "as they ought to have been", choosing to "selectively recreate the culture, choosing elements of the culture that interest and attract us". Founded in 1966, the non-profit educational corporation has over 30,000 paid members as of 2017 with about 60,000 total participants in the society; the SCA's roots can be traced to a backyard party of a UC Berkeley medieval studies graduate, the author Diana Paxson, in Berkeley, California, on May Day in 1966. The party began with a "Grand Tournament" in which the participants wore helmets, fencing masks, some semblance of a costume, sparred with each other using weapons such as plywood swords, padded maces, fencing foils, it ended with a parade down Telegraph Avenue with everyone singing "Greensleeves".
It was styled as a "protest against the 20th century". The SCA still measures dates within the society from the date of that party, calling the system Anno Societatis. For example, 2009 May 1 to 2010 April 30 was A. S. XLIV; the name Berkeley Society for Creative Anachronism was coined by science fiction author Marion Zimmer Bradley, an early participant, when the nascent group needed an official name in order to reserve a park for a tournament. "Berkeley" was dropped as the group expanded. Three more co-founders are mentioned by Douglas Martin in the New York Times Obituaries of August 3, 2001: " moved to San Francisco and were married... They and their daughter, Astrid...founded the Society for Creative Anachronism, which...has spread nationwide." In 1968, Bradley moved to Staten Island, New York and founded the Kingdom of the East, holding a tournament that summer to determine the first Eastern King of the SCA. That September, a tournament was held at the 26th World Science Fiction Convention, in Berkeley that year.
The SCA had produced a book for the convention called A Handbook for the Current Middle Ages, a how-to book for people wanting to start their own SCA chapters. Convention goers purchased the idea spread. Soon, other local chapters began to form. In October 1968, the SCA was incorporated as a 501 non-profit corporation in California. By the end of 1969, the SCA's three original kingdoms had been established: West Kingdom and Middle. All SCA kingdoms trace their roots to these original three; the number of SCA kingdoms has continued to grow by the division of existing kingdoms. In 2012, SCA agreed to pay $1.3 million to settle a lawsuit brought on behalf of 11 victims of child sexual abuse. The abuse was committed in Pennsylvania at the private residence of Ben Schragger, who pleaded guilty to criminal charges in 2004. Schragger was a member of SCA at the time of the abuse, his membership was permanently revoked after his plea. The lawsuit contended that the SCA had not conducted a background check on Schragger, though at the time the organization did not perform background checks in general and there is no legal requirement to do so.
The SCA engages in a broad range of activities, including SCA armoured combat, SCA fencing, equestrian activities, medieval dance and recreating medieval arts and sciences, including a broad range of crafts as well as medieval music and theatre. Other activities include the practice of heraldry and scribal arts. Members are afforded opportunities to register coat of arms. SCA scribes produce illuminated scrolls to be given by SCA royalty as awards for various achievements. Most local groups in the SCA hold weekly fighter practices, many hold regular archery practices, dance practices, A&S nights and other regular gatherings; some kingdoms and regions have occasional war practices, where fighters practice formations and group tactics in preparation for large scale "war" events. The research and approach by members of the SCA toward the recreation of history has led to new discoveries about medieval life; some local groups participate in nearby Renaissance fairs, though the main focus of activity is organized through the SCA's own events.
Each kingdom in the SCA runs its own schedule of events which are announced in the kingdom newsletter, but some of the largest SCA-sanctioned events, called "wars", attract members from many kingdoms. Pennsic War, fought annually between the East Kingdom and Middle Kingdom, is the biggest event in the SCA; the Estrella War has been held for over thirty years between two large regional SCA groups: the Kingdom of Atenveldt and the Kingdom of the Outlands. Most Estrella wars are held near last around 7 -- 9 days. Several thousand people attend each year, some from as far as Sweden, France, Italy and Australia. Other annual SCA wars include Gulf Wars in Gleann Abhann, Great Western War in Caid, War of the Lillies in Calontir and others. Other annual or semi-annual Kingdom-level events held analogously by most or all SCA kingdoms include Crown Tournament, Kingdom Art
Artemia is a genus of aquatic crustaceans known as brine shrimp. Artemia, the only genus in the family Artemiidae, has changed little externally since the Triassic period; the first historical record of the existence of Artemia dates back to the first half of the 10th century AD from Urmia Lake, with an example called by an Iranian geographer an "aquatic dog", although the first unambiguous record is the report and drawings made by Schlösser in 1757 of animals from Lymington, England. Artemia populations are found worldwide in inland saltwater lakes, but not in oceans. Artemia are able to avoid cohabiting with most types of predators, such as fish, by their ability to live in waters of high salinity; the ability of the Artemia to produce dormant eggs, known as cysts, has led to extensive use of Artemia in aquaculture. The cysts may be stored for long periods and hatched on demand to provide a convenient form of live feed for larval fish and crustaceans. Nauplii of the brine shrimp Artemia constitute the most used food item, over 2000 tonnes of dry Artemia cysts are marketed worldwide annually.
In addition, the resilience of Artemia makes them ideal animals for running biological toxicity assays and it has become a model organism used to test the toxicity of chemicals. Breeds of Artemia are sold as novelty gifts under the marketing name Aqua Dragons; the brine shrimp Artemia comprises a group of seven to nine species likely to have diverged from an ancestral form living in the Mediterranean area about 5.5 million years ago. The Laboratory of Aquaculture & Artemia Reference Center at Ghent University possesses the largest known Artemia cyst collection, a cyst bank containing over 1,700 Artemia population samples collected from different locations around the world. Artemia is a typical primitive arthropod with a segmented body to, attached broad leaf-like appendages; the body consists of 19 segments, the first 11 of which have pairs of appendages, the next two which are fused together carry the reproductive organs, the last segments lead to the tail. The total length is about 8–10 millimetres for the adult male and 10–12 mm for the female, but the width of both sexes, including the legs, is about 4 mm.
The body of Artemia is divided into head and abdomen. The entire body is covered with a thin, flexible exoskeleton of chitin to which muscles are attached internally and shed periodically. In female Artemia a moult precedes every ovulation. For brine shrimp, many functions, including swimming and reproduction are not controlled through the brain. Autotomy, the voluntary shedding or dropping of parts of the body for defence, is controlled locally along the nervous system. Artemia have two types of eyes, they have two separated compound eyes mounted on flexible stalks. These compound eyes are the main optical sense organ in adult brine shrimps; the median eye, or the naupliar eye, is situated anteriorly in the centre of the head and is the only functional optical sense organ in the nauplii, functional until the adult stage. Brine shrimp can tolerate any levels of salinity from 25‰ to 250‰, with an optimal range of 60‰–100‰, occupy the ecological niche that can protect them from predators. Physiologically, optimal levels of salinity are about 30–35‰, but due to predators at these salt levels, brine shrimp occur in natural habitats at salinities of less than 60–80‰.
Locomotion is achieved by the rhythmic beating of the appendages acting in pairs. Respiration occurs on the surface of the legs through fibrous, feather-like plates Males differ from females by having the second antennae markedly enlarged, modified into clasping organs used in mating. Adult female brine shrimp ovulate every 140 hours. In favourable conditions, the female brine shrimp can produce eggs that immediately hatch. While in extreme conditions, such as low oxygen level or salinity above 150‰, female brine shrimp produce eggs with a chorion coating which has a brown colour; these eggs known as cysts, are metabolically inactive and can remain in total stasis for two years while in dry oxygen-free conditions at temperatures below freezing. This characteristic is called cryptobiosis, meaning "hidden life". While in cryptobiosis, brine shrimp eggs can survive temperatures of liquid air and a small percentage can survive above boiling temperature for up to two hours. Once placed in briny water, the eggs hatch within a few hours.
The nauplius larvae are less than 0.4 mm in length. Parthenogenesis is a natural form of reproduction in which growth and development of embryos occur without fertilisation. Thelytoky is a particular form of parthenogenesis in which the development of a female individual occurs from an unfertilised egg. Automixis is a form of thelytoky; the kind of automixis relevant here is one in which two haploid products from the same meiosis combine to form a diploid zygote. Diploid Artemia parthenogenetica reproduce by automictic parthenogenesis with central fusion and low but nonzero recombination. Central fusion of two of the haploid products of meiosis tends to maintain heterozygosity in transmission of the genome from mother to offspring, to minimise inbreeding depression. Low crossover recombination during meiosis restrains the transition from heterozygosity to homozygosity over successive generations. In their first stage of development, Artemia do not feed but consume their own energy reserves stored in
Artemisia is a large, diverse genus of plants with between 200 and 400 species belonging to the daisy family Asteraceae. Common names for various species in the genus include mugwort and sagebrush. Artemisia comprises hardy herbaceous plants and shrubs, which are known for the powerful chemical constituents in their essential oils. Artemisia species grow in temperate climates of both hemispheres in dry or semiarid habitats. Notable species include A. vulgaris, A. tridentata, A. annua, A. absinthium, A. dracunculus, A. abrotanum. The leaves of many species are covered with white hairs. Most species have strong aromas and bitter tastes from terpenoids and sesquiterpene lactones, which discourage herbivory, may have had a selective advantage; the small flowers are wind-pollinated. Artemisia species are used as food plants by the larvae of a number of Lepidoptera species; some botanists split the genus into several genera, but DNA analysis does not support the maintenance of the genera Crossostephium, Neopallasia and Sphaeromeria.
Some of the species are called sages, causing confusion with the Salvia sages in the family Lamiaceae. The name "artemisia" derives from the Greek goddess Artemis, the namesake of Greek Queens Artemisia I and II. A more specific reference may be to Artemisia II of Caria, a botanist and medical researcher who died in 350 BC; the aromatic leaves of some species are used for flavouring. Most species have an bitter taste. A. dracunculus is used as a culinary herb important in French cuisine. Artemisia vulgaris was used to repel midges and moths, intestinal worms, in brewing as a remedy against hangovers and nightmares. Artemisia absinthium is used to make the potent spirits absinthe. Malört contains wormwood; the aperitif vermouth is a wine flavored with aromatic herbs, but with wormwood. Artemisia arborescens is an aromatic herb indigenous to the Middle East used in tea with mint. A few species are grown as the fine-textured ones used for clipped bordering. All grow best in free-draining sandy soil, in full sun.
Artemisia stelleriana is known as Dusty Miller, but several other species bear that name, including Jacobaea maritima, Silene coronaria, Centaurea cineraria. The largest collection of living Artemisia species and cultivars is held in the National Collection of Artemisia in Sidmouth, Devon, UK, which holds about 400 taxa; the National Collection scheme is administered by Plant Heritage in the British Isles. Artemisinin and derivatives are a group of compounds with the most rapid action of all current drugs used to treat malaria. Treatments containing an artemisinin derivative are now standard treatment worldwide for malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Artemisia cina and other Old World species are the source of santonin. Chinese mugwort, Artemisia argyi, is used in traditional Chinese medicine. Artemisia capillaris Thunberg has been found to have potent sedative-hypnotic effects, which are mediated through potentiation of the GABAA receptor- Cl− ion channel complex Artemisia austriaca has beneficial effects in reducing the withdrawal syndrome of morphine.
Artemisia has been used in popular culture for centuries. A few examples are: Artemisia herba-alba is thought to be the plant translated as "wormwood" in English language versions of the Bible. Wormwood is mentioned seven times in the Jewish Bible, always with the implication of bitterness, it is mentioned once in the New Testament. Wormwood is the "name of the star" in the Book of Revelation 8:11 that John of Patmos envisions as cast by the angel and falling into the waters, making them undrinkably bitter. Further references in the Bible show wormwood was a common herb known for its bitter taste. In Shakespeare's Hamlet, the titular character says "Wormwood, wormwood" to comment on the bitter implications of what the Player Queen has just said. Classification of Artemisia is difficult. Divisions of Artemisia prior to 2000 into subgenera or sections have not been backed up by molecular data, but much of the molecular data, as of 2006, are not strong; the following identified. Section Tridentatae consists of eleven to thirteen species of coarse shrubs, which are prominent parts of the flora in western North America.
In some classifications, they are part of the genus or subgenus Seriphidium, although recent studies have contested this lineage to Old World species. Tridentatae was first articulated as a section by Rydberg in 1916, it was not until McArthur et al. in 1981 that Tridentatae was elevated to a separate subgenus from Seriphidium. The principal motive for their separation was geographical distribution, chemical makeup, karyotype. Much of the debate surrounding Tridentatae is phytogeographic, thus habitat and geography are cited when understanding the evolution of this endemic North American subgenus. Evolutionary cycles of wet and dry climates encouraged “dip
Artemisia I of Caria
Artemisia I of Caria was a Greek queen of the ancient Greek city-state of Halicarnassus and of the nearby islands of Kos and Kalymnos, within the Achaemenid satrapy of Caria, in about 480 BC. She fought as an ally of Xerxes I, King of Persia against the independent Greek city states during the second Persian invasion of Greece, she commanded her contribution of five ships at the naval battle of Artemisium and in the naval Battle of Salamis in 480 BC. She is known through the writings of Herodotus, himself a native of Halicarnassus, who praises her courage and the respect in which Xerxes held her. Another Artemisia is well-known, Artemisia II of Caria, satrap of Caria and builder of the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus in the 4th century BC. Artemisia's father was the satrap of Halicarnassus, Lygdamis I and her mother was from the island of Crete, she took the throne after the death of her husband, as she had a son, named Pisindelis, still a youth. Artemisia's grandson, Lygdamis II, was the satrap of Halicarnassus when Herodotus was exiled from there and the poet Panyasis was sentenced to death, after the unsuccessful uprising against him.
The name Artemisia derives from Artemis, itself of unknown origin and etymology although various ones have been proposed. Thus Artemis "becomes identical with the great mother of Nature as she was worshipped at Ephesus". Xerxes was induced by the message of Themistocles to attack the Greek fleet under unfavourable conditions, rather than sending a part of his ships to the Peloponnesus and awaiting the dissolution of the Greek armies. Artemisia was the only one of Xerxes' naval commanders to advise against the action went on to earn her king's praise for her leadership in action during his fleet's defeat by the Greeks at the Battle of Salamis. Before the battle of Salamis, Xerxes gathered all his naval commanders and sent Mardonios to ask whether or not he should fight a naval battle. All the commanders advised him to fight a naval battle except Artemisia; as Herodotus tells it, she told Mardonios: Tell the King to spare his ships and not do a naval battle because our enemies are much stronger than us in the sea, as men are to women.
And why does he need to risk a naval battle? Athens for which he did undertake this expedition is his and the rest of Greece too. No man can stand against him and they who once resisted, were destroyed. If Xerxes chose not to rush into a naval encounter, but instead kept his ships close to the shore and either stayed there or moved them towards the Peloponnese, victory would be his; the Greeks can't hold out against him for long. They will leave for their cities, because they don't have food in store on this island, as I have learned, when our army will march against the Peloponnese they who have come from there will become worried and they will not stay here to fight to defend Athens, but if he hurries to engage I am afraid that the navy will be defeated and the land-forces will be weakened as well. In addition, he should consider that he has certain untrustworthy allies, like the Egyptians, the Cyprians, the Kilikians and the Pamphylians, who are useless. Xerxes was pleased with her advice and while he held her in great esteem he now praised her further.
Despite this, he gave orders to follow the advice of the rest of his commanders. Xerxes thought that at the naval battle of Artemisium his men acted like cowards because he was not there to watch them, but this time he would watch the battle. Artemisia participated in the Battle of Salamis in 480 BC as a Persian ally, she led the forces of Halicarnassos, Cos and Calyndos, supplied five ships. The ships she brought had the second best reputation in the whole fleet, next to the ones from Sidon, her involvement in the campaign was described by Herodotus: Artemisia, who moves me to marvel that a woman should have gone with the armament against Hellas. Artemisia was her name, she was the leader of the men of Halicarnassus and Cos and Nisyrus and Calydnos, furnishing five ships. Her ships were reputed the best in the whole fleet after the ships of Sidon; the cities, whereof I said she was the leader, are all of Dorian stock, as I can show, the Halicarnassians being of Troezen, the rest of Epidaurus. As Herodotus says, during the battle, while the Persian fleet was facing defeat, an Athenian ship pursued Artemisia's ship and she was not able to escape, because in front of her were friendly ships.
She decided to charge against a friendly ship manned by people of C
Johann Adolph Hasse
Johann Adolph Hasse was an 18th-century German composer and teacher of music. Immensely popular in his time, Hasse was best known for his prolific operatic output, though he composed a considerable quantity of sacred music. Married to soprano Faustina Bordoni and a great friend of librettist Pietro Metastasio, whose libretti he set, Hasse was a pivotal figure in the development of opera seria and 18th-century music. Hasse was baptised in Bergedorf near Hamburg where his family had been church organists for three generations, his career began in singing. In 1719 he obtained a singing post at the court of Brunswick, where in 1721 his first opera, was performed, he is thought to have left Germany during 1722. During the 1720s he lived in Naples, dwelling there for six or seven years. In 1725 his serenata Antonio e Cleopatra, was performed at Naples; the success of this work not only earned Hasse many commissions from Naples's opera houses, but according to Johann Joachim Quantz, brought him into contact with Alessandro Scarlatti, who became his teacher and friend.
Hasse's popularity in Naples increased and for several years his workload kept him busy. In this period he composed his only full opera buffa, La sorella amante, in addition to several intermezzi and serenatas, he visited the Venetian Carnival of 1730, where his opera Artaserse was performed at S Giovanni Grisostomo. Metastasio's libretto was reworked for the occasion, Farinelli took a leading role. Two of his arias from this opera he performed every night for a decade for Philip V of Spain. In 1730 Hasse married Faustina Bordoni, was appointed Kapellmeister at the Dresden court, though he did not arrive at Dresden until July 1731. Soon after the couple's arrival in Dresden, Faustina performed before the court. In September Hasse's Cleofide was given its premiere. In October Hasse left Dresden to direct premieres of his next operas at Turin and Rome, he wrote music for the Venetian theatres at this time. Come the autumn of 1732 and Hasse was at Naples again, though he spent the winter at Venice where his Siroe was first performed in lavish style.
In February 1733 Augustus the Strong of Poland and Saxony, Hasse's early royal patron at Dresden, died. As the court went into a year of mourning, Hasse was permitted to remain abroad. Many of his sacred works, composed for Venice's churches, date to this time. For much of 1734 Hasse was at Dresden, but from 1735 until 1737 he was in Italy at Naples. Faustina performed in the September 1735 premiere of Tito Vespasiano at Pesaro. Returning to the royal court in Dresden during 1737 Hasse composed five new operas, but when the court moved to Poland in the autumn of 1738 he and Faustina came back to Venice, where both of them were popular, his next stay in Dresden was his longest, between the first months of 1740 and January 1744. In this time he revised Artaserse, composing new arias for Faustina, wrote a couple of original intermezzi, his general avoidance of comic opera seems to have been due to Faustina, who feared that the style of singing demanded by opera buffa would damage her voice. Between the winter of 1744 and late summer 1745, Hasse was in Italy, but returned to Dresden for a year.
Frederick the Great, a keen flute player, visited the court in December 1745, it is that many of Hasse's flute sonatas and concertos that date to this time were written for Frederick. The King of Prussia was present at a performance of one of Hasse's Te Deums, himself ordered a performance of the composer's opera Arminio. Soon after Hasse visited Venice and Munich, returning to Dresden in June 1747 to stage his opera La spartana generosa, performed to celebrate multiple royal weddings at this time. At this time the hierarchy at Dresden was restructured. In 1748 Hasse performed two of his operas and Artaserse, in Bayreuth in the half finished Markgräfliches Opernhaus, because of the marriage of Elisabeth Fredericka Sophie of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, the daughter of Wilhelmine of Bayreuth; the marriage of princess Maria Josepha of Saxony to the French Dauphin gave Hasse the opportunity to journey to Paris in the summer of 1750, where his Didone abbandonata was performed. On 28 March 1750 Hasse presented his last oratorio La conversione di Sant' Agostino in the chapel of the royal palace in Dresden.
The libretto, penned by the Dresden Electress Maria Antonia Walpurgis, concerns the conversion of a sinner to sainthood and was modeled after and edited by Metastasio. The Dresden premiere was followed by numerous performances of the work in Leipzig, Mannheim, Rome, Prague and Berlin, a testament to the work's popularity in the latter half of the 18th century; the 1751 Carnival in Dresden saw the retirement of Faustina from operatic performance. Hasse continued to produce new operas throughout the decade, including a setting of Metastasio's Il re pastore, a text used by Mozart. In 1756 the Seven Years'