Ruta graveolens known as rue, common rue or herb-of-grace, is a species of Ruta grown as an ornamental plant and herb. It is native to the Balkan Peninsula, it is now grown throughout the world in gardens for its bluish leaves, sometimes for its tolerance of hot and dry soil conditions. It is cultivated as a medicinal herb, as a condiment, to a lesser extent as an insect repellent. In the ancient Roman world, the naturalists Pedanius Dioscorides and Pliny the Elder recommended that rue be combined with the poisonous shrub Oleander to be drunk as an antidote to poisonous snake bites; the Tacuinum Sanitatis, a medieval handbook on wellness, lists these properties of rue: Nature: Warm and dry in the third degree. Optimum: That, grown near a fig tree. Usefulness: It sharpens the eyesight and dissipates flatulence. Dangers: It augments the sperm and dampens the desire for coitus. Neutralization of the Dangers: With foods that multiply the sperm; the refined oil of rue is an emmenagogue and was cited by the Roman historian Pliny the Elder and the gynecologist Soranus as a potent abortifacient.
Rue has a culinary use, but since it is bitter and gastric discomfort may be experienced by some individuals, it is used sparingly. Although used more extensively in former times, it is not a herb, found in modern cuisine. Today it is unknown to the general public and most chefs, unavailable in grocery stores, it is a component of berbere, the characteristic Ethiopian spice mixture, as such is encountered in Ethiopian cuisine. In Ethiopia, fresh rue is dipped in coffee before drinking it, it has a variety of other culinary uses: It was used extensively in ancient Near Eastern and Roman cuisine. Rue is used as a traditional flavouring in other Mediterranean countries. In Istria, in Northern Italy, it is used to give a special flavour to grappa/raki and most of the time a little branch of the plant can be found in the bottle; this is called grappa alla ruta. Seeds can be used for porridge; the bitter leaf can be added to eggs, fish, or mixed with damson plums and wine to produce a meat sauce. In Italy in Friuli Venezia-Giulia, the young branches of the plant are dipped in a batter, deep-fried in oil, consumed with salt or sugar.
They are used on their own to aromatise a specific type of omelette. Used in Old World beers as flavouring ingredient. Rue is grown as an ornamental plant, both as a low hedge and so the leaves can be used in nosegays. Most cats dislike the smell of it, it can, therefore, be used as a deterrent to them. Caterpillars of some subspecies of the butterfly Papilio machaon feed on rue, as well as other plants; the caterpillars of Papilio xuthus feed on it. In South India, rue is recommended for home gardens to repel snakes. Rue is a common ingredient in witchcraft and spell making. During the Middle Ages it was a symbol of recognition between witches; the Catholic Church used a branch of rue to sprinkle holy water on its followers during this time known as the "herb of grace." Rue extracts are hepatotoxic. Large doses can cause violent gastric pain, systemic complications, death. Exposure to common rue, or herbal preparations derived from it, can cause severe phytophotodermatitis which results in burn-like blisters on the skin.
A series of furanoacridones and two acridone alkaloids have been isolated from R. graveolens. It contains coumarins and limonoids. Cell cultures produce the coumarins umbelliferone, psoralen, isopimpinellin and rutacultin, the alkaloids skimmianine, kokusaginine, 6-methoxydictamnine and edulinine; the ethyl acetate extract of R. graveolens leaves yields two furanocoumarins, one quinoline alkaloid and four quinolone alkaloids. The chloroform extracts of the root and leaf shows the isolation of the furanocoumarin chalepensin; the essential oil of R. graveolens contains two main constituents, nonan-2-one. The bitter taste of its leaves led to rue being associated with the verb rue "to regret". Rue is well known for its symbolic meaning of regret and it has sometimes been called "herb-of-grace" in literary works, it is one of the flowers distributed by the mad Ophelia in William Shakespeare's Hamlet: "There's fennel for you, columbines: there's rue for you. Gulliver can no longer stand the smell of the English Yahoos, so he stuffs rue or tobacco in his nose to block out the smell.
"I was at last bold enough to walk the street in his company, but kept my nose well with rue, or sometimes with tobacco". Rue is mentioned in the Bible, Luke 11.42: "But woe unto you, Pharisees! For ye tithe mint and rue and all ma
Asteraceae or Compositae is a large and widespread family of flowering plants. The family has 32,913 accepted species names, in 1,911 genera and 13 subfamilies. In terms of numbers of species, the Asteraceae are rivaled only by the Orchidaceae.. Nearly all members bear their flowers in dense heads surrounded by involucral bracts; when viewed from a distance, each capitulum may have the appearance of being a single flower. Enlarged outer flowers in the capitula may resemble petals, the involucral bracts may look like a calyx; the name Asteraceae comes from the type genus Aster, from the Ancient Greek ἀστήρ, meaning star, refers to the star-like form of the inflorescence. Compositae is an older name that refers to the "composite" nature of the capitula, which consist of many individual flowers. Most members of Asteraceae are annual or perennial herbs, but a significant number are shrubs, vines, or trees; the family has a worldwide distribution, from the polar regions to the tropics, colonizing a wide variety of habitats.
It is most common in the semiarid regions of subtropical and lower temperate latitudes. The Asteraceae may represent as much as 10% of autochthonous flora in many regions of the world. Asteraceae is an economically important family, providing products such as cooking oils, sunflower seeds, sweetening agents, coffee substitutes and herbal teas. Several genera are of horticultural importance, including pot marigold, Calendula officinalis, various daisies, chrysanthemums, dahlias and heleniums. Asteraceae are important in herbal medicine, including Grindelia and many others. A number of species are considered invasive, most notably in North America, introduced by European settlers who used the young leaves as a salad green; the study of this family is known as synantherology. The name Asteraceae comes to international scientific vocabulary from New Latin, from Aster, the type genus, + -aceae, a standardized suffix for plant family names in modern taxonomy; the genus name comes from the Classical Latin word aster, "star", which came from Ancient Greek ἀστήρ, "star".
Compositae means "composite" and refers to the characteristic inflorescence, a special type of pseudanthium found in only a few other angiosperm families. The vernacular name daisy applied to members of this family, is derived from the Old English name of the daisy: dæġes ēaġe, meaning "day's eye"; this is because the petals close at dusk. Asteraceae species have a cosmopolitan distribution, are found everywhere except Antarctica and the extreme Arctic, they are numerous in tropical and subtropical regions. Compositae, the original name for Asteraceae, were first described in 1792 by the German botanist Paul Dietrich Giseke. Traditionally, two subfamilies were recognised: Cichorioideae; the latter has been shown to be extensively paraphyletic, has now been divided into 12 subfamilies, but the former still stands. The phylogenetic tree presented below is based on Panero & Funk updated in 2014, now includes the monotypic Famatinanthoideae; the diamond denotes a poorly supported node, the dot a poorly supported node.
It is noteworthy that the four subfamilies Asteroideae, Cichorioideae and Mutisioideae contain 99% of the species diversity of the whole family. Because of the morphological complexity exhibited by this family, agreeing on generic circumscriptions has been difficult for taxonomists; as a result, several of these genera have required multiple revisions. Members of the Asteraceae are herbaceous plants, but some shrubs and trees do exist, they are easy to distinguish from other plants because of their characteristic inflorescence and other shared characteristics. However, determining genera and species of some groups such as Hieracium is notoriously difficult. Members of the Asteraceae produce taproots, but sometimes they possess fibrous root systems. Stems are herbaceous aerial branched cylindrical with glandular hairs erect but can be prostrate to ascending; some species have underground stems in the form of rhizomes. These can be woody depending on the species; the leaves and the stems often contain secretory canals with resin or latex.
The leaves can be opposite, or whorled. They may be simple, but are deeply lobed or otherwise incised conduplicate or revolute; the margins can be entire or toothed. In plants of the family Asteraceae, what appears to be a single flower is a cluster of much smaller flowers; the overall appearance of the cluster, as a single flower, functions in attracting pollinators in the same way as the structure of an individual flower in some other plant families. The older family name, comes from the fact that what appears to be a single flower is a composite of smaller flowers; the "petals" or "sunrays" in a sunflower head are individual strap-sha
Royal Horticultural Society
The Royal Horticultural Society, founded in 1804 as the Horticultural Society of London, is the UK's leading gardening charity. The RHS promotes horticulture through flower shows including the Chelsea Flower Show, Hampton Court Palace Flower Show, Tatton Park Flower Show and Cardiff Flower Show, it supports training for professional and amateur gardeners. The current president is Sir Nicholas Bacon, 14th Baronet and the current director general is Sue Biggs CBE; the creation of a British horticultural society was suggested by John Wedgwood in 1800. His aims were modest: he wanted to hold regular meetings, allowing the society's members the opportunity to present papers on their horticultural activities and discoveries, to encourage discussion of them, to publish the results; the society would award prizes for gardening achievements. Wedgwood discussed the idea with his friends, but it was four years before the first meeting, of seven men, took place, on 7 March 1804 at Hatchards bookshop in Piccadilly, London.
Wedgwood was chairman. Banks proposed his friend Thomas Andrew Knight for membership; the proposal was accepted, despite Knight's ongoing feud with Forsyth over a plaster for healing tree wounds which Forsyth was developing. Knight was president of the society from 1811–1838, developed the society's aims and objectives to include a programme of practical research into fruit-breeding. In 2009, more than 363,000 people were members of the society, the number increased to more than 414,000 in 2013. Membership and fellowship of the society were decided by election, but are now by financial contribution. Fellowship may be secured through a "suggested" £5,000 donation each year. Members and Fellows of the Royal Horticultural Society are entitled to use the post-nominal letters MRHS and FRHS, respectively; the Royal Horticultural Society's four major gardens in England are: Wisley Garden, near Wisley in Surrey. The society's first garden was in Kensington, from 1818–1822. In 1820 the society leased some of Hugh Ronalds' nursery ground at Little Ealing to set up an experimental garden, but the next year part of the Duke of Devonshire's estate at Chiswick was obtained.
In 1823 it employed Joseph Paxton there. From 1827 the society held fêtes at the Chiswick garden, from 1833, shows with competitive classes for flowers and vegetables. In 1861 the RHS developed a new garden at South Kensington on land leased from the Royal Commission for the Exhibition of 1851, but it was closed in 1882; the Chiswick garden was maintained until 1903–1904, by which time Sir Thomas Hanbury had bought the garden at Wisley and presented it to the RHS. RHS Garden Wisley is thus the society's oldest garden. Rosemoor came next, presented by Lady Anne Berry in 1988. Hyde Hall was given to the RHS in 1993 by its owners Helen Robinson. Dick Robinson was the owner of the Harry Smith Collection, based at Hyde Hall; the most recent addition is Harlow Carr, acquired by the merger of the Northern Horticultural Society with the RHS in 2001. It had been the Northern Horticultural Society's trial ground and display garden since they bought it in 1949. In 2013, more than 1.63 million people visited the four gardens.
In 2015, the RHS announced plans for a fifth garden at Worsley New Hall, Greater Manchester, under the name RHS Garden Bridgewater. The RHS is well known for its annual flower shows which take place across the UK; the most famous of these shows is the RHS Chelsea Flower Show, visited by people from across world. This is followed by the Hampton Court Palace Flower Show and RHS Tatton Park Flower Show in Cheshire; the most recent addition to the RHS shows line-up is the RHS Show Cardiff, held at Cardiff Castle since 2005. The society is closely involved with the spring and autumn shows at Malvern and with BBC Gardeners' World Live held annually at the Birmingham National Exhibition Centre; the RHS is custodian of the Lindley Library, housed within its headquarters at 80 Vincent Square, in branches at each of its four gardens. The library is based upon the book collection of John Lindley; the RHS Herbarium has its own image library consisting of more than 3,300 original watercolours 30,000 colour slides and a increasing number of digital images.
Although most of the images have been supplied by photographers commissioned by the RHS, the archive includes a substantial number of slides from the Harry Smith Collection and Plant Heritage National Plant Collection holders. The reference library at Wisley Garden is open to visitors to the Garden. In 2002, the RHS took over the administration of the Britain in Bloom competition from the Tidy Britain Group. In 2010, The society launched'It's your neighbourhood', a campaign to encourage people to get involved in horticulture for the benefit of their community. In 2014, the'Britain in Bloom' celebrates its 50th anniversary; the RHS runs formal courses for professional and amateur gardeners and horticulturalists and validates qualifications gained elsewhere. The RHS Level 1 Award in
A plant cutting is a piece of a plant, used in horticulture for vegetative propagation. A piece of the stem or root of the source plant is placed in a suitable medium such as moist soil. If the conditions are suitable, the plant piece will begin to grow as a new plant independent of the parent, a process known as striking. A stem cutting produces new roots, a root cutting produces new stems; some plants can be grown from leaf pieces, called leaf cuttings, which produce both stems and roots. The scions used in grafting are called cuttings. Propagating plants from cuttings is an ancient form of cloning. There are several advantages of cuttings that the produced offspring are clones of their parent plants. If a plant has favorable traits, it can continue to pass down its advantageous genetic information to its offspring; this is economically advantageous as it allows commercial growers to clone a certain plant to ensure consistency throughout their crops. The poet Theodore Roethke wrote about plant cuttings and root growth behavior in his poems "Cuttings" and "Cuttings" found in his book The Lost Son: And Other Poems.
Cuttings are used as a method of asexual reproduction in succulent horticulture referred to as vegetative reproduction. A cutting can be referred to as a propagule. Succulents have evolved with the ability to use adventitious root formation in reproduction to increase fitness in stressful environments. Succulents grow in shallow soils, rocky soils, desert soils. Seedlings from sexual reproduction have a low survival rate. Cuttings have both water and carbon stored and available, which are resources needed for plant establishment; the detached part of the plant remains physiologically active, allowing mitotic activity and new root structures to form for water and nutrient uptake. Asexual reproduction of plants is evolutionarily advantageous as it allows plantlets to be better suited to their environment though retention of epigenetic memory, heritable patterns of phenotypic differences that are not due to changes in DNA but rather histone modification and DNA methylation. Epigenetic memory is heritable through mitosis, thus advantageous stress response priming is retained in plantlets from excised stem.
Adventitious root formation refers to roots that form from any structure of a plant, not a root. Adventitious root formation from the excised stem cutting is a wound response. At a molecular level when a cutting is first excised at the stem there is an immediate increase in jasmonic acid, known to be necessary for adventitious root formation; when the cutting is excised from the original root system the root inhibiting hormones and strigolactone, which are made in the root and transported to the stem, decrease in concentration. Polyphenol degradation decreases; the increased auxin concentration increases nitric oxide concentration which initiates root formation through a MAPK signal cascade and a cGMP-dependent pathway that that both regulate mitotic division and are both necessary for the initiation of adventitious root formation. The root primordia form from cambial cells in the stem. In propagation of detached succulent leaves and leaf cuttings, the root primordia emerges from the basal callous tissue after the leaf primordia emerges.
It was known as early as 1935 that when indolyl-3-acetic acid known as auxin, is applied to the stem of root cuttings, there is an increase the average number of adventitious roots compared to cuttings that are not treated. Researchers applied this compound to stems without leaves that would not have any root formation and found that auxin induced root formation, thus determining auxin is necessary for root formation. Identification of this hormone has been important to industries that rely on vegetative propagation, as it is sometimes applied to fresh cuttings to stimulate root growth; some plants form roots much more than others. Stem cuttings from woody plants are treated differently, depending on the maturity of the wood: Softwood cuttings come from stems that are expanding, with young leaves. In many species, such cuttings form roots easily. Semi-hardwood cuttings come from have mature leaves. Hardwood cuttings come from matured stems, are propagated while dormant. Most plant cuttings are stem pieces, have no root system of their own, they are to die from dehydration if the proper conditions are not met.
They require a moist medium, however, cannot be too wet lest the cutting rot. A number of media are used in this process, including but not limited to soil, vermiculite, rock wool, expanded clay pellets, water given the right conditions. Most succulent cuttings can be left in open air until the cut surface dries, which may improve root formation when the cutting is planted. In temperate countries, stem cuttings may be taken of soft wood and hard wood which has specific differences in practice. Certain conditions lead to more favorable outcomes for cuttings. Stem cuttings of young wood should be taken in spring from the upper branches, while cuttings of hardened wood should be taken in winter from the lower branches. Common bounds on the length of stem cuttings are between 5–15 centimetres for soft wood and between 20–25 centimetres for hard wood. Soft wood cuttings do best when about two thirds of the fol
Herbal teas—less called tisanes —are beverages made from the infusion or decoction of herbs, spices, or other plant material in hot water. They do not contain caffeine. Herbal teas should not be confused with true teas, which are prepared from the cured leaves of the tea plant, Camellia sinensis), nor with decaffeinated tea, in which the caffeine has been removed. Like beverages made from true teas, herbal teas can be served cold. Herbal Tea “has a long history from Southern China in Guangdong Province; because of the weather of the southern China was damp heat “濕熱” and many people having a business activity here so that If they feel sick, they will drink a cup of Herbal Tea ”涼茶”. According to the earliest record of Guangdong, Herbal Tea was appeared from the Yuan Dynasty before 1751"公元1751年前元代的" AD <<嶺南衛生方>>. They will name the Heat soup”清熱的湯” as a cold medicine”涼藥”. However, because of the meaning of the medicine, Chinese did not like the meaning of medicine so that they changed the name as Herbal Tea in Qing Dynasty “清代”.
The ancestor of herbal tea is Wong Lo Kat “王老吉”, it was created by Wang Zebang “王澤邦” in 1828. The operation style of the earliest herbal tea shop was Street vendors “路邊攤”, they will selling on the street. In 1869, Herbal Tea was appeared in Hong Kong. On May 28, 2006, the herbal tea was formally approved and published as a national intangible cultural heritage; some feel that the term tisane is more correct than herbal tea or that the latter is misleading, but most dictionaries record that the word tea is used to refer to other plants beside the tea plant and to beverages made from these other plants. In any case, the term herbal tea is well established and much more common than tisane; the word tisane was rare in its modern sense before the 20th century, when it was borrowed in the modern sense from French.. The word had existed in late Middle English in the sense of "medicinal drink" and had been borrowed from French; the Old French word came from the Latin word ptisana, which came from the Ancient Greek word πτισάνη, which meant "peeled" barley, in other words pearl barley, a drink made from this, similar to modern barley water.
While most herbal teas are safe for regular consumption, some herbs have toxic or allergenic effects. Among the greatest causes of concern are: Comfrey, which contains alkaloids which may be harmful to the liver from chronic use, is not recommended during pregnancy or when prescription drugs are used. Lobelia, which contains alkaloids and has traditional medicine uses for smoking cessation, may cause nausea, vomiting, or dizziness at high doses. Herbal teas can have different effects from person to person, this is further compounded by the problem of potential misidentification; the deadly foxglove, for example, can be mistaken for the much more benign comfrey. The US does not require herbal teas to have any evidence concerning their efficacy, but does treat them technically as food products and require that they be safe for consumption. Fruit or fruit-flavored tea is acidic and thus may contribute to erosion of tooth enamel. Depending on the source of the herbal ingredients, herbal teas, like any crop, may be contaminated with pesticides or heavy metals.
According to Naithani & Kakkar, "all herbal preparations should be checked for toxic chemical residues to allay consumer fears of exposure to known neuro-toxicant pesticides and to aid in promoting global acceptance of these products". In addition to the issues mentioned above which are toxic to all people, several medicinal herbs are considered abortifacients, if consumed by a pregnant woman could cause miscarriage; these include common ingredients like nutmeg, papaya, bitter melon, saffron, slippery elm, pomegranate. It includes more obscure herbs, like mugwort, pennyroyal, wild carrot, blue cohosh and savin. Herbal teas can be made with fresh or dried flowers, seeds or roots, they are made by pouring boiling water over the plant parts and letting them steep for a few minutes. Seeds and roots can be boiled on a stove; the herbal tea is strained, sweetened, if desired, served. Many companies produce herbal tea bags for such infusions. While varieties of herbal teas are defined as any plant material for infusion, below is a list of common herbs: Anise tea, made from either the seeds or the leaves Asiatic penny-wort leaf, in South Asia and Southeast Asia Artichoke tea Bael Fruit tea Bee Balm Boldo, used in South America Burdock Cannabis tea, used in the preparation of Bhang Caraway, tea made from the seeds Catnip, tea used as a relaxant, to calm Chamomile used for sore stomach, irritable bowel syndrome, as a gentle sleep aid.
It is used as a mild laxative and is anti-inflammatory and bactericidal. Che Dang bitter tea made from Ilex causue leaves Chinese knot-weed tea Chrysanthemum tea, made from dried flowers, is popular with Chinese Dim sum Cinnamon Coca tea, infusion made from coca leaves. Contains trace amounts of cocaine and similar alkaloids. In some countries where coca is illegal, products marketed as "coca tea" are supposed to be decocainized, i.e. the pharmacologically active components have been removed from the leaf using the same chemicals used in manufacturing cocaine. Cacao bean tea Coffee-leaf tea, coffee cherry tea, coffee blossom tea are herbal teas made using the leaves and flowers o
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent, being behind Asia in both categories. At about 30.3 million km2 including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earth's total surface area and 20% of its land area. With 1.2 billion people as of 2016, it accounts for about 16% of the world's human population. The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea to the northeast, the Indian Ocean to the southeast and the Atlantic Ocean to the west; the continent includes various archipelagos. It contains 54 recognised sovereign states, nine territories and two de facto independent states with limited or no recognition; the majority of the continent and its countries are in the Northern Hemisphere, with a substantial portion and number of countries in the Southern Hemisphere. Africa's average population is the youngest amongst all the continents. Algeria is Africa's largest country by area, Nigeria is its largest by population. Africa central Eastern Africa, is accepted as the place of origin of humans and the Hominidae clade, as evidenced by the discovery of the earliest hominids and their ancestors as well as ones that have been dated to around 7 million years ago, including Sahelanthropus tchadensis, Australopithecus africanus, A. afarensis, Homo erectus, H. habilis and H. ergaster—the earliest Homo sapiens, found in Ethiopia, date to circa 200,000 years ago.
Africa encompasses numerous climate areas. Africa hosts a large diversity of ethnicities and languages. In the late 19th century, European countries colonised all of Africa. African nations cooperate through the establishment of the African Union, headquartered in Addis Ababa. Afri was a Latin name used to refer to the inhabitants of then-known northern Africa to the west of the Nile river, in its widest sense referred to all lands south of the Mediterranean; this name seems to have referred to a native Libyan tribe, an ancestor of modern Berbers. The name had been connected with the Phoenician word ʿafar meaning "dust", but a 1981 hypothesis has asserted that it stems from the Berber word ifri meaning "cave", in reference to cave dwellers; the same word may be found in the name of the Banu Ifran from Algeria and Tripolitania, a Berber tribe from Yafran in northwestern Libya. Under Roman rule, Carthage became the capital of the province it named Africa Proconsularis, following its defeat of the Carthaginians in the Third Punic War in 146 BC, which included the coastal part of modern Libya.
The Latin suffix -ica can sometimes be used to denote a land. The Muslim region of Ifriqiya, following its conquest of the Byzantine Empire's Exarchatus Africae preserved a form of the name. According to the Romans, Africa lay to the west of Egypt, while "Asia" was used to refer to Anatolia and lands to the east. A definite line was drawn between the two continents by the geographer Ptolemy, indicating Alexandria along the Prime Meridian and making the isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea the boundary between Asia and Africa; as Europeans came to understand the real extent of the continent, the idea of "Africa" expanded with their knowledge. Other etymological hypotheses have been postulated for the ancient name "Africa": The 1st-century Jewish historian Flavius Josephus asserted that it was named for Epher, grandson of Abraham according to Gen. 25:4, whose descendants, he claimed, had invaded Libya. Isidore of Seville in his 7th-century Etymologiae XIV.5.2. Suggests "Africa comes from the Latin aprica, meaning "sunny".
Massey, in 1881, stated that Africa is derived from the Egyptian af-rui-ka, meaning "to turn toward the opening of the Ka." The Ka is the energetic double of every person and the "opening of the Ka" refers to a womb or birthplace. Africa would be, for the Egyptians, "the birthplace." Michèle Fruyt in 1976 proposed linking the Latin word with africus "south wind", which would be of Umbrian origin and mean "rainy wind". Robert R. Stieglitz of Rutgers University in 1984 proposed: "The name Africa, derived from the Latin *Aphir-ic-a, is cognate to Hebrew Ophir." Ibn Khallikan and some other historians claim that the name of Africa came from a Himyarite king called Afrikin ibn Kais ibn Saifi called "Afrikus son of Abrahah" who subdued Ifriqiya. Africa is considered by most paleoanthropologists to be the oldest inhabited territory on Earth, with the human species originating from the continent. During the mid-20th century, anthropologists discovered many fossils and evidence of human occupation as early as 7 million years ago.
Fossil remains of several species of early apelike humans thought to have evolved into modern man, such as Australopithecus afarensis (radiometrically dated to 3.9–3.0 million years BP, Paranthropus boisei and Homo ergaster have been discovered. After the evolution of Homo sapiens sapiens 150,000 to 100,000 years BP in Africa, the continent was populated by groups of hunter-gatherers; these first modern humans left Africa and populated the rest of the globe during the Out of Africa II migration dated to 50,000 years BP, exiting the continent eith
Asterales is an order of dicotyledonous flowering plants that includes the large family Asteraceae known for composite flowers made of florets, ten families related to the Asteraceae. The order is a cosmopolite, includes herbaceous species, although a small number of trees and shrubs are present. Asterales are organisms. Asterales share characteristics on biochemical levels. Synapomorphies include the presence in the plants of oligosaccharide inulin, a nutrient storage molecule used instead of starch; the stamens are found around the style, either aggregated densely or fused into a tube an adaptation in association with the plunger pollination, common among the families of the order, wherein pollen is collected and stored on the length of the pistil. The name and order Asterales is botanically venerable, dating back to at least 1926 in the Hutchinson system of plant taxonomy when it contained only five families, of which only two are retained in the APG III classification. Under the Cronquist system of taxonomic classification of flowering plants, Asteraceae was the only family in the group, but newer systems have expanded it to 11.
In the classification system of Dahlgren the Asterales were in the superorder Asteriflorae. The order Asterales includes 11 families, the largest of which are the Asteraceae, with about 25,000 species, the Campanulaceae, with about 2,000 species; the remaining families count together for less than 1500 species. The two large families are cosmopolitan, with many of their species found in the Northern Hemisphere, the smaller families are confined to Australia and the adjacent areas, or sometimes South America. Only the Asteraceae have composite flower heads; the phylogenetic tree according to APG III for the Campanulid clade is as below. The core Asterales are Stylidiaceae, APA clade, MGCA clade, Asteraceae. Other Asterales are Rousseaceae and Pentaphragmataceae. All Asterales families are represented in the Southern Hemisphere. Although most extant species of Asteraceae are herbaceous, the examination of the basal members in the family suggests that the common ancestor of the family was an arborescent plant, a tree or shrub adapted to dry conditions, radiating from South America.
Less can be said about the Asterales themselves with certainty, although since several families in Asterales contain trees, the ancestral member is most to have been a tree or shrub. Because all clades are represented in the southern hemisphere but many not in the northern hemisphere, it is natural to conjecture that there is a common southern origin to them. Asterales are angiosperms; the Asterales order originated in the Cretaceous on the supercontinent Gondwana which broke up from 184 – 80 Mya, forming the area, now Australia, South America, Africa and Antarctica. Asterales contain about 14% of eudicot diversity. From an analysis of relationships and diversities within the Asterales and with their superorders, estimates of the age of the beginning of the Asterales have been made, which range from 116 Mya to 82Mya; however few fossils have been found, of the Menyanthaceae-Asteraceae clade in the Oligocene, about 29 Mya. Fossil evidence of the Asterales is rare and belongs to rather recent epochs, so the precise estimation of the order's age is quite difficult.
An Oligocene pollen is known for Asteraceae and Goodeniaceae, seeds from Oligocene and Miocene are known for Menyanthaceae and Campanulaceae respectively. The Asterales, by dint of being a super-set of the family Asteraceae, include some species grown for food, including the sunflower and chicory. Many are used as spices and traditional medicines. Asterales have many known uses. For example, pyrethrum is a natural insecticide with minimal environmental impact. Wormwood, derived from a genus that includes the sagebrush, is used as a source of flavoring for absinthe, a bitter classical liquor of European origin. W. S. Judd, C. S. Campbell, E. A. Kellogg, P. F. Stevens, M. J. Donoghue. Plant Systematics: A Phylogenetic Approach, 2nd edition. Pp. 476–486. Sinauer Associates, Massachusetts. ISBN 0-87893-403-0. J. Lindley. Nixus Plantarum, 20. Londini. Smissen, R. D.. Asterales. In: Nature Encyclopedia of Life Sciences. Nature Publishing Group, London. "Asterales -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia." Encyclopedia - Britannica Online Encyclopedia.
Web. 19 Jan. 2012. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/39703/Asterales>. "Asterales - Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary." Dictionary and Thesaur