Saint Mary Magdalene, sometimes called the Magdalene, was a Jewish woman who, according to the four canonical gospels, traveled with Jesus as one of his followers and was a witness to his crucifixion and resurrection. She is mentioned by name twelve times in the canonical gospels, more than most of the apostles. Mary's epithet Magdalene most means that she came from the town of Magdala, a fishing town on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee; the Gospel of Luke 8:2–3 lists Mary as one of the women who traveled with Jesus and helped support his ministry "out of their resources", indicating that she was relatively wealthy. The same passage states that seven demons had been driven out of her, a statement, repeated in the longer ending of Mark. In all four canonical gospels, she is a witness to the crucifixion of Jesus and, in the Synoptic Gospels, she is present at his burial. All four gospels identify her, either alone or as a member of a larger group of women, as the first witness to the empty tomb, the first to testify to Jesus's resurrection.
For these reasons, she is known in many Christian traditions as the "apostle to the apostles". Mary is a central figure in apocryphal Gnostic Christian writings, including the Dialogue of the Savior, the Pistis Sophia, the Gospel of Thomas, the Gospel of Philip, the Gospel of Mary; these texts, which scholars do not regard as containing accurate historical information, portray her as Jesus's closest disciple and the only one who understood his teachings. In the Gnostic gospels, Mary Magdalene's closeness to Jesus results in tension with the other disciples Simon Peter. During the Middle Ages, Mary Magdalene was conflated in western tradition with Mary of Bethany and the unnamed "sinful woman" who anoints Jesus's feet in Luke 7:36–50, resulting in a widespread but inaccurate belief that she was a repentant prostitute or promiscuous woman. Elaborate medieval legends from western Europe tell exaggerated tales of Mary Magdalene's wealth and beauty, as well as her alleged journey to southern France.
The identification of Mary Magdalene with Mary of Bethany and the unnamed "sinful woman" was a major controversy in the years leading up to the Reformation and some Protestant leaders rejected it. During the Counter-Reformation, the Catholic Church used Mary Magdalene as a symbol of penance. In 1969, the identification of Mary Magdalene with Mary of Bethany and the "sinful woman" was removed from the General Roman Calendar, but the view of her as a former prostitute has persisted in popular culture. Mary Magdalene is considered to be a saint by the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox and Lutheran churches—with a feast day of July 22. Other Protestant churches honor her as a heroine of the faith; the Eastern Orthodox churches commemorate her on the Sunday of the Myrrhbearers, the Orthodox equivalent of one of the Western Three Marys traditions. Speculations that Mary Magdalene was Jesus's wife or that she had a sexual relationship with him are regarded by most historians as dubious, it is accepted among secular historians that, like Jesus, Mary Magdalene was a real historical figure.
Nonetheless little is known about her life. Unlike Paul the Apostle, Mary Magdalene has left behind no writings of her own, nor were any works forged under her name, as was common for the other disciples, she is never mentioned in any of the general epistles. The earliest and most reliable sources about her life are the three Synoptic Gospels of Mark and Luke, which were all written during the first century AD. Mary Magdalene's epithet Magdalene most means that she came from Magdala, a village on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee, known in antiquity as a fishing town. Mary was, by far, the most common Jewish given name for females during the first century, so it was necessary for the authors of the gospels to call her Magdalene in order to distinguish her from the other women named Mary who followed Jesus. Although the Gospel of Mark, the earliest surviving gospel, does not mention Mary Magdalene until Jesus's crucifixion, the Gospel of Luke 8:2–3 provides a brief summary of her role during his ministry: Soon afterwards he went on through cities and villages and bringing the good news of the kingdom of God.
The twelve were with him, as well as some women, cured of evil spirits and infirmities: Mary, called Magdalene, from whom seven demons had gone out, Joanna, the wife of Herod's steward Chuza, Susanna, many others, who provided for them out of their resources. The statement that Mary had been possessed by seven demons is repeated in Mark 16:9, part of the "longer ending" of that gospel – this is not found in the earliest manuscripts, is a second-century addition to the original text based on the Gospel of Luke. In the first century, demons were believed to be the cause of physical and psychological illness. Bruce Chilton, a scholar of early Christianity, states that the reference to the number of demons being "seven" may mean that Mary had to undergo seven exorcisms over a long period of time, due to the first six being or wholly unsuccessful. Bart D. Ehrman, a New Testament scholar and historian of early Christianity, contends that the number seven may be symbolic, since, in Jewish tradition, seven was the number of completion, so the statement that Mary was possessed by seven demons may mean she was overwhelmed by their power.
In either case, Mary must have suffered from severe emotional or psychological trauma in order for an exorcism of this kind to have been perceived as necessary. Her devotion to Jesus on account of t
Canale Monterano is a comune, former bishopric and Latin titular see in the Metropolitan City of Rome, in the central Italian region of Lazio. Canale Monterano, located about 40 kilometres northwest of Rome, borders the following municipalities: Blera, Oriolo Romano and Vejano. Giardini Botanici di Stigliano Ruins of the former village of Monterano, set on fire, together with its population, by the French Republican army at the end of the 18th century, it included the church of San Bonaventura and a baroque fountain with a lion statue designed by Gian Lorenzo Bernini. Remains of Roman aqueduct Official website
Polygonal masonry is a technique of stone wall construction. True polygonal masonry is a technique wherein the visible surfaces of the stones are dressed with straight sides or joints, giving the block the appearance of a polygon; this technique is found throughout the world and sometimes corresponds to the less technical category of Cyclopean masonry. Armenian architecture Geghard Saint Hripsime Church Kalasasaya Pumapunku Tiwanaku Daorson Stari Most Valongo Wharf Abritus Tatul Thracian Tomb of Sveshtari Hatley Park National Historic Site Anji Bridge Anping Bridge Luoyang Bridge Tongji Bridge Ahu Vinapu Chufut-Kale Mangup Vorontsov Palace Ahu Vinapu Ingapirca Bomarsund Fortress Suomenlinna Bamberg Cathedral Anacopia Fortress Ateni Sioni Church Bagrati Cathedral Gudarekhi Gelati Monastery Delphi Keramikos Nekromanteion Komárom Fort Monostor Vellore Fort Great Wall of India Murud Janjira Nias Toraja In Italy, polygonal masonry is indicative of the region of Latium, but it occurs in Etruria, Lucania and Umbria.
Some notable sites that have fortification walls built in this technique include Norba, Alatri, Circeo, Alba Fucens and Terracina. The Porta Rosa of the ancient city of Velia employs a variant of the technique known as Lesbian masonry. Santa Severa Rialto Bridge Akō Castle Fushimi Castle Goryōkaku Nakagusuku Castle Nijō Castle Odawara Castle Oka Castle Osaka Castle Shibata Castle Shuri Castle Uwajima Castle Daugavpils Corradino Lines Ħaġar Qim Megalithic Temples of Malta Teotihuacan Fort Gorazda Fort Trašte Lovćen Lixus Chinchero Chullpa Towers Coricancha Inti Watana, Ayacucho Ollantaytambo Raqch'i Saksaywaman Tambomachay Tarawasi Usnu Vilcabamba Vilcashuamán Wanuku Pampa Fort Pilar Fort San Pedro Quinta da Regaleira Curtea de Argeș Cathedral Iulia Hasdeu Castle Orăștioara de Sus Sarmisegetusa Fort Alexander Königsberg Castle Castell d'Olèrdola Les Ferreres Aqueduct Meroë Älvsborg fortress Vaberget Fortress Arwad Hosn Suleiman BaitokaikeBaraBaradBarjakaBasufanBauda Benastur MonasteryChurch of Saint Simeon StylitesChurches of Sheikh Suleiman villageCyrrhusDanaDeir QeitaJaradaKharab Shams Basilica Mount SimeonMushabbak BasilicaRefadeSerjillaQalb LozeQatura Phi Mai Phanom Rung Enderun School Efes Hagia Sophia Hattusa Lyrbe Selimiye Barracks Gloucester Cathedral Maes Howe Stanton Moor The Alamo Harsimus Stem Embankment Hearst Castle Yale P. Gros.
1996. L'architecture romaine: du début du IIIe siècle av. J.-C. À la fin du Haut-Empire. 2 v. Paris: Picard
Anticoli Corrado is a comune in the Metropolitan City of Rome in the Italian region Latium, located about 40 kilometres northeast of Rome. Anticoli Corrado borders the following municipalities: Mandela, Marano Equo, Rocca Canterano, Saracinesco. Anticoli became known in the 19th century because its young inhabitants used to pose as models for the community of artists living near Piazza di Spagna in Rome; some artists went to see the birthplace of their models and found Anticoli a picturesque site to the point of living there for some time. The town attracted artists until World War II. Stanley Kramer's The Secret of Santa Vittoria was entirely shot here. Church of St. Peter Palazzo Baronale Piazza delle Ville, with a fountain by Arturo Martini Civic Museum of Modern Art, housing works by artists connected to the town, such as Oscar Kokoschka, Felice Carena, Paolo Salvati, others. Arcos de la Frontera, Spain
Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition
The Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication; some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopedia, containing 40,000 entries, is now in the public domain, many of its articles have been used as a basis for articles in Wikipedia. However, the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic; some articles have special value and interest to modern scholars as cultural artifacts of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The 1911 eleventh edition was assembled with the management of American publisher Horace Everett Hooper. Hugh Chisholm, who had edited the previous edition, was appointed editor in chief, with Walter Alison Phillips as his principal assistant editor. Hooper bought the rights to the 25-volume 9th edition and persuaded the British newspaper The Times to issue its reprint, with eleven additional volumes as the tenth edition, published in 1902.
Hooper's association with The Times ceased in 1909, he negotiated with the Cambridge University Press to publish the 29-volume eleventh edition. Though it is perceived as a quintessentially British work, the eleventh edition had substantial American influences, not only in the increased amount of American and Canadian content, but in the efforts made to make it more popular. American marketing methods assisted sales; some 14% of the contributors were from North America, a New York office was established to coordinate their work. The initials of the encyclopedia's contributors appear at the end of selected articles or at the end of a section in the case of longer articles, such as that on China, a key is given in each volume to these initials; some articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time, such as Edmund Gosse, J. B. Bury, Algernon Charles Swinburne, John Muir, Peter Kropotkin, T. H. Huxley, James Hopwood Jeans and William Michael Rossetti. Among the lesser-known contributors were some who would become distinguished, such as Ernest Rutherford and Bertrand Russell.
Many articles were carried over from some with minimal updating. Some of the book-length articles were divided into smaller parts for easier reference, yet others much abridged; the best-known authors contributed only a single article or part of an article. Most of the work was done by British Museum scholars and other scholars; the 1911 edition was the first edition of the encyclopædia to include more than just a handful of female contributors, with 34 women contributing articles to the edition. The eleventh edition introduced a number of changes of the format of the Britannica, it was the first to be published complete, instead of the previous method of volumes being released as they were ready. The print type was subject to continual updating until publication, it was the first edition of Britannica to be issued with a comprehensive index volume in, added a categorical index, where like topics were listed. It was the first not to include long treatise-length articles. Though the overall length of the work was about the same as that of its predecessor, the number of articles had increased from 17,000 to 40,000.
It was the first edition of Britannica to include biographies of living people. Sixteen maps of the famous 9th edition of Stielers Handatlas were translated to English, converted to Imperial units, printed in Gotha, Germany by Justus Perthes and became part this edition. Editions only included Perthes' great maps as low quality reproductions. According to Coleman and Simmons, the content of the encyclopedia was distributed as follows: Hooper sold the rights to Sears Roebuck of Chicago in 1920, completing the Britannica's transition to becoming a American publication. In 1922, an additional three volumes, were published, covering the events of the intervening years, including World War I. These, together with a reprint of the eleventh edition, formed the twelfth edition of the work. A similar thirteenth edition, consisting of three volumes plus a reprint of the twelfth edition, was published in 1926, so the twelfth and thirteenth editions were related to the eleventh edition and shared much of the same content.
However, it became apparent that a more thorough update of the work was required. The fourteenth edition, published in 1929, was revised, with much text eliminated or abridged to make room for new topics; the eleventh edition was the basis of every version of the Encyclopædia Britannica until the new fifteenth edition was published in 1974, using modern information presentation. The eleventh edition's articles are still of value and interest to modern readers and scholars as a cultural artifact: the British Empire was at its maximum, imperialism was unchallenged, much of the world was still ruled by monarchs, the tragedy of the modern world wars was still in the future, they are an invaluable resource for topics omitted from modern encyclopedias for biography and the history of science and technology. As a literary text, the encyclopedia has value as an example of early 20th-century prose. For example, it employs literary devices, such as pathetic fallacy, which are not as common in modern reference texts.
In 1917, using the pseudonym of S. S. Van Dine, the US art critic and author Willard Huntington Wright published Misinforming a Nation, a 200+
Anguillara Sabazia is a town and comune in the Metropolitan City of Rome, central Italy, around 30 kilometres northwest of Rome. It nestles on a small cape on the coast of Lake Bracciano. Anguillara is served by a local train. About 3 kilometres east of the town lies the small, volcanic Lake Martignano popular with tourists; the two lakes and the surrounding area have been declared a Regional Park and are under a strict naturalistic control. A two-part episode of the American sitcom Everybody Loves. Official website
Caere is the Latin name given by the Romans to one of the larger cities of Southern Etruria, the modern Cerveteri 50-60 kilometres north-northwest of Rome. To the Etruscans it was known as Cisra, to the Greeks as Agylla and to the Phoenicians as Kyšryʼ. Caere was one of the most important and populous Etruscan city-states, in area 15 times larger than today's town, only Tarquinia was equal in power at its height around 600 BC. Caere was one of the cities of the Etruscan League, its sea port and monumental sanctuary at Pyrgi was important for overseas trade. Today, the area of Cerveteri is best known for archaeological treasures; the ancient city was situated on a hill about 7 km from the sea, a location which made it a wealthy trading town derived from the iron ore mines in the Tolfa hills. It had three sea ports including Punicum, it was bounded by the two rivers Mola and Manganello, lay 80 metres above sea level on an outcrop of rocky tuff. The earliest evidence of settlement of the site come from finds of urns at two areas from the 8th and 9th centuries BC and archaeology has revealed the presence of stable employment in the area with housing and related Etruscan necropolis settlements.
Trade between the Greeks and Etruscans became common in the middle of the 8th century BC, with standardised urns and pottery common in graves of the time. The town became the main Etruscan trading centre during the 7th century BC, trade increased with other Greek colonies in Southern Italy and Sicily, with the Corinthians. Locally manufactured products began to imitate imported Greek pottery after the immigration of Greek artists into Etruria; the oldest examples of Bucchero ceramics come from Caere and it can be assumed that these typical Etruscan ceramics were developed here or produced at least for the first time in large scale. In the Orientalizing Period from around 700 BC the early prosperity of the city is demonstrated in the graves of this period which contain eastern imports and rich gold finds, notably in the rich Regolini-Galassi tomb with its many fine gold offerings. From 530-500 BC Greek artists were active in the city and worked there for a generation producing color-painted hydras.
Burials of the time became grand, with jewellery and other products of fine manufacture, illustrating the continuing good fortunes of the city. At the height of its prosperity in the 6th century BC, the people of Caere emerged marginally victorious from clashes with the Phocaean Greeks. Caere had a good reputation among the Greeks for its values and sense of justice, since it abstained from piracy, it was the only Etruscan city to erect its own treasury at Delphi, the "Agillei Treasury" dedicated to Pythian Apollo. Since this was not allowed to non-Greeks, the legends regarding earlier Greek colonization efforts of the wider area of Caere and Rome seem to have played an important role in allowing such a bold, from a political point of view, act.. Caere appears for the first time in documented history in 540 BC concerning the Battle of Alalia in which captured prisoners were stoned to death in the city, an act, attributed as the cause of an ensuing plague. In recompense, athletic contests were held every year in the city to honour the dead.
In 509 BC, upon the overthrow of the Roman monarchy, the king Lucius Tarquinius Superbus and his two eldest sons Titus and Aruns went into exile in Caere. In spite of the difficulties affecting Etruria during the period, trade once again flourished through the 5th century BC, arguably due to the good relations with the Rome, a traditional ally of the city. Caere was not spared by the crisis that affected the great centres of southern Etruria during the second half of the 5th c. BC, after the defeat at sea at the Battle of Cumae in 474 BC. A recovery can be perceived, however, at the beginning of the 4th century BC, when strong relationships with Rome continued; the town sheltered the Roman refugees including the priests and Vestal Virgins after the Gallic attack and fire of 390 BC, the Roman aristocracy was educated in Caere. The Roman Tabulae Caeritum dates from this time, which listed those citizens of Caere who were classed as Roman citizens and liable for military service, without being able to vote.
It is supposed to have been the first community to receive this privilege. In 384/383 BC Dionysius plundered Pyrgi. Support came from Caere, but this was beaten. In 353 BC Caere, allied to the Tarquinii, lost a war with Rome and with it some of its territory, including the coastal area and ports so important for trade. From about 300 BC Caere came under Roman rule. Although the exact sequence of their submission can no longer be reconstructed today, there had been numerous feuds. Rome is said to have had a 100-year truce with Caere as a result, all Etruria was in Roman hands from about 295 BC; the city lost its wealth and power by the first century AD. Saint Adeodatus participated as bishop of this episcopal see, in a synod at Rome called by Pope Symmachus in 499, shortly before the seat of the bishopric was moved, because of malaria, from Caere Vetus to the new settlement of Caere Nova; the territory of the Diocese of Caere became part of the Diocese of Porto around the 11th century. No longer a residential bishopric, Caere is today listed by the Catholic Church.
During the period 700-300 BC the inhabitants constructed an impressive necropolis known today as Banditaccia, still not excavated but has yiel