Izz al-Din Aydamir al-Jaldaki or Jaldaki Khorasani written al-Jildaki. Iranian alchemist from Khorasan, he fled his native country due to the Mongol invasion. Al-Jaldaki was one of the last and one of the greatest of medieval Islamic alchemists, he was the author of scientific works such as the al-Misbah fi Ilm al-Miftah and alchemical treatise Kitab al-Burhan fi asrar'ilm al-mizan, he was born in a district of Khorasan about 9.32057 miles from Mashhad in Iran. In his writings he reveals that he spent seventeen years traveling through Iraq, Yemen, North Africa, Syria settling in Egypt where he composed many of his treatises, he was a prolific author of alchemical writings, of which the United States National Library of Medicine has three. His treatises, which reflect interests much broader than alchemy, preserve extensive quotations from earlier authors, he died in Cairo in 1342. This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, in the public domain. C. Brockelmann, Geschichte der arabischen Litteratur, 1st edition, 2 vols..
Second edition, 2 vols.. Page references will be to those of the first edition, with the 2nd edition page numbers given in parentheses, vol. 2, p. 138-9 Corbin, Henry. History of Islamic Philosophy. Routledge. Pp. 331–332. ISBN 9781135198893. List of Iranian scientists
Jabir ibn Hayyan
Abū Mūsā Jābir ibn Hayyān, is the supposed author of an enormous number and variety of works in Arabic called the Jabirian corpus. The scope of the corpus is vast and diverse covering a wide range of topics, including alchemy, numerology, medicine, magic and philosophy, he has been described as the father or the founder of early chemistry, inventing many of the basic processes and equipment still used by chemists today. As early as the 10th century, the identity and exact corpus of works of Jabir was in dispute in Islamic circles; the authorship of all these works by a single figure, the existence of a historical Jabir, are doubted by modern scholars. Instead, Jabir ibn Hayyan is seen more like a pseudonym to whom "underground writings" by various authors became ascribed, his name was Latinized as "Geber" in the Christian West and in 13th-century Europe an anonymous writer referred to as Pseudo-Geber, produced alchemical and metallurgical writings under the pen-name Geber. In 988 Ibn al-Nadim compiled the Kitab al-Fihrist which mentions Jabir as a spiritual follower, companion and as a student to Jafar as-Sadiq, the sixth Shia Imam.
In another reference al-Nadim reports that a group of philosophers claimed Jabir was one of their own members. Another group, reported by al-Nadim, says only The Large Book of Mercy is genuine and that the rest are pseudographical, their assertions are rejected by al-Nadim. Joining al-Nadim in asserting a real Jabir; the 14th century critic of Arabic literature, Jamal al-Din ibn Nubata al-Misri declares all the writings attributed to Jabir doubtful. According to the philologist-historian Paul Kraus, Jabir cleverly mixed in his alchemical writings unambiguous references to the Ismaili or Qarmati movement. Kraus wrote: "Let us first notice that most of the names we find in this list have undeniable affinities with the doctrine of Shi'i Gnosis with the Ismaili system." Henry Corbin believes. Jabir was a natural philosopher who lived in the 8th century. Jabir in the classical sources has been variously attributed as al-Azdi, al-Kufi, al-Tusi, al-Sufi, al-Tartusi or al-Tarsusi, al-Harrani. There is a difference of opinion as to whether he was an Arab from Kufa who lived in Khurasan, or a Persian from Khorasan who went to Kufa or whether he was, as some have suggested, of Syrian Sabian origin and lived in Persia and Iraq.
In some sources, he is reported to have been the son of Hayyan al-Azdi, a pharmacist of the Arabian Azd tribe who emigrated from Yemen to Kufa. while Henry Corbin believes Geber seems to have been a non-Arab client of the'Azd tribe. Hayyan had supported the Abbasid revolt against the Umayyads, was sent by them to the province of Khorasan to gather support for their cause, he was caught by the Umayyads and executed. His family fled to Yemen to some of their relatives in the Azd tribe, where Jabir grew up and studied the Quran and other subjects. Jabir's father's profession may have contributed to his interest in alchemy. After the Abbasids took power, Jabir went back to Kufa, he began his career practicing medicine, under the patronage of a Vizir of Caliph Harun al-Rashid. His connections to the Barmakid cost him dearly in the end; when that family fell from grace in 803, Jabir was placed under house arrest in Kufa, where he remained until his death. It has been asserted that Jabir was a student of the sixth Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq and Harbi al-Himyari.
In total, nearly 3,000 treatises and articles are credited to Jabir ibn Hayyan. Following the pioneering work of Paul Kraus, who demonstrated that a corpus of some several hundred works ascribed to Jābir were a medley from different hands dating to the late 9th and early 10th centuries, many scholars believe that many of these works consist of commentaries and additions by his followers of an Ismaili persuasion. On the other hand, contemporary scholar Syed Nomanul Haq refuses the multiplicity of authors hypothesis, says that Kraus has misrepresented the Jabirian corpus for three main reasons: a) he hasn't inspected the bibliographies considering that there have been many leaps, so, all in all, the numbers are more over 500 than close to 3000. Syed Nomanul Haq concludes that "this rough investigation makes it abundantly clear that we should view with a great deal of suspicion any arguments for a plurality of authors, based on Kraus’ inflated estimate of the volume of the Jabirian corpus."The scope of the corpus is vast: cosmology, medicine, biology, chemical technology, grammar, logic, artificial generation of living beings, along with astrological predictions, symbolic Imâmî myths.
The 112 Books dedicated to the Barmakids, viziers of Caliph Harun al-Rashid. This group includes the Arabic version
Ḍiyāʾ Al-Dīn Abū Muḥammad ʿAbdllāh Ibn Aḥmad al-Mālaqī known as Ibn al-Bayṭār was an Andalusian Arab pharmacist, botanist and scientist. His main contribution was to systematically record the additions made by Islamic physicians in the Middle Ages, which added between 300 and 400 types of medicine to the one thousand known since antiquity. Ibn al-Baitar was born in the city of Málaga in Andalusia at the end of the twelfth century, hence his nisba "al-Mālaqī", his name "Ibn al-Baitar" is Arabic for "son of the veterinarian", his father's job. Ibn al-Bayṭār learned botany from the Málagan botanist Abū al-ʿAbbās al-Nabātī with whom he started collecting plants in and around Spain. Al-Nabātī was responsible for developing an early scientific method, introducing empirical and experimental techniques in the testing and identification of numerous materia medica, separating unverified reports from those supported by actual tests and observations; such an approach was thus adopted by Ibn al-Bayṭār. In 1219, Ibn al-Bayṭār left Málaga, travelling to the coast of North Africa and as far as Anatolia, to collect plants.
The major stations he visited include Bugia, Tunis, Tripoli and Antalya. After 1224, he was appointed chief herbalist. In 1227 al-Kāmil extended his domination to Damascus, Ibn al-Bayṭār accompanied him there, which provided him an opportunity to collect plants in Syria, his botanical researches extended over a vast area including Palestine. He died in Damascus in 1248. Ibn al-Bayṭār used the name "snow of China" to describe saltpetre while writing about gunpowder. Ibn al-Bayṭār’s largest and most read book is his Compendium on Simple Medicaments and Foods, it is a pharmacopoeia listing 1400 plants and drugs, their uses. It is organized alphabetically by the name of the useful plant or plant component or other substance—a small minority of the items covered are not botanicals. For each item, Ibn al-Bayṭār makes one or two brief remarks himself and gives brief extracts from a handful of different earlier authors about the item; the bulk of the information is compiled from the earlier authors. The book contains references to 150 previous Arabic authors, as well as 20 previous Greek authors.
One of the sources he quotes most is the Materia Medica of Dioscorides, inspired by Magon, another Amazigh, having written an Arabic commentary on the work. Another book cited by him is Book Two of the Canon of Medicine of Ibn Sīnā. Both of those sources have similarities in layout and subject matter with Ibn al-Bayṭār's own book, but Ibn al-Bayṭār's treatments are richer in detail, a large minority of Ibn al-Bayṭār's useful plants or plant substances are not covered at all by Dioscorides or Ibn Sīnā. In modern printed edition, the book is more than 900 pages long; as well as in Arabic, it was published in full in translation in German and French in the 19th century. Ibn al-Bayṭār provides detailed chemical information on the Orangewater production, he mentions: The scented Shurub was extracted from flowers and rare leaves, by means of using hot oils and fat, they were cooled in cinnamon oil. The oils used were extracted from sesame and olives. Essential oil was produced by joining various retorts, the steam from these retorts condensed and its scented droplets were used as perfume and mixed to produce the most costly medicines.
Ibn al-Bayṭār’s second major work is Kitāb al-Mughnī fī al-Adwiya al-Mufrada, an encyclopedia of Islamic medicine which incorporates his knowledge of plants used extensively for the treatment of various ailments, including diseases related to the head, eye, etc. Mīzān al-Ṭabīb. Risāla fī l-Aghdhiya wa-l-Adwiya. Maqāla fī al-Laymūn, Treatise on the Lemon. Tafsīr Kitāb Diyāsqūrīdūs, a commentary on the first four books of Dioscorides' "Materia Medica." Islamic science Islamic medicine Islamic scholars Alam, Hushang. "EBN AL-BAYṬĀR, ŻĪĀʾ-AL-DĪN ABŪ MOḤAMMAD ʿABD-ALLĀH". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. VIII, Fasc. 1. Pp. 6–8. Saad, Bashar. "3.3". Greco-Arab and Islamic Herbal Medicine. West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons. ASIN B005526C6O. Vernet, J.. "Ibn Al-Bayṭār Al-Mālaqī, Ḍiyāʾ Al-Dīn Abū Muḥammad ʿAbdllāh Ibn Aḥmad". Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography. Encyclopedia.com
An alembic is an alchemical still consisting of two vessels connected by a tube, used for distilling. The complete distilling apparatus consists of three parts: the "cucurbit", the still pot containing the liquid to be distilled, heated by a flame. In the case of another distilling vessel, the retort, the "cap" and the "cucurbit" have been combined to form a single vessel; the anbik is called the raʾs of the cucurbit. The liquid in the cucurbit is boiled. A modern descendant of the alembic is the pot still, used to produce distilled beverages. Dioscorides' ambix is a helmet-shaped lid for gathering condensed mercury. For Athenaeus it is a flask. For chemists it denotes various parts of crude distillation devices. Alembic drawings appear in works of Cleopatra the Alchemist and Zosimos of Panopolis. There were alembics with three receivers. According to Zosimos of Panopolis, the alembic was invented by Mary the Jewess; the anbik is described by Ibn al-Awwam in his Kitab al-Filaha, where he explains how rose-water is distilled.
Amongst others, it is mentioned in the Mafatih al-Ulum of Khwarizmi and the Kitab al-Asrar of Al-Razi. Some illustrations occur in the Latin translations of works. Aludel Balneum Mariae The dictionary definition of alembic at Wiktionary
Alchemy was an ancient branch of natural philosophy, a philosophical and protoscientific tradition practiced throughout Europe and Asia, originating in Greco-Roman Egypt in the first few centuries AD. It aims to purify and perfect certain objects. Common aims were chrysopoeia, the transmutation of "base metals" into "noble metals"; the perfection of the human body and soul was thought to permit or result from the alchemical magnum opus and, in the Hellenistic and Western mystery tradition, the achievement of gnosis. In Europe, the creation of a philosopher's stone was variously connected with all of these projects. In English, the term is limited to descriptions of European alchemy, but similar practices existed in the Far East, the Indian subcontinent, the Muslim world. In Europe, following the 12th-century Renaissance produced by the translation of Medieval Islamic works on science and the rediscovery of Aristotelian philosophy, alchemists played a significant role in early modern science.
Islamic and European alchemists developed a structure of basic laboratory techniques, theory and experimental method, some of which are still in use today. However, they continued antiquity's belief in four elements and guarded their work in secrecy including cyphers and cryptic symbolism, their work was guided by Hermetic principles related to magic and religion. Modern discussions of alchemy are split into an examination of its exoteric practical applications and its esoteric spiritual aspects, despite the arguments of scholars like Holmyard and von Franz that they should be understood as complementary; the former is pursued by historians of the physical sciences who examine the subject in terms of early chemistry and charlatanism, the philosophical and religious contexts in which these events occurred. The latter interests historians of esotericism and some philosophers and spiritualists; the subject has made an ongoing impact on literature and the arts. Despite this split, which von Franz believes has existed since the Western traditions' origin in a mix of Greek philosophy, mixed with Egyptian and Mesopotamian technology, numerous sources have stressed an integration of esoteric and exoteric approaches to alchemy as far back as Pseudo-Democritus's first-century AD On Physical and Mystical Matters.
Although alchemy is popularly associated with magic, historian Lawrence M. Principe writes: Most readers are aware of several common claims about alchemy—for example... that it is akin to magic, or that its practice or now is deceptive. These ideas about alchemy emerged after. While each of them might have limited validity within a narrow context, none of them is an accurate depiction of alchemy in general." The word alchemy comes from Old French alquemie, used in Medieval Latin as alchymia. This name was itself brought from the Arabic word al-kīmiyā' composed of two parts: the Late Greek term khēmeía, khēmía, meaning'to fuse or cast a metal', the Arabic definite article al-, meaning'The'. Together this association can be interpreted as'the process of transmutation by which to fuse or reunite with the divine or original form', its roots can be traced to the Egyptian name kēme, meaning'black earth' which refers to the fertile and auriferous soil of the Nile valley, as opposed to red desert sand.
According to the Egyptologist Wallis Budge, the Arabic word al-kīmiyaʾ means "the Egyptian ", borrowing from the Coptic word for "Egypt", kēme. This Coptic word derives from Demotic kmỉ, itself from ancient Egyptian kmt; the ancient Egyptian word referred to both the country and the colour "black". However, according to Mahn, this theory may be an example of folk etymology. Assuming an Egyptian origin, chemistry is defined as follows: Chemistry, from the ancient Egyptian word "khēmia" meaning transmutation of earth, is the science of matter at the atomic to molecular scale, dealing with collections of atoms, such as molecules and metals. Thus, according to Budge and others, chemistry derives from an Egyptian word khemein or khēmia, "preparation of black powder" derived from the name khem, Egypt. A decree of Diocletian, written about 300 AD in Greek, speaks against "the ancient writings of the Egyptians, which treat of the khēmia transmutation of gold and silver"; the Medieval Latin form was influenced by Greek chymeia meaning'mixture' and referring to pharmaceutical chemistry.
Alchemy is several philosophical traditions spanning three continents. These traditions' general penchant for cryptic and symbolic language makes it hard to trace their mutual influences and "genetic" relationships. One can distinguish at least three major strands, which appear to be independent, at least in their earlier stages: Chinese alchemy, centered in China and its zone of cultural influence. Chinese alchemy was connected to Ta
In alchemy, an athanor is a furnace used to provide a uniform and constant heat for alchemical digestion. Etymologically, it descends from a number of Arabic texts of the period of the Califate which use the term "al-tannoor" in talismanic alchemy, meaning a bread-oven, from which the design portrayed evidently descends; the athanor was called Piger Henricus, because it was chiefly used in slower operations, because when once filled with coals, it keeps burning a long time. For this reason the Greeks referred to it as "giving no trouble", as it did not need to be continually attended, it was called the Philosophical furnace, Furnace of Arcana, or popularly, the Tower furnace. In the work Life of Apollonius by Philostratus the Athenian, an allegorical description is given of an occult hill; the author gives this hill the name "Athanor". Athanor is the name of two works by Anselm Kiefer: one displayed in the Toledo Museum of Art and the other commissioned by the Louvre museum in 2007 and displayed there.
Athanor is the title of a 1968 book of poetry by the Romanian author Gellu Naum Athanor is the name of a musical work for orchestra by French composer Joël-François Durand, written in 2001 and premiered by the BBC Symphony Orchestra, in 2003. Athanor is the name a series by American author Jane Lindskold; the titles in this series are Changer, published in 1996, Legends Walking, published in 1999. Athanor is the title of an artwork by Romanian artist Geta Bratescu, consisting of a photo collage dated from 1974 and part of the art collection of Instituto Inhotim, in Brazil. Athanor is the title of an artwork by Janet Saad-Cook located at Boston University's Photonics Center; the Athanor Academy of Performing Arts Passau founded in 1995 in the German town Passau is named after this furnace. Athanor, Masonic Lodge Athanor is now a review of language philosophy and international politics, it is published twice a year. Its latest issue has been No. 13, November, 2009. French composer Joël-François Durand composed an orchestral piece called Athanor from 2000 to 2001.
Athanor as an occult hill The Life of Apollonius of Tyana - by Philostratus. Conybeare, including translator's introduction
Abū Rayḥān Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Al-Bīrūnī, known as Al-Biruni in English, was an Iranian scholar and polymath. He was from Khwarazm – a region which encompasses modern-day western Uzbekistan, northern Turkmenistan. Biruni is regarded as one of the greatest scholars of the medieval Islamic era and was well versed in physics, mathematics and natural sciences, distinguished himself as a historian and linguist, he studied all fields of science and was compensated for his research and strenuous work. Royalty and powerful members of society sought out Al-Biruni to conduct research and study to uncover certain findings, he lived during the Islamic Golden Age, in which scholarly thought went hand in hand with the thinking and methodology of the Islamic religion. In addition to this type of influence, Al-Biruni was influenced by other nations, such as the Greeks, who he took inspiration from when he turned to studies of philosophy, he was conversant in Khwarezmian, Arabic and knew Greek and Syriac. He spent much of his life in Ghazni capital of the Ghaznavid dynasty, in modern-day central-eastern Afghanistan.
In 1017 he travelled to South Asia and authored a study of Indian culture after exploring the Hinduism practised in India. He was given the title "founder of Indology", he was an impartial writer on customs and creeds of various nations, was given the title al-Ustadh for his remarkable description of early 11th-century India. He was born in the outer district of the capital of the Afrighid dynasty of Khwarezm. To conduct research, Al-Biruni used different methods to tackle the various fields. Many consider Al-Biruni one of the greatest scientists in history, of Islam because of his discoveries and methodology, he lived during the Islamic Golden Age, which promoted astronomy and encouraged all scholars to work on their research. Al-Biruni spent the first twenty-five years of his life in Khwarezm where he studied Islamic jurisprudence, grammar, astronomy, medicine and dabbled in the field of physics and most other sciences as well; the Iranian Khwarezmian language, the language of Biruni, survived for several centuries after Islam until the Turkification of the region, so must some at least of the culture and lore of ancient Khwarezm, for it is hard to see the commanding figure of Biruni, a repository of so much knowledge, appearing in a cultural vacuum.
He was sympathetic to the Afrighids, who were overthrown by the rival dynasty of Ma'munids in 995. He left his homeland for Bukhara under the Samanid ruler Mansur II the son of Nuh. There he corresponded with Avicenna and there are extant exchanges of views between these two scholars. In 998, he went to the court of the Ziyarid amir of Tabaristan, Shams al-Mo'ali Abol-hasan Ghaboos ibn Wushmgir. There he wrote his first important work, al-Athar al-Baqqiya'an al-Qorun al-Khaliyya on historical and scientific chronology around 1000 A. D. though he made some amendments to the book. He visited the court of the Bavandid ruler Al-Marzuban. Accepting the definite demise of the Afrighids at the hands of the Ma'munids, he made peace with the latter who ruled Khwarezm, their court at Gorganj was gaining fame for its gathering of brilliant scientists. In 1017, Mahmud of Ghazni took Rey. Most scholars, including al-Biruni, were taken to the capital of the Ghaznavid dynasty. Biruni was made court astrologer and accompanied Mahmud on his invasions into India, living there for a few years.
He was forty-four years old. Biruni became acquainted with all things related to India, he may have learned some Sanskrit. During this time he wrote his study of India, finishing it around 1030. Along with his writing, Al-Biruni made sure to extend his study to science while on the expeditions, he sought to find a method to measure the height of the sun, created an early version of an astrolabe for that purpose. Al-Biruni was able to make much progress in his study over the frequent travels that he went on throughout the lands of India. Ninety-five of 146 books known to have been written by Bīrūnī were devoted to astronomy and related subjects like mathematical geography, his religion contributed to his research of astronomy, as in Islam and prayer require knowing the precise directions of sacred locations, which can only be found using astronomical data. Biruni's major work on astrology is an astronomical and mathematical text, only the last chapter concerns astrological prognostication, his endorsement of astrology is limited, in so far as he condemns horary astrology as'sorcery'.
In discussing speculation by other Muslim writers on the possible motion of the Earth, Biruni acknowledged that he could neither prove nor disprove it, but commented favourably on the idea that the Earth rotates. He wrote an extensive commentary on Indian astronomy in the Tahqiq ma li-l-hind translation of Aryabhatta's work, in which he claims to have resolved the matter of Earth's rotation in a work on astronomy, no longer extant, his Miftah-ilm-alhai'a: he rotation of the earth does in no way impair the value of astronomy, as all appearances of an astronomic character can quite as well be explained according to this theory as to the other. There