Abuja is the capital city of Nigeria located in the centre of the country within the Federal Capital Territory. It is a city and was built mainly in the 1980s. Abujas geography is defined by Aso Rock, a 400-metre monolith left by water erosion, the Presidential Complex, National Assembly, Supreme Court and much of the city extend to the south of the rock. Zuma Rock, a 792-metre monolith, lies just north of the city on the road to Kaduna State, at the 2006 census, the city of Abuja had a population of 776,298, making it one of the ten most populous cities in Nigeria. According to the United Nations, Abuja grew by 139. 7% between 2000 and 2010, making it the fastest growing city in the world. The unofficial metropolitan area of Abuja has a population of well over three million, making it the fourth largest metropolitan area in Nigeria, surpassed only by Lagos, Kano, as at 2016, the metropolitan area of Abuja is estimated at 6 million persons. Major religious sites include the Nigerian National Mosque and the Nigerian National Christian Centre, the city is served by the Nnamdi Azikiwe International Airport.
Abuja is known for being one of the few capital cities in Africa. The indigenous inhabitants of Abuja are the Gbagyi as the language, Gwandara, Ganagana. The location was designated in the centre of the country in the early 1970s as it signified neutrality. Another impetus for Abuja came because of Lagos population boom that made that city overcrowded, the logic used was similar to the way Brazil planned its capital, Brasília. Construction broke ground and was dedicated in the late 1970s but, due to economic and political instability, the master plan for Abuja defined the general structure and major design elements of the city that are visible in its current form. Most countries relocated their embassies to Abuja, and many maintain their former embassies as consulates in Lagos, Abuja is the headquarters of the Economic Community of West African States and the regional headquarters of OPEC. Abuja and the FCT have experienced population growth, it has been reported that some areas around Abuja have been growing at 20% to 30% per year.
Squatter settlements and towns have spread rapidly in and outside the city limits, tens of thousands of people have been evicted since former FCT minister Nasir Ahmad el-Rufai started a demolition campaign in 2003. Along the Airport Road are clusters of settlements, namely Lugbe, Kuchigworo. Other satellite settlements are Idu, Karimu, Abujas Central District, called Central Area, spans from the foot of Aso Rock, across the Three Arms Zone, to the southern base of the inner ring road. It is like the citys spinal cord, dividing it into the sector with Maitama and Wuse
The 400 metres, or 400 metre dash, is a common sprinting event in track and field competitions. It has been featured in the programme at the Summer Olympics since 1896 for men. On a standard running track, it is one lap around the track. Runners start in staggered positions and race in separate lanes for the entire course. In many countries, athletes competed in the 440 yard dash —which is a quarter of a mile and was referred to as the quarter-mile—instead of the 400 m. An athlete who competes in the 400 m may still be referred to as quarter-miler, while considered to be predominantly an anaerobic event, there is some aerobic involvement and the degree of aerobic training required for 400 metre athletes is open to debate. The current mens record is held by Wayde van Niekerk, with a time of 43.03 seconds, van Niekerk is the reigning world. The world indoor record holder is Kerron Clement, in 44.57 seconds, the current womens world record is held by Marita Koch, with a time of 47.60 seconds. Allyson Felix is the womens world champion, while Shaunae Miller holds the womens Olympic title.
The mens T43 Paralympic world record of 45.07 seconds is held by Oscar Pistorius. An Olympic double of 200 metres and 400 m was first achieved by Valerie Brisco-Hooks in 1984, alberto Juantorena of Cuba at the 1976 Summer Olympics became the first and so far the only athlete to win both the 400 m and 800 m Olympic titles. The Olympic champion has won a second gold medal in the 4 ×400 metres relay. From 31 appearances in the Olympic Games, the gold medallist came from the USA19 times. A = affected by altitude Correct as of January 2017. Below is a list of all other times equal or superior to 43.80, Wayde van Niekerk ran 43.48. Jeremy Wariner ran 43.50,43.62, LaShawn Merritt ran 43.74,43.75. Below is a list of all other times superior to 48.80, jarmila Kratochvílová ran 48.45,48.61. Olga Vladykina / Bryzgina ran 48.60,48.65, multiple 400 metres victories at the Olympic Games and World Championships,6 wins, Michael Johnson - Olympic Champion in 1996 and 2000, World Champion in 1993,1995,1997 and 1999
1992 World Junior Championships in Athletics
The 1992 World Junior Championships in Athletics was the fourth edition of the international athletics competition for athletes aged 19 years or under. It was held in Seoul, South Korea from September 16 to September 20,1992, according to an unofficial count through an unofficial result list,954 athletes from 90 countries participated in the event. This is in agreement with the numbers as published. 1992 in athletics Results at GBRathletics. com Results from World Junior Athletics History Official results
1995 All-Africa Games
The 6th All-Africa Games were played from 13 to 23 September 1995 in Harare, Zimbabwe. 46 countries participated in eighteen sports, South Africa, having previously been banned from competition by the other African nations, was invited to the games for the first time after the fall of Apartheid. With a record 6000 athletes participating in the games the games were in danger of growing unmanageable, juan Antonio Samaranch, asked the organizers not to try to copy the Olympic Games, because of the financial and organizational costs. Petty controversy again entered the games, an Egyptian woman handball player was accused of being a man and the Egyptian team protested that the lace sleeves worn by the South African gymnasts were too sexy. Mozambiques World Champion 800 meter runner Maria de Lurdes Mutola won her speciality in Harare, of the 17 sports on the program 8 were open to participation by women, basketball, handball, table tennis and volleyball. Womens diving and netball were to be included but were reduced to demonstration sports due to a lack of entries, at the closing ceremonies the torch was passed to Johannesburg, South Africa to begin preparations for the VIIth All-African Games in 1999.
Host nation Discus thrower Adewale Olukoju and sprinter Mary Onyali became the first athletes to win four All-Africa gold medals, Onyali won the 100 and 200 metres races, and together with Josphat Machuka, Kenya they became the only athletes to win more than one event. In addition, Nigeria won three of the four races, 4x400 metres for men and women as well as mens 4x100 metres. Some new womens events were added,5000 metres, ghana The soccer tournament was won by Egypt, who became the first team to win this tournament twice
Edmonton /ˈɛdməntən/ is the capital city of the Canadian province of Alberta. Edmonton is on the North Saskatchewan River and is the centre of the Edmonton Capital Region, the city anchors the north end of what Statistics Canada defines as the Calgary–Edmonton Corridor. The city had a population of 932,546 in 2016, making it Albertas second-largest city, in 2016, Edmonton had a metropolitan population of 1,321,426, making it the sixth-largest census metropolitan area in Canada. Edmonton is North Americas northernmost city with a population over one million. A resident of Edmonton is known as an Edmontonian, Edmontons historic growth has been facilitated through the absorption of five adjacent urban municipalities and a series of annexations ending in 1982. Known as the Gateway to the North, the city is a point for large-scale oil sands projects occurring in northern Alberta. Edmonton is a cultural and educational centre and it hosts a year-round slate of festivals, reflected in the nickname Canadas Festival City.
It is home to North Americas largest mall, West Edmonton Mall, in 1754, Anthony Henday, an explorer for the Hudsons Bay Company, may have been the first European to enter the Edmonton area. By 1795, Fort Edmonton was established on the north bank as a major trading post for the Hudsons Bay Company. The new forts name was suggested by John Peter Pruden after Edmonton, the home town of both the HBC deputy governor Sir James Winter Lake, and Pruden. In 1876, Treaty 6, which includes what is now Edmonton, was signed between the Aboriginal peoples in Canada and Queen Victoria as Queen of Canada, as part of the Numbered Treaties of Canada. The agreement includes the Plains and Woods Cree and other governments of First Nations at Fort Carlton, Fort Pitt. The area covered by the treaty represents most of the area of the current provinces of Saskatchewan. The arrival of the CPR and the C&E Railway helped bring settlers and entrepreneurs from eastern Canada, Europe, U. S. the Edmonton areas fertile soil and cheap land attracted settlers, further establishing Edmonton as a major regional commercial and agricultural centre.
Some people participating in the Klondike Gold Rush passed through South Edmonton/Strathcona in 1897, in November 1905, the Canadian Northern Railway arrived in Edmonton, accelerating growth. During the early 1900s, Edmontons rapid growth led to speculation in real estate, in 1912, Edmonton amalgamated with the City of Strathcona, south of the North Saskatchewan River, as a result, the city extended south of the North Saskatchewan River for the first time. Just prior to World War I, the boom ended, many impoverished families moved to subsistence farms outside the city, while others fled to greener pastures in other provinces. Recruitment to the Canadian army during the war contributed to the drop in population
All of the competing nations are from the African continent. The first Games were held in 1965 in Brazzaville, the International Olympic Committee granted official recognition as a continental multi-sport event, along with the Asian Games and Pan American Games. Since 1999, the Games have included athletes with a disability, the Supreme Council for Sport in Africa was the organisation body for the game. The organization of the African Games is now managed by three parts, the AU, the ANOCA and the AASC, after running previous 11 editions as the All-Africa Games, the games has been renamed the African Games. The decision for the change was arrived at, during the Executive Council meeting of the African Union held in Addis Ababa. Modern Olympics founder Pierre de Coubertin conceived the Pan African Games as early as 1920, the colonial powers who ruled Africa at the time were wary of the idea, suspecting the unifying aspect of sport among African people would cause them to assert their independence.
Attempts were made to host the games in Algiers, Algeria in 1925 and Alexandria, Egypt in 1928, but despite considerable preparations taken by coordinators, the efforts failed. The International Olympic Committees first African member, Greek-born Egyptian sprinter Angelo Bolanaki, donated funds to erect a stadium, in the early 1960s, French-speaking countries of Africa organized the Friendship Games. The Games were organized by Madagascar and Côte dIvoire, the third games were set for Senegal in 1963. The Games were granted recognition by the IOC as being on par with other continental Games such as the Asian Games. In July 1965, the first games were held in Brazzaville, from 30 countries, around 2,500 athletes competed. Egypt topped the medal count for the first Games, in 1966, the SCSA was organized in Bamako, it manages the All-Africa Games. The second edition were awarded to Mali in 1969, but a military coup forced the cancellation of the Games, Nigeria stepped in as host for the Games in 1971.
Those Games were finally held in 1973 due to the Biafra War, in 1977, the 3rd Games were scheduled to take place in Algeria but due to technical reasons had to be postponed for a year and were held in 1978. Continuing the pattern, the next Games were scheduled to take place in Kenya in 1983, the four-year Olympic rhythm has not missed a beat since, and the Games have been organized in Cairo, Harare and Abuja. In 2007, Algiers once again hosted, becoming the first repeat host, the 2011 edition of the All-Africa Games was held in Maputo, Mozambique in September 2011. Brazzaville hosted the 2015 edition in honor of the Games 50th anniversary, all 53 members affiliated to the Association of National Olympic Committees of Africa are eligible to take part in the Games. In history, the 53 National Olympic Committees have sent competitors to the Games, morocco was banned from the games from the 1987 All-Africa Games onwards because of a political dispute over Western Sahara
IAAF World Championships in Athletics
The IAAF World Championships, commonly referred to as the World Championships in Athletics, is a biennial athletics event organized by the International Association of Athletics Federations. Originally held every four years, first in 1983, the current two-year cycle began in 1991, the idea of having an Athletics World Championships was around well before the competitions first event in 1983. In 1913, the IAAF decided that the Olympic Games would serve as the World Championships for athletics and this was considered suitable for over 50 years until in the late 1960s the desire of many IAAF members to have their own World Championships began to grow. In 1976 at the IAAF Council Meeting in Puerto Rico an Athletics World Championships separate from the Olympic Games was approved, two IAAF world championship events preceded the inaugural edition of the World Championships in Athletics in 1983. Four years later, the 1980 World Championships contained only two newly approved womens events, neither of which featured on the programme for the 1980 Summer Olympics, over the years the competition has grown in size.
In 1983 an estimated 1,300 athletes from 154 countries participated, by the 2003 competition, in Paris, it had grown to 1,907 athletes from 203 countries with coverage being transmitted to 179 different countries. There has been a change in composition over the years, with new events, all for women. By 2005, the differences were mens competition in the 50 km walk. The following list shows when new events were added for the first time,1987, womens 10,000 m and 10 km walk were added. 1993, womens triple jump was added,1995, womens 5000 m was added, replacing the 3000 m race. 1999, womens pole vault and hammer were added and the womens 20 km walk replaced the 10 km walk,2005, womens 3000 m steeplechase was added. Updated after 2015 Championships Note, Germany refers both to the former West Germany and the unified Federal Republic of Germany, the opening and closing ceremonies of the 8th IAAF World Championships held in Edmonton in 2001 were broadcast live to over 200 countries. The event included the mens marathon, and featured a thousand voice choir, men There are fifteen athletes who have won at least six medals.
Women There are thirteen athletes who have won at least six medals, There are eighteen athletes that competed in at least eight editions
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France. It has an area of 105 square kilometres and a population of 2,229,621 in 2013 within its administrative limits, the agglomeration has grown well beyond the citys administrative limits. By the 17th century, Paris was one of Europes major centres of finance, fashion and the arts, and it retains that position still today. The aire urbaine de Paris, a measure of area, spans most of the Île-de-France region and has a population of 12,405,426. It is therefore the second largest metropolitan area in the European Union after London, the Metropole of Grand Paris was created in 2016, combining the commune and its nearest suburbs into a single area for economic and environmental co-operation. Grand Paris covers 814 square kilometres and has a population of 7 million persons, the Paris Region had a GDP of €624 billion in 2012, accounting for 30.0 percent of the GDP of France and ranking it as one of the wealthiest regions in Europe. The city is a rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports, Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the subway system, the Paris Métro. It is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro, Paris Gare du Nord is the busiest railway station in the world outside of Japan, with 262 millions passengers in 2015. In 2015, Paris received 22.2 million visitors, making it one of the top tourist destinations. The association football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris, the 80, 000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros, Paris hosted the 1900 and 1924 Summer Olympics and is bidding to host the 2024 Summer Olympics. The name Paris is derived from its inhabitants, the Celtic Parisii tribe. Thus, though written the same, the name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. In the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps, since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang.
Inhabitants are known in English as Parisians and in French as Parisiens and they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the areas major north-south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité, this place of land and water trade routes gradually became a town