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Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita, or arthrogryposis, describes congenital joint contracture in two or more areas of the body. It derives its name from Greek meaning "curving of joints". Children born with one or more joint contractures have abnormal fibrosis of the muscle tissue causing muscle shortening, therefore are unable to perform active extension and flexion in the affected joint or joints. AMC has been divided into three groups: amyoplasia, distal arthrogryposis, syndromic. Amyoplasia is characterized by muscle weakness. Distal arthrogryposis involves the hands and feet. Types of arthrogryposis with a primary neurological or muscle disease belong to the syndromic group; every joint in a patient with arthrogryposis is affected. Every joint in the body, when affected, displays typical signs and symptoms: for example, the shoulder. Range of motion can be different between joints because of the different deviations; some types of arthrogryposis like amyoplasia have a symmetrical joint/limb involvement, with normal sensations.

The contractures in the joints can result in delayed walking development in the first 5 years, but severity of contractures do not predict eventual walking ability or inability. Intelligence is normal to above normal in children with amyoplasia, but it is not known how many of these children have an above normal intelligence, there is no literature available about the cause of this syndrome. There are a few syndromes like the Freeman-Sheldon and Gordon syndrome, which have craniofacial involvement; the amyoplasia form of arthrogryposis is sometimes accompanied with a midline facial hemangioma. Arthrogryposis is not a diagnosis but a clinical finding, so this disease is accompanied with other syndromes or diseases; these other diagnoses could affect any organ in a patient. There are a few more common diagnoses such as pulmonary hypoplasia, congenital heart defects, tracheoesophageal fistulas, inguinal hernias, cleft palate, eye abnormalities. Research of arthrogryposis has shown that anything that inhibits normal joint movement before birth can result in joint contractures.

Arthrogryposis could be caused by environmental factors. In principle: any factor that curtails fetal movement can result in congenital contractures; the exact causes of arthrogryposis are unknown. The malformations of arthrogryposis can be secondary to environmental factors such as: decreased intrauterine movement and defects in the fetal blood supply. Other causes could be: limb immobilization and viral infections. Myasthenia gravis of the mother leads in rare cases to arthrogryposis; the major cause in humans is fetal akinesia. However, this is disputed lately. Arthrogryposis could be caused by intrinsic factors; this includes molecular, muscle- and connective tissue development disorders or neurological abnormalities. Research has shown that there are more than 35 specific genetic disorders associated with arthrogryposis. Most of those mutations are missense. Other mutations that could cause arthrogryposis are: single gene defects, mitochondrial defects and chromosomal disorders; this is seen in distal arthrogryposis.

Mutations in at least five genes could cause distal arthrogryposis. There could be connective tissue-, neurological of muscle development disorders. Loss of muscle mass with an imbalance of muscle power at the joint can lead to connective tissue abnormality; this leads to reduced fetal movement. Muscle abnormalities could lead to a reduction of fetal movement; those could be: dystrophy and mitochondrial disorders. This is the result of abnormal function of the dystrophin-glycoprotein-associated complex in the sarcolemma of skeletal muscles. 70-80% of the cases of the most severe forms of arthrogryposis are caused by neurological abnormalities, which can be either genetic or environmental. The underlying aetiology and pathogenesis of congenital contractures arthrogryposis and the mechanism of the mutations remains an active area of investigation, because identifying these factors could help to develop treatment and congenital finding of arthrogryposis. Research on prenatal diagnosis has shown that a diagnosis can be made prenatally in 50% of fetuses presenting arthrogryposis.

It could be found during routine ultrasound scanning showing a lack of mobility and abnormal position of the foetus. There are other options for visualization of details and structures using techniques such as 4D ultrasound. In clinic a child can be diagnosed with arthrogryposis with physical examination, confirmed by ultrasound, MRI, or muscle biopsy; some of the different types of AMC include: Arthrogryposis multiplex due to muscular dystrophy. Arthrogryposis ectodermal dysplasia other anomalies known as Cote Adamopoulos Pantelakis syndrome, Trichooculodermovertebral syndrome, TODV syndrome and Alves syndrome. Arthrogryposis epileptic seizures migrational brain disorder. Arthrogryposis IUGR thoracic dystrophy known as Van Bervliet syndrome. Arthrogryposis like di

East Halton

East Halton is a small village and civil parish in North Lincolnshire, England. It is situated close to the Humber estuary 4 miles north-west from Immingham and 1 mile north from the neighbouring village of North Killingholme; the 2001 Census recorded a population of 604 people. East Halton Grade II listed, it originated in the 13th century, was restored by James Fowler of Louth in 1868, who raised the chancel and aisle. The village had Primitive Methodist chapels; the village has a primary school, village shop and post office, the Black Bull public house. East Halton was served by East Halton railway station on the New Holland and Immingham Dock branch of the Great Central Railway. Media related to East Halton at Retrieved 23 July 2011


Affecto Plc is engaged in the field of enterprise information management in the northern Europe. It provides solutions for information business analytics. Affecto is one of the biggest providers of Business Intelligence and Enterprise Information Management solutions in the Nordic countries; the company is headquartered in Helsinki and has subsidiaries in Finland, Norway, Estonia, Lithuania and Poland. The company’s CEO is Mr. Pekka Eloholma. In 2012, Affecto’s net sales were 133 MEUR and the number of employees is approx. 1100 as of 31.12.2012. Company’s market cap is 78.4 MEUR. Kauppalehti Affecto's roots are in the IT departments of Finnish metal industry companies; these departments were demerged from their parent companies during the 1980s. These individual IT companies were merged by Enator group during the 1990s, the company was part of the Enator group Ltd in the 1990s; when the Enator Group merged with Tieto Ltd in 1999, the competition authorities gave permission for the merger only on the condition that the newly formed company sold Enator's Finnish operations, i.e. Enator Finland.

The acting management bought Enator Finland together with funds managed by Eqviteq and Fenno Management. The newly formed company was named Affecto Group Ltd. In 2004 the company’s name was changed to Affecto-Genimap Group Ltd after Affecto bought all shares of Genimap, a Finnish Geographic Information Systems company. In November of the same year, the company expanded to the Baltics, buying the Lithuanian UAB Informacines Technologijos, an IT service provider operating in Lithuania and Estonia; the company was listed on the Helsinki Stock Exchange at the end of May 2005, following an IPO. Domasoft Ltd was purchased in December 2005 strengthening Affecto’s offering in document management solutions. In September 2006, the company bought ZenPark Ltd; this purchase further expanded the BI solutions offering in Finland. The current CEO Pekka Eloholma started in Affecto in 2006. In December 2006, the company started its operations in other Nordic countries by buying the Swedish BI company Intellibis Ltd.

The name of the company was changed to Affecto Plc in 2007. The same year saw the expansion of operations to Norway and Denmark with the purchase of Norwegian Component Software Group. Affecto’s range of solutions comprises four areas: 1. Information infrastructure Information infrastructure solutions aim at the consolidation of information from different sources as well as its quality monitoring and improvement. At Affecto, this includes tailored solutions for handling data integration, data warehousing, data quality, Master Data Management and Information Lifecycle Management. 2. Information and performance management Affecto’s information and performance management solutions provide reporting and performance management tools to assist in management and decision making. Reporting and analysis involve all operative processes, performance management solutions support planning by providing a comprehensive, real-time overview of the business. 3. Collaborative decision making With collaborative decision making solutions, organizations can involve staff members and invite members of external stakeholder groups, such as customers or partners, to discuss topics and address issues relevant to them.

Affecto’s solutions in this field include intranet and portal solutions as well as collaborative features in BI, document and case management solutions. 4. Business process optimization Affecto’s applications for business process optimization include Enterprise Resource Planning solutions, management solutions for production and supply chains and different software services. Affecto’s geographic information services and solutions are provided centrally in Finland by Karttakeskus, wholly owned subsidiary of Affecto. Karttakeskus produces enterprise IT and location intelligence solutions to private and public organizations and consumers alike. Company’s website


Mahwelereng is a township in the Mogalakwena Local Municipality of the Waterberg District Municipality of the Limpopo Province of South Africa. It is about 2 km from Mokopane; the township is a product of Apartheid South Africa's policies in the former Bantustan of Lebowa. Most of the original residents of Mahwelereng were from an area which old residents call "Ol' Location". Ol' Location was too close to town and the residents had to be moved further away from town. There are still remnants of Ol' Location such as the "Bar" and the Lutheran Church Mission on the Sekgakgapeng site; the township is bordered by Sekgakgapeng, Ga-Michele and Madiba. The township grew as a result of urbanisation, as it afforded job opportunities in an area surrounded by rural settlements; the lack of affordable housing stock has led to an increase in informal housing. The name Mahwelereng is derived from the name of a tree referred to in the Northern Sotho language as Mohwelere, it was a well-planned township with a sound infrastructure.

The water drainage system was comparable to that of most towns, there are lights on every street. However, the township lacks a reliable electricity supply. Roads are maintained with gravel mined locally next to the current Mahwelereng Stadium, known as "Lekgethe"; the original housing units comprised two-, four- and five-room houses and a few seven-room houses. These sections gave rise to the names for these particular areas; the "Di-Five" area has larger houses reserved for high-ranking government employees. Most of these five-room houses had 2 bedrooms, a lounge/dining room, a kitchen, a toilet. Over time, some of the original houses were demolished by the owners to make room for larger homes; the "Di-Four" area has predominantly four-room houses, which included two bedrooms, a lounge/dining room, a kitchen and a toilet on the outside. The "Di-Two" area has a mix of two-room houses; the two-room houses had one bedroom and one kitchen-cum-lounge-cum-bedroom, with a non-flush toilet on the outside.

Di-Two had a notorious section called Phadima Section. The locals speak Northern Sotho but a significant number speak Xitsonga and a Ndebele dialect. Hotel Mahwelereng was an meeting place for the higher echelons of society. Neighbouring the hotel was a popular bottle store that attracted patronage from surrounding areas, a bar selling traditionally brewed liquor patronised by older and poorer members of society; the hotel has since been closed down. However, the building remains standing. Mokopane Hospital named Refilwe Hospital, is one of three hospitals in Mokopane and the surrounding area; the hospital is supported by a network of small community clinics. Mahwelereng Stadium, built to accommodate soccer activities, has been used as a multi-purpose venue. Sefakaola Mountain forms part of the Waterberg mountain range; the Central Business District called "Dišopong" by locals, is the main shopping district for the area situated next to Hotel Mahwelereng. Most shop owners who were removed from the Old Location started afresh here.

It housed a dairy store, butchery, a fruit and vegetable market, bookshop, doctors' surgery, post office, community hall and some government offices. The Central Business District has since been weakened by the geographic expansion of the community and the proliferation of informal home-run shops referred to by locals as Spaza shops. Young entrepreneurs have taken over. During the Bantustan times, Mahwelereng was one of the centres of education within Lebowa; the Mokopane Teachers Training College, renamed Mokopane College of Education, is located here. Most of the teachers in the province of Limpopo graduated from this college, it was built in an area called Di-Five by the locals, but in 1991 it moved to newly built premises next to the Mokopane Hospital. It was converted to a Further Education and Training College. Schools in Mahwelereng include the primary schools Nomalema, Raphela, Nonchimudi, ND Mokonyane and Segoakgala LP, the high schools Ebenezer, Gojela, DG Tsebe, E. D. L Rampola and Fred Ledwaba Comprehensive School.

Like many townships in Limpopo Province, Mahwelereng has produced some of the most dynamic leaders in South Africa. Many of these leaders have not returned to revive an area, stagnating in a backlog of basic municipal services. Of all the sporting teams in Mahwelereng, the softball team Mahwelereng Spikes is the biggest success story; the team was established by local youngsters, over the years this softball team has provided many young people with a place to belong, an opportunity to develop confidence and leadership skills. Vultures Cricket Club dominates the district as far as Modimolle and had potential Protea players such as Samuel Manganya, a skilled left-hander and showed no mercy to bowlers. With players such as Manganya, the team could not sustain the club due to the lack of infrastructure and of necessary support from their local government. Mahwelereng is the home of the now defunct Mahwelereng Real Rovers, formed in 1975 and promoted to the Premier Soccer League. There are other sporting activities in the area including boxing, karate and music.

The musical band Sefakaola (named afte

Jordan, Edmiston Group

The Jordan, Edmiston Group, Inc. is an independent investment bank for the global media, marketing and tech-enabled services sectors. It has its headquarters in New York; the firm was launched in 1987 by Wilma Jordan, who still serves as CEO. In the late 1980s, the firm focused on serving the consumer magazine market, including Texas Monthly and Spin Magazine. In the early 1990s, the firm expanded its market coverage to include business-to-business magazine publishers, such as Capital Cities/ABC, The Economist Group, Hanley Wood. In 1992, former Time Inc. Newsweek, AOL executive Mark Edmiston partnered with Ms. Jordan to form The Jordan, Edmiston Group, Inc. In the late 1990s, Edmiston left the firm to join AdMedia Partners, JEGI formed the foundation of its current executive team, including William Hitzig joining as COO. Over this period, JEGI continued to grow and expand its advisory practice to include exhibitions and conferences, information services, digital media, marketing services and related technology.

In 2004 and 2005, JEGI added new managing directors to expand its digital media, marketing services and technology practice. Throughout the late 2000s, JEGI continued to broaden its relationships with the private equity and venture capital communities. In 2012, JEGI formed an exclusive strategic partnership with Clarity in London to provide clients with global coverage and expand the firm's footprint. In 2014, JEGI added two leaders for its technology practice to expand its reach into the software and tech-enabled services sectors. In addition, JEGI opened its Boston office to better serve clients in its current markets, as well as in new verticals. Executives include: Wilma Jordan, Founder & CEO. Recent transactions can be found here: Jordan, Edmiston Group

Coquillettidia perturbans

Coquillettidia perturbans is a species of mosquito that have been documented in Africa, Australia, North America, South America. This mosquito is Eastern equine encephalomyelitis; the geographic range of C. perturbans is increasing due to the growing extensity of the feeding area. They are known to exist throughout the United States with a southern distribution, are mammalophilic. Coquillettidia sp. are vectors for many diseases, including West Nile virus, Eastern equine encephalomyelitis, among others. C. perturbans infected with Eastern equine encephalomyelitis have been discovered in the United States, eastern Canada, the Caribbean, Latin America. This mosquito is implicated in transmitting EEE to humans, resident birds, sometimes emus, transmitting the John Cunningham virus while feeding on deer. Though C. perturbans are not the primary vector of EEE, it still influences the spread of this disease due to its ability to fly long distances and feed on large animals, including humans. The climate where this disease transmission takes place most can be defined as swamp and/or hardwood forest habitat.

Coquillettidia perturbans is a mosquito. The body of this species contains three segments consisting of a head and abdomen; the prominent identifying characteristics of C. perturbans consist of: dark and light scales of the legs in an alternating pattern, the sides of the thorax covered with groups of or scale bristles, while the scales of the wings and palps can be defined as tear-drop in shape and located around the veins and outer edges of the wings, alternating in color. General characteristics of C. perturbans include, but are not limited to: a small head, wedge-shaped thorax and slim wings, a lengthened and cylindrical abdomen, plumose antennae in males and pilose antennae in females, along with a long and slender proboscis, enabling this species with a piercing and sucking apparatus in order to obtain blood meals. The larva and pupa of C. perturbans are small and contain a siphon modified for respiration through underwater, aquatic plant life. Coquillettidia perturbans are most found in areas of low elevation and high vegetation that have warm summers and a high degree of humidity in the air.

This allows for the swamp-like habitat to exist for the growth of cattails and Juncus sp. C. perturbans prefer in order for prime larval and pupal development to occur. The water quality of the area plays an important factor for the Coquillettidia sp.: the water must not have current, it must have a neutral pH, low salt concentration, a low level of suspended particle matter. The distribution of this species is growing due to the growing area of feeding range, disease transmission experienced. Coquillettidia perturbans lay their eggs in the form of an egg raft in a swamp habitat; this raft contains around 100 eggs, which hatch after several days depending on the temperature of the environment. The larvae and pupae are adapted with an abdominal segment capable of piercing the inner gaseous tissue of the aquatic plant life, or aerenchyma, located within this environment, such as cattails and Juncus sp; this piercing allows access to the root epidermal cell layer of the plant, or the aerenchyma, in order to breathe, allowing the larvae and pupae to complete atmospheric oxygen uptake exclusive of the risk of being located near the surface of the water, as to avoid predators and insecticides.

C. perturbans complete four aquatic larval instars while pupal development ranges from a few hours to a few weeks depending on the climate present. If the climate consists of cold weather, this could lengthen the larval period several months; the pupal stage can range from a few hours to several weeks, depending on the climate of the environment. Twenty-four hours after the adult is released from the pupal case, the wings have completed the hardening process and are expanded, enabling it to fly; the life cycle takes around seven to sixteen days to complete, the C. perturbans can live up to five or six months if the hibernation stage takes place. Mosquito control