Paulinho da Costa
Paulinho da Costa is a Brazilian percussionist born in Rio de Janeiro, considered one of the most recorded musicians of modern times. Beginning his career as a samba musician in Brazil, he relocated to the United States in the early 1970s and worked with Brazilian bandleader Sérgio Mendes, he went on to perform with many American pop and jazz musicians and participated in thousands of albums, with DownBeat jazz magazine naming him "one of the most talented percussionists of our time." He was an artist on Michael Jackson’s Grammy Award-winning Thriller, Madonna's True Blue, Celine Dion’s Let's Talk About Love, hit singles and movie soundtracks, including Saturday Night Fever, Dirty Dancing and Purple Rain among others. He has toured with Diana Krall, he plays over 200 instruments professionally, has worked in a variety of music genres including Brazilian, Christian, disco, hip hop, Latin, pop and blues, rock and world music. He was signed to Norman Granz’s Pablo Records for three of his solo albums, Happy People and Sunrise, as well as Breakdown on A&M Records.
Da Costa is the recipient of the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences’ “Most Valuable Player Award” for three consecutive years. He is the recipient of the honorary “Musicians Emeritus Award. Da Costa was born in Irajá, a neighborhood in the city of Rio de Janeiro, as a child began learned the pandeiro, he began performing in the samba parades in Rio de Janeiro and joined the youth wing of Portela’s Bateria, the rhythm section of a samba school. He became one of the most internationally-known percussionist to emerge from the Samba Schools of Brazil; as a teen, da Costa traveled extensively with samba trios and quartets, Brazilian ensembles and Carnaval orchestras. His association with these groups offered him the opportunity to participate in music festivals around the world, in a troupe led by Jorge Goulart and Nora Ney. Da Costa further developed his musical ability after being exposed to jazz and Cuban music and expanded the range percussion instruments he could play, he toured Europe and the Middle East with a Brazilian ensemble together with Waldir Maia e Alcione in 1970.
In 1972, Paulinho participated in the Festival International da Canção in the Maracanãzinho, performing the song trio Maravilha, written about the soccer player of the same name, with Maria Alcina. In 1972, da Costa moved to Los Angeles and played with Sergio Mendes from 1973 until 1976, he was signed to Granz' label, Pablo Records. Da Costa’s association with Granz and Pablo Records made it possible for him to receive permanent resident status in the US. Da Costa toured with his band and performed at Montreaux Jazz Festival in 1977; the All Music Guide to Jazz: The Definitive Guide to Jazz Music describes da Costa as one of the most in-demand session musicians in Los Angeles studios since the 1970s. He’s worked with more than 900 musical artists and bands, performing on over 200 drums, bells and other instruments, he played on Dizzy Gillespie's albums including Dizzy's Party and Bahiana. He collaborated on Earth and Fire's albums, All'N All, I Am, Raise!, Millenniumand In the Name of Love. Producer Quincy Jones chose da Costa to work on many projects, including the soundtrack for The Wiz, as well as Jones' albums The Dude, Basie & Beyond, Back on the Block, Q's Jook Joint and From Q with Love.
Da Costa was a regular on the albums Jones produced, including The Brothers Johnson’s Light Up The Night, George Benson’s Give me the Night, Donna Summer’s Donna Summer, Barbra Streisand's Till I Loved You and USA for Africa’s We Are the World. Michael Jackson called on da Costa for Off the Wall, Bad, Dangerous, HIStory: Past and Future, Book I and Invincible. In addition, da Costa contributed to these and other artists: According to his website, da Costa is known to play conga drums, timbales, surdo, repique, cajón, maracas, atabaque, cuíca, reco-reco, ganzá, wood percussion, agogô bells, caixa, tarol, snare drums, bass drums, djembe, log drums, samba whistle, rainmakers, cabasa, afuché cabasa, flexatone, clad bells, bar chimes, bell tree, finger cymbals, tantan, batá drums, talking drums, wood blocks, vibraslap, jaw bone, temple blocks, spoons, doum doum, kora, keg drum, gongs, vibra-tone, kettle drums and slapstick, he has played the drums, dumbek, reco-reco, sleigh bells, African shakers and zurna.
He endorses Paiste cymbals, Remo heads and Vic Firth sticks. He had a Vic Firth Paulinho da Costa signature timbale stick designed to be used on various percussion instruments. Agora Tudo Bem! Happy People Paulinho da Costa Sunrise Breakdown 1973-1976 - Sergio Mendes & Brasil ’77 1977 - Montreux Jazz Festival 1984 - Playboy Jazz Festival 1987 - The 1st Annual Soul Train Music Awards 1988 - Rosemary Clooney "Singers' Salute to the Songwriters" Dorothy Chandler Pavilion 1990 - Lee Ritenour and Friends - Live from the Cocoanut Grove 1990 - Rainforest Foundation Benefit Performance at Ted Child's House 1990 - Nelson Mandela - An International Tribute for a Free South Africa 1992 - Music Center
Jeffrey Thomas Porcaro was an American drummer and record producer. In a career that spanned more than 20 years, Porcaro was best known for his work with the rock band Toto. Porcaro is one of the most recorded session musicians in history, working on hundreds of albums and thousands of sessions. While an established studio player in the 1970s, he came to prominence in the United States as the drummer on the Steely Dan album Katy Lied. AllMusic has characterized him as "arguably the most regarded studio drummer in rock from the mid-'70s to the early'90s", further stating that "It is no exaggeration to say that the sound of mainstream pop/rock drumming in the 1980s was, to a large extent, the sound of Jeff Porcaro." He was posthumously inducted into the Modern Drummer Hall of Fame in 1993. Jeffrey Thomas Porcaro was born on April 1, 1954, in Hartford, the eldest son of Los Angeles session percussionist of Italian descent Joe Porcaro and his wife, Eileen, his brothers Mike and Steve were successful studio musicians and members of the band Toto.
Porcaro was raised in the San Fernando Valley area of Los Angeles and attended Ulysses S. Grant High School. On October 22, 1983, Porcaro married a Los Angeles television broadcaster. Together, they had three sons, Christopher Joseph, Miles Edwin Crawford, Nico Hendrix. Porcaro began playing drums at the age of seven. Lessons came from his father Joe Porcaro, followed by further studies with Bob Zimmitti and Richie Lepore; when he was seventeen, Porcaro got his first professional gig playing in Sonny & Cher's touring band. He called Jim Keltner and Jim Gordon his idols at that time. During his twenties, Porcaro played including several for Steely Dan, he toured with Boz Scaggs before co-founding Toto with his brother Steve and childhood friends Steve Lukather and David Paich. Jeff Porcaro is renowned among drummers for the drum pattern he used on the Grammy Award-winning Toto song "Rosanna", from the album Toto IV; the drum pattern, called the Half-Time Shuffle Groove, was created by the legendary drummer Bernard Purdie, who called it the "Purdie Shuffle."
Porcaro created his own version of this groove by blending the aforementioned shuffle with John Bonham's groove heard in the Led Zeppelin song "Fool in the Rain". Porcaro describes this groove in detail on a Star Licks video he created shortly after "Rosanna" became popular. Besides his work with Toto, he was a sought-after session musician. Porcaro collaborated with many of the biggest names in music, including George Benson, Larry Carlton, Eric Carmen, Eric Clapton, Joe Cocker, Christopher Cross, Miles Davis, Dire Straits, Donald Fagen, Stan Getz, David Gilmour, James Newton Howard, Al Jarreau, Elton John, Leo Sayer, Rickie Lee Jones, Paul McCartney, Michael McDonald, Sérgio Mendes, Jim Messina, Pink Floyd, Lee Ritenour, Diana Ross, Boz Scaggs and Crofts, Bruce Springsteen, Steely Dan, Barbra Streisand, Donna Summer and Joe Walsh. Porcaro contributed drums to four tracks on Michael Jackson's Thriller and played on the Dangerous album hit "Heal the World", he played on 10cc's... Meanwhile. On the 1993 10cc Alive album, recorded after his death, the band dedicated "The Night That the Stars Didn't Show" to him.
Richard Marx dedicated the song "One Man" to him and said Porcaro was the best drummer he had worked with. Michael Jackson made a dedication to Porcaro in the liner notes for his 1995 album HIStory: Past and Future, Book I. Porcaro died on August 5, 1992, at the age of 38, he had fallen ill after spraying insecticide in the yard of his Hidden Hills home and died that evening at Humana Hospital-West Hills. The coroner's office listed his cause of death to be a heart attack from atherosclerosis. Porcaro's funeral was held on August 10 in the Forest Lawn – Hollywood Hills Cemetery, where he was buried on the Lincoln Terrace, lot 120; the Jeff Porcaro Memorial Fund was established to benefit the music and art departments of Grant High School in Los Angeles, where he was a student in the early 1970s. A memorial concert took place at the Universal Amphitheater in Los Angeles on December 14, 1992, with an all-star line-up that included George Harrison, Boz Scaggs, Donald Fagen, Don Henley, Michael McDonald, David Crosby, Eddie Van Halen, the members of Toto.
The proceeds of the concert were used to establish an education trust fund for Porcaro's sons. Porcaro's tombstone was inscribed with the following epitaph, comprising lyrics from Kingdom of Desire track "Wings of Time": "Our love doesn't end here. Porcaro endorsed Pearl drums, pedals and hardware, Paiste cymbals, Remo drumheads and Regaltip drumsticks, he had his own Regaltip Jeff Porcaro signature drumsticks, which are still made by the company in 2019. He used other brands of drums until joining Pearl in 1982, notably Ludwig-Musser, Gretsch and Yamaha Drums. Toto Hydra Turn Back Toto IV Isolation Dune Olympic Games 1984 Fahrenheit The Seventh One Past to Present 1977 - 1990 Kingdom of Desire Toto XX Greatest Hits Live...and More Old Is New Seals & Crofts – Diamond Girl, Unborn Child, Get Closer Joe Cocker – I Can Stand a Little Rain, Civilized Man Steely Dan – Pretzel Logic, Katy Lied, "FM", Gaucho Tommy Bolin – Teaser – "The Grind", "Homeward Strut", "Dreamer", "Teaser" Les Dudek – Les Dudek
A synthesizer or synthesiser is an electronic musical instrument that generates audio signals that may be converted to sound. Synthesizers may imitate traditional musical instruments such as piano, vocals, or natural sounds such as ocean waves, they are played with a musical keyboard, but they can be controlled via a variety of other devices, including music sequencers, instrument controllers, guitar synthesizers, wind controllers, electronic drums. Synthesizers without built-in controllers are called sound modules, are controlled via USB, MIDI or CV/gate using a controller device a MIDI keyboard or other controller. Synthesizers use various methods to generate electronic signals. Among the most popular waveform synthesis techniques are subtractive synthesis, additive synthesis, wavetable synthesis, frequency modulation synthesis, phase distortion synthesis, physical modeling synthesis and sample-based synthesis. Synthesizers were first used in pop music in the 1960s. In the late 1970s, synths were used in progressive rock and disco.
In the 1980s, the invention of the inexpensive Yamaha DX7 synth made digital synthesizers available. 1980s pop and dance music made heavy use of synthesizers. In the 2010s, synthesizers are used in many genres, such as pop, hip hop, metal and dance. Contemporary classical music composers from the 20th and 21st century write compositions for synthesizer; the beginnings of the synthesizer are difficult to trace, as it is difficult to draw a distinction between synthesizers and some early electric or electronic musical instruments. One of the earliest electric musical instruments, the Musical Telegraph, was invented in 1876 by American electrical engineer Elisha Gray, he accidentally discovered the sound generation from a self-vibrating electromechanical circuit, invented a basic single-note oscillator. This instrument used steel reeds with oscillations created by electromagnets transmitted over a telegraph line. Gray built a simple loudspeaker device into models, consisting of a vibrating diaphragm in a magnetic field, to make the oscillator audible.
This instrument was a remote electromechanical musical instrument that used telegraphy and electric buzzers that generated fixed timbre sound. Though it lacked an arbitrary sound-synthesis function, some have erroneously called it the first synthesizer. In 1897 Thaddeus Cahill was granted his first patent for an electronic musical instrument, which by 1901 he had developed into the Telharmonium capable of additive synthesis. Cahill's business was unsuccessful for various reasons, but similar and more compact instruments were subsequently developed, such as electronic and tonewheel organs including the Hammond organ, invented in 1935. In 1906, American engineer Lee de Forest invented the first amplifying vacuum tube, the Audion whose amplification of weak audio signals contributed to advances in sound recording and film, the invention of early electronic musical instruments including the theremin, the ondes martenot, the trautonium. Most of these early instruments used heterodyne circuits to produce audio frequencies, were limited in their synthesis capabilities.
The ondes martenot and trautonium were continuously developed for several decades developing qualities similar to synthesizers. In the 1920s, Arseny Avraamov developed various systems of graphic sonic art, similar graphical sound and tonewheel systems were developed around the world. In 1938, USSR engineer Yevgeny Murzin designed a compositional tool called ANS, one of the earliest real-time additive synthesizers using optoelectronics. Although his idea of reconstructing a sound from its visible image was simple, the instrument was not realized until 20 years in 1958, as Murzin was, "an engineer who worked in areas unrelated to music". In the 1930s and 1940s, the basic elements required for the modern analog subtractive synthesizers — electronic oscillators, audio filters, envelope controllers, various effects units — had appeared and were utilized in several electronic instruments; the earliest polyphonic synthesizers were developed in the United States. The Warbo Formant Orgel developed by Harald Bode in Germany in 1937, was a four-voice key-assignment keyboard with two formant filters and a dynamic envelope controller.
The Hammond Novachord released in 1939, was an electronic keyboard that used twelve sets of top-octave oscillators with octave dividers to generate sound, with vibrato, a resonator filter bank and a dynamic envelope controller. During the three years that Hammond manufactured this model, 1,069 units were shipped, but production was discontinued at the start of World War II. Both instruments were the forerunners of the electronic organs and polyphonic synthesizers. In the 1940s and 1950s, before the popularization of electronic organs and the introductions of combo organs, manufacturers developed various portable monophonic electronic instruments with small keyboards; these small instruments consisted of an electronic oscillator, vibrato effect, passive filters. Most were designed for conventional ensembles, rather than as experimental instruments for electronic music studios, but contributed to the evolution of modern synthesizers; these instruments include the Solovox, Multimonica and Clavioline.
In the late 1940s, Canadian inventor and composer, Hugh Le Caine invented the Electronic Sackbut, a voltage-controlled electronic musical instrument that provided the earliest real-time control of three aspects of sound —corresponding to today's touch-sensitive keyboard and modulation controllers. The controllers were impl
The bass guitar is a plucked string instrument similar in appearance and construction to an electric guitar, except with a longer neck and scale length, four to six strings or courses. The four-string bass is tuned the same as the double bass, which corresponds to pitches one octave lower than the four lowest-pitched strings of a guitar, it is played with the fingers or thumb, or striking with a pick. The electric bass guitar has pickups and must be connected to an amplifier and speaker to be loud enough to compete with other instruments. Since the 1960s, the bass guitar has replaced the double bass in popular music as the bass instrument in the rhythm section. While types of basslines vary from one style of music to another, the bassist plays a similar role: anchoring the harmonic framework and establishing the beat. Many styles of music include the bass guitar, it is a soloing instrument. According to the New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, an "Electric bass guitar a Guitar with four heavy strings tuned E1'-A1'-D2-G2."
It defines bass as "Bass. A contraction of Double bass or Electric bass guitar." According to some authors the proper term is "electric bass". Common names for the instrument are "bass guitar", "electric bass guitar", "electric bass" and some authors claim that they are accurate; the bass guitar is a transposing instrument, as it is notated in bass clef an octave higher than it sounds. In the 1930s, musician and inventor Paul Tutmarc of Seattle, developed the first electric bass guitar in its modern form, a fretted instrument designed to be played horizontally; the 1935 sales catalog for Tutmarc's electronic musical instrument company, featured his "Model 736 Bass Fiddle", a four-stringed, solid-bodied, fretted electric bass guitar with a 30 1⁄2-inch scale length, a single pick up. The adoption of a guitar's body shape made the instrument easier to hold and transport than any of the existing stringed bass instruments; the addition of frets enabled bassists to play in tune more than on fretless acoustic or electric upright basses.
Around 100 of these instruments were made during this period. Audiovox sold their “Model 236” bass amplifier. Around 1947, Tutmarc's son, began marketing a similar bass under the Serenader brand name, prominently advertised in the nationally distributed L. D. Heater Music Company wholesale jobber catalogue of 1948. However, the Tutmarc family inventions did not achieve market success. In the 1950s, Leo Fender and George Fullerton developed the first mass-produced electric bass guitar; the Fender Electric Instrument Manufacturing Company began producing the Precision Bass in October 1951. The "P-bass" evolved from a simple, un-contoured "slab" body design and a single coil pickup similar to that of a Telecaster, to something more like a Fender Stratocaster, with a contoured body design, edges beveled for comfort, a split single coil pickup; the "Fender Bass" was a revolutionary new instrument for gigging musicians. In comparison with the large, heavy upright bass, the main bass instrument in popular music from the early 1900s to the 1940s, the bass guitar could be transported to shows.
When amplified, the bass guitar was less prone than acoustic basses to unwanted audio feedback. In 1953 Monk Montgomery became the first bassist to tour with the Fender bass guitar, in Lionel Hampton's postwar big band. Montgomery was possibly the first to record with the bass guitar, on July 2, 1953 with The Art Farmer Septet. Roy Johnson, Shifty Henry, were other early Fender bass pioneers. Bill Black, playing with Elvis Presley, switched from upright bass to the Fender Precision Bass around 1957; the bass guitar was intended to appeal to guitarists as well as upright bass players, many early pioneers of the instrument, such as Carol Kaye, Joe Osborn, Paul McCartney were guitarists. In 1953, following Fender's lead, Gibson released the first short-scale violin-shaped electric bass, with an extendable end pin so a bassist could play it upright or horizontally. Gibson renamed the bass the EB-1 in 1958. In 1958, Gibson released the maple arched-top EB-2 described in the Gibson catalogue as a "hollow-body electric bass that features a Bass/Baritone pushbutton for two different tonal characteristics".
In 1959 these were followed by the more conventional-looking EB-0 Bass. The EB-0 was similar to a Gibson SG in appearance. Whereas Fender basses had pickups mounted in positions in between the base of the neck and the top of the bridge, many of Gibson's early basses featured one humbucking pickup mounted directly against the neck pocket; the EB-3, introduced in 1961 had a "mini-humbucker" at the bridge position. Gibson basses tended to be smaller, sleeker instruments with a shorter scale length than the Precision. A number of other companies began manufacturing bass guitars during the 1950s: Kay in 1952, Hofner and Danelectro in 1956, Rickenbacker in 1957 and Burns/Supersound in 1958. 1956 saw the appearance at the German trade fair "Musikmesse Frankfurt" of the distinctive Höfner 500/1 violin-shaped bass made using violin construction techniques by Walter Höfner, a second-generation violin luthier. The design was known popularly as the "Beat
Ride Like the Wind
"Ride Like the Wind" is a song written and recorded by American singer-songwriter Christopher Cross. It was released in February 1980, it reached number 2 on the US charts for four consecutive weeks, behind Blondie's "Call Me". On the album's inner sleeve, Christopher Cross dedicated this song to Lowell George of the band Little Feat, who had died in 1979, it features backing vocals by a guitar solo by Cross. The song tells the story of a condemned criminal on the run to Mexico. Told from a first-person point of view, it describes how an outlaw and convicted multiple murderer, on the run from a death-by-hanging sentence, has to "ride like the wind" to reach "the border of Mexico," where the posse in pursuit of him will not be able to reach him. Cross was on acid. "We were living in Houston at the time, on the way down to Austin to record the songs, it was just a beautiful Texas day. I took acid. So I wrote the words on the way down from Houston to Austin."In 1999, the satirical newspaper The Onion published a story with the headline, "Christopher Cross Finally Reaches Mexican Border".
Cross appreciated the honor. In 1991, Italian dance music group East Side Beat remixed "Ride Like the Wind" in a style typical of early 1990s dance music. There are five remixes in total. Two versions are found on the 7" single and an additional three are on the CD single; the Factory Edit was included in FFRR Records' "Only for the Headstrong" compilation album released in 1992. 7" single"Ride Like the Wind" – 3:58 "Ride Like the Wind" – 4:09CD single"Ride Like the Wind" – 3:58 "Ride Like the Wind" – 5:51 "Ride Like the Wind" – 5:32 "Ride Like the Wind" – 5:22 "Ride Like the Wind" – 4:00 Belgian DJ Laurent Wéry released a cover version of the song, which features vocals from Joss Mendosah. The song was produced by Laurent Wery, it was released in Belgium as a digital download on March 30, 2013. The song peaked at number 26 in Belgium. A music video to accompany the release of "Ride Like the Wind" was first released on YouTube on April 8, 2013 at a total length of two minutes and fifty-four seconds.
Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
The LP is an analog sound storage medium, a vinyl record format characterized by a speed of 33 1⁄3 rpm, a 12- or 10-inch diameter, use of the "microgroove" groove specification. Introduced by Columbia in 1948, it was soon adopted as a new standard by the entire record industry. Apart from a few minor refinements and the important addition of stereophonic sound, it has remained the standard format for vinyl albums. At the time the LP was introduced, nearly all phonograph records for home use were made of an abrasive shellac compound, employed a much larger groove, played at 78 revolutions per minute, limiting the playing time of a 12-inch diameter record to less than five minutes per side; the new product was a 12- or 10-inch fine-grooved disc made of PVC and played with a smaller-tipped "microgroove" stylus at a speed of 33 1⁄3 rpm. Each side of a 12-inch LP could play for about 22 minutes. Only the microgroove standard was new, as both vinyl and the 33 1⁄3 rpm speed had been used for special purposes for many years, as well as in one unsuccessful earlier attempt to introduce a long-playing record for home use by RCA Victor.
Although the LP was suited to classical music because of its extended continuous playing time, it allowed a collection of ten or more pop music recordings to be put on a single disc. Such collections, as well as longer classical music broken up into several parts, had been sold as sets of 78 rpm records in a specially imprinted "record album" consisting of individual record sleeves bound together in book form; the use of the word "album" persisted for the one-disc LP equivalent. The prototype of the LP was the soundtrack disc used by the Vitaphone motion picture sound system, developed by Western Electric and introduced in 1926. For soundtrack purposes, the less than five minutes of playing time of each side of a conventional 12-inch 78 rpm disc was not acceptable; the sound had to play continuously for at least 11 minutes, long enough to accompany a full 1,000-foot reel of 35 mm film projected at 24 frames per second. The disc diameter was increased to 16 inches and the speed was reduced to 33 1⁄3 revolutions per minute.
Unlike their smaller LP descendants, they were made with the same large "standard groove" used by 78s. Unlike conventional records, the groove started at the inside of the recorded area near the label and proceeded outward toward the edge. Like 78s, early soundtrack discs were pressed in an abrasive shellac compound and played with a single-use steel needle held in a massive electromagnetic pickup with a tracking force of five ounces. By mid-1931, all motion picture studios were recording on optical soundtracks, but sets of soundtrack discs, mastered by dubbing from the optical tracks and scaled down to 12 inches to cut costs, were made as late as 1936 for distribution to theaters still equipped with disc-only sound projectors. Syndicated radio programming was distributed on 78 rpm discs beginning in 1928; the desirability of longer continuous playing time soon led to the adoption of the Vitaphone soundtrack disc format. 16-inch 33 1⁄3 rpm discs playing about 15 minutes per side were used for most of these "electrical transcriptions" beginning about 1930.
Transcriptions were variously recorded inside out with an outside start. Longer programs, which required several disc sides, pioneered the system of recording odd-numbered sides inside-out and even-numbered sides outside-in so that the sound quality would match from the end of one side to the start of the next. Although a pair of turntables was used, to avoid any pauses for disc-flipping, the sides had to be pressed in a hybrid of manual and automatic sequencing, arranged in such a manner that no disc being played had to be turned over to play the next side in the sequence. Instead of a three-disc set having the 1–2, 3–4 and 5–6 manual sequence, or the 1–6, 2–5 and 3–4 automatic sequence for use with a drop-type mechanical record changer, broadcast sequence would couple the sides as 1–4, 2–5 and 3–6; some transcriptions were recorded with a vertically modulated "dale" groove. This was found to allow deeper bass and an extension of the high-end frequency response. Neither of these was a great advantage in practice because of the limitations of AM broadcasting.
Today we can enjoy the benefits of those higher-fidelity recordings if the original radio audiences could not. Transcription discs were pressed only in shellac, but by 1932 pressings in RCA Victor's vinyl-based "Victrolac" were appearing. Other plastics were sometimes used. By the late 1930s, vinyl was standard for nearly all kinds of pressed discs except ordinary commercial 78s, which continued to be made of shellac. Beginning in the mid-1930s, one-off 16-inch 33 1⁄3 rpm lacquer discs were used by radio networks to archive recordings of their live broadcasts, by local stations to delay the broadcast of network programming or to prerecord their own productions. In the late 1940s, magnetic tape recorders were adopted by the networks to pre-record shows or repeat them for airing in different time zones, but 16-inch vinyl pressings continued to be used into the early 1960s for non-network distribution of prerecorded programming. Use of the LP's microgroove standard began in the late 1950s, in the 1960s the discs were reduced to 12 inches, becoming physically indistinguishable from ordinary LPs.
Unless the quantity required was small, pressed discs were a more economica
Carole Bayer Sager
Carole Bayer Sager is an American lyricist, songwriter and New York Times best-selling author. Bayer Sager was born in Manhattan to Anita Nathan Eli Bayer, her family was Jewish. She graduated from New York University, where she majored in English, dramatic arts, speech, she had written her first pop hit, "A Groovy Kind of Love", with Toni Wine, while still a student at New York City's High School of Music and Art. It was recorded by the British invasion band The Mindbenders, whose version was a worldwide hit, reaching number 2 on the Billboard Hot 100; this song was recorded by Sonny & Cher, Petula Clark, Phil Collins, the latter whose rendition for the film Buster reached number one in 1988. She had a career as a singer, including her 1977 Australian number one single "You're Moving Out Today", which reached number 6 in the UK singles chart in June 1977. Bayer Sager's first recording as a singer was the 1977 album Carole Bayer Sager, which included "You're Moving Out Today", a song which she co-wrote with Bette Midler and Bruce Roberts.
Paul Buckmaster provided string arrangements for the album. The album went platinum in Japan and the United Kingdom, it was followed by... Too in 1978, a third and last album, co-produced by Burt Bacharach, entitled Sometimes Late at Night, which included the single "Stronger Than Before" recorded by Dionne Warwick and Chaka Khan. Bayer Sager had many hits during the 1970s. With Marvin Hamlisch and Neil Simon, she wrote the lyrics for the stage musical They're Playing Our Song, loosely based on her relationship with Hamlisch; the musical ran for over three years on Broadway. Many of Bayer Sager's 1980s songs were co-written with her former husband, the composer Burt Bacharach, she executive-produced the eponymous solo album for June Pointer, of The Pointer Sisters, in 1989. Bayer Sager has won an Academy Award, a Grammy Award, two Golden Globe Awards, she was inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame in 1987. Bayer Sager won the Academy Award for Best Original Song in 1982 for "Arthur's Theme", the theme song of the movie Arthur.
Bayer Sager received the Grammy Award for Song of the Year in 1987 for the song "That's What Friends Are For", which she co-wrote with Bacharach. This song was written for the movie Night Shift, it was recorded for this movie by Rod Stewart; the song was popularized in a 1986 cover version by Dionne Warwick, Stevie Wonder, Gladys Knight, Elton John. Her song with David Foster, "The Prayer" recorded by Celine Dion and Andrea Bocelli, won the Golden Globe, is one of few songs to be sung at weddings and funerals alike, she was awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame and was inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame. Bayer Sager received the New York University Steinhardt Distinguished Alumni award in 2006, she is to receive the 2019 "Johnny Mercer Award" from the Songwriters Hall of Fame during their 50th anniversary induction ceremony. Along with Bruce Roberts and Kenneth "Babyface" Edmonds, Bayer Sager helped write the song, "Stronger Together", sung by Jessica Sanchez; the song was played after Hillary Clinton's speech at the 2016 Democratic National Convention.
The song's title is named after the slogan that the Clinton campaign used as a show of uniting behind the Democratic nominee. The song was well received, was praised by celebrities like Jennifer Lopez and Kim Kardashian. In 2018, she co-wrote the song "Living In The Moment" for the film Book Club, recorded by Katherine McPhee, as well as two songs on Barbra Streisand's album Walls: "Better Angels" and "What's On My Mind", she contributed lyrics to "GhostTown" on Kanye West's album Ye. Bayer Sager paints, her first solo art show was in March 2011 at the L. A. Arthouse in Los Angeles, her second show ran for two months at the William Turner Gallery in Bergamot Station, Los Angeles, in 2012. Her third show, New Works, ran from September to November at William Turner Gallery in Los Angeles. Bayer Sager has served for the last seven years as a trustee of the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, she serves on the advisory board of DonorsChoose, which she and her husband Bob Daly brought to Los Angeles. She created a series of public service announcements to promote the organization, with animations voiced by Bette Midler, Claire Danes, Sidney Poitier, Morgan Freeman.
She married record-producer Andrew Sager in 1970, they divorced in 1978. Bayer Sager was involved in a romantic relationship with composer Marvin Hamlisch in the late 1970s. On April 3, 1982, she married composer and pianist Burt Bacharach after over a year's co-habitation: in December 1985 the couple adopted an infant son, whom they named Cristopher Elton Bacharach. Bacharach and Sager divorced in 1991. Since June 1996, Bayer Sager has been married to Robert Daly, former chairman of Warner Brothers and former chairman / CEO of the Los Angeles Dodgers baseball team, chairman of the American Film Institute, Bayer Sager and her husband live in Los Angeles. In October 2016, Bayer Sager published her memoir, she narrated the audiobook version. Carole Bayer Sager... Too Sometimes Late At Night Anyone At All -- Carole King Arthur -- Arthur's Theme, from Arthur -- Christopher Cross'Better Off Alone -- Shirley Bassey "Better Angels" Walls --- Barbra Streisand Crazy -- Neil Diamond Don't Cry Out Loud -- Melissa Manchester Don't Say You Love Me -- The Corrs Ever Changing Times -- Aretha Franklin Eve