Modernism is a philosophical movement that, along with cultural trends and changes, arose from wide-scale and far-reaching transformations in Western society during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Among the factors that shaped modernism were the development of modern industrial societies and the rapid growth of cities, followed by reactions of horror to World War I. Modernism rejected the certainty of Enlightenment thinking, many modernists rejected religious belief. Modernism, in general, includes the activities and creations of those who felt the traditional forms of art, literature, religious faith, social organization, activities of daily life, sciences, were becoming ill-fitted to their tasks and outdated in the new economic and political environment of an emerging industrialized world; the poet Ezra Pound's 1934 injunction to "Make it new!" was the touchstone of the movement's approach towards what it saw as the now obsolete culture of the past. In this spirit, its innovations, like the stream-of-consciousness novel and twelve-tone music, divisionist painting and abstract art, all had precursors in the 19th century.
A notable characteristic of modernism is self-consciousness and irony concerning literary and social traditions, which led to experiments with form, along with the use of techniques that drew attention to the processes and materials used in creating a painting, building, etc. Modernism explicitly rejected the ideology of realism and made use of the works of the past by the employment of reprise, rewriting, recapitulation and parody; some commentators define modernism as a mode of thinking—one or more philosophically defined characteristics, like self-consciousness or self-reference, that run across all the novelties in the arts and the disciplines. More common in the West, are those who see it as a progressive trend of thought that affirms the power of human beings to create and reshape their environment with the aid of practical experimentation, scientific knowledge, or technology. From this perspective, modernism encouraged the re-examination of every aspect of existence, from commerce to philosophy, with the goal of finding that which was'holding back' progress, replacing it with new ways of reaching the same end.
Others focus on modernism as an aesthetic introspection. This facilitates consideration of specific reactions to the use of technology in the First World War, anti-technological and nihilistic aspects of the works of diverse thinkers and artists spanning the period from Friedrich Nietzsche to Samuel Beckett. While some scholars see modernism continuing into the twenty first century, others see it evolving into late modernism or high modernism. Postmodernism refutes its basic assumptions. According to one critic, modernism developed out of Romanticism's revolt against the effects of the Industrial Revolution and bourgeois values: "The ground motive of modernism, Graff asserts, was criticism of the nineteenth-century bourgeois social order and its world view the modernists, carrying the torch of romanticism." While J. M. W. Turner, one of the greatest landscape painters of the 19th century, was a member of the Romantic movement, as "a pioneer in the study of light and atmosphere", he "anticipated the French Impressionists" and therefore modernism "in breaking down conventional formulas of representation.
The dominant trends of industrial Victorian England were opposed, from about 1850, by the English poets and painters that constituted the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, because of their "opposition to technical skill without inspiration." They were influenced by the writings of the art critic John Ruskin, who had strong feelings about the role of art in helping to improve the lives of the urban working classes, in the expanding industrial cities of Britain. Art critic Clement Greenberg describes the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood as proto-Modernists: "There the proto-Modernists were, of all people, the pre-Raphaelites; the Pre-Raphaelites foreshadowed Manet, with whom Modernist painting most begins. They acted on a dissatisfaction with painting as practiced in their time, holding that its realism wasn't truthful enough." Rationalism has had opponents in the philosophers Søren Kierkegaard and Friedrich Nietzsche, both of whom had significant influence on existentialism. However, the Industrial Revolution continued.
Influential innovations included steam-powered industrialization, the development of railways, starting in Britain in the 1830s, the subsequent advancements in physics and architecture associated with this. A major 19th-century engineering achievement was The Crystal Palace, the huge cast-iron and plate glass exhibition hall built for The Great Exhibition of 1851 in London. Glass and iron were used in a similar monumental style in the construction of major railway terminals in London, such as Paddington Station and King's Cross station; these technological advances led to the building of structures like the Brooklyn Bridge and the Eiffel Tower. The latter broke all previous limitations on; these engineering marvels radically altered the 19th-century urban environment and the daily lives of people. The human experience of time itself was altered, with the development of the electric telegraph from 1837, the adoption
The Czechs or the Czech people, are a West Slavic ethnic group and a nation native to the Czech Republic in Central Europe, who share a common ancestry, culture and Czech language. Ethnic Czechs were called Bohemians in English until the early 20th century, referring to the medieval land of Bohemia which in turn was adapted from late Iron Age tribe of Celtic Boii. During the Migration Period, West Slavic tribes of Bohemians settled in the area, "assimilated the remaining Celtic and Germanic populations", formed a principality in the 9th century, part of Great Moravia, in form of Duchy of Bohemia and Kingdom of Bohemia, the predecessors of the modern republic; the Czech diaspora is found in notable numbers in the United States, Israel, Germany, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, Russia and Brazil, among others. The Czech ethnic group is part of the West Slavic subgroup of the larger Slavic ethno-linguistical group; the West Slavs have their origin in early Slavic tribes which settled in Central Europe after East Germanic tribes had left this area during the migration period.
The West Slavic tribe of Bohemians settled in the area of Bohemia during the migration period, assimilated the remaining Celtic and Germanic populations. They formed a principality in the 9th century, the Duchy of Bohemia, under the Přemyslid dynasty, part of the Great Moravia under Svatopluk I. According to mythology, the founding father of the Czech people were Forefather Čech, who according to legend brought the tribe of Czechs into its land; the Czech are related to the neighbouring Slovaks. The Czech–Slovak languages form a dialect continuum rather than being two distinct languages. Czech cultural influence in Slovak culture is noted as having been much higher than the other way around. Czech people have a long history of coexistence with Germanic people. In the 17th century, German replaced Czech in local administration; the Czech National Revival took place in the 18th and 19th centuries aiming to revive Czech language and national identity. The Czech were the initiators of Pan-Slavism; the Czech ethnonym was the name of a Slavic tribe in central Bohemia that subdued the surrounding tribes in the late 9th century and created the Czech/Bohemian state.
The origin of the name of the tribe itself is unknown. According to legend, it comes from their leader Čech. Research regards Čech as a derivative of the root čel-; the Czech ethnonym was adopted by the Moravians in the 19th century. The population of the Czech lands has been influenced by different human migrations that wide-crossed Europe over time. In their Y-DNA haplogroups, which are inherited along the male line, Czechs have shown a mix of Eastern and Western European traits. According to a 2007 study, 34.2% of Czech males belong to R1a. Within the Czech Republic, the proportion of R1a seems to increase from west to east According to a 2000 study, 35.6% of Czech males have haplogroup R1b, common in Western Europe among Germanic and Celtic nations, but rare among Slavic nations. A mtDNA study of 179 individuals from Western Bohemia showed that 3% had East Eurasian lineages that entered the gene pool through admixture with Central Asian nomadic tribes in the early Middle Ages. A group of scientists suggested that the high frequency of a gene mutation causing cystic fibrosis in Central European and Celtic populations supports the theory of some Celtic ancestry among the Czech population.
The population of the Czech Republic descends from diverse peoples of Slavic and Germanic origin. Presence of West Slavs in the 6th century during the Migration Period has been documented on the Czech territory. Slavs settled in Bohemia and Austria sometime during the 6th or 7th centuries, "assimilated the remaining Celtic and Germanic populations". According to a popular myth, the Slavs came with Forefather Čech. During the 7th century, the Frankish merchant Samo, supporting the Slavs fighting against nearby settled Avars, became the ruler of the first known Slav state in Central Europe, the Samo's Empire; the principality Great Moravia, controlled by the Moymir dynasty, arose in the 8th century and reached its zenith in the 9th when it held off the influence of the Franks. Great Moravia was Christianized, the crucial role played Byzantine mission of Methodius; the Duchy of Bohemia emerged in the late 9th century. In 880, Prague Castle was constructed by Prince Bořivoj, founder of the Přemyslid dynasty and the city of Prague was established.
Vratislav II was the first Czech king in 1085 and the duchy was raised to a hereditary kingdom under Ottokar I in 1198. The second half of the 13th century was a period of advancing German immigration into the Czech lands; the number of Czechs who have at least German ancestry today runs into hundreds of thousands. The Habsburg Monarchy focused much of its power on religious wars against the Protestants. While these religious wars were taking place, the Czech estates revolted against Habsburg from 1546 to 1547 but were defeated. Defenestrations of Prague in 1618, signaled an open revolt by the Bohemian estates against the Habsburgs and started the Thirty Years' War. After the Battle
Prague is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and the historical capital of Bohemia. Situated in the north-west of the country on the Vltava river, the city is home to about 1.3 million people, while its metropolitan area is estimated to have a population of 2.6 million. The city has a temperate climate, with chilly winters. Prague has been a political and economic centre of central Europe complete with a rich history. Founded during the Romanesque and flourishing by the Gothic and Baroque eras, Prague was the capital of the Kingdom of Bohemia and the main residence of several Holy Roman Emperors, most notably of Charles IV, it was an important city to its Austro-Hungarian Empire. The city played major roles in the Bohemian and Protestant Reformation, the Thirty Years' War and in 20th-century history as the capital of Czechoslovakia, during both World Wars and the post-war Communist era. Prague is home to a number of well-known cultural attractions, many of which survived the violence and destruction of 20th-century Europe.
Main attractions include Prague Castle, Charles Bridge, Old Town Square with the Prague astronomical clock, the Jewish Quarter, Petřín hill and Vyšehrad. Since 1992, the extensive historic centre of Prague has been included in the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites; the city has more than ten major museums, along with numerous theatres, galleries and other historical exhibits. An extensive modern public transportation system connects the city, it is home to a wide range of public and private schools, including Charles University in Prague, the oldest university in Central Europe. Prague is classified as an "Alpha −" global city according to GaWC studies and ranked sixth in the Tripadvisor world list of best destinations in 2016, its rich history makes it a popular tourist destination and as of 2017, the city receives more than 8.5 million international visitors annually. Prague is the fourth most visited European city after London and Rome. During the thousand years of its existence, the city grew from a settlement stretching from Prague Castle in the north to the fort of Vyšehrad in the south, becoming the capital of a modern European country, the Czech Republic, a member state of the European Union.
The region was settled as early as the Paleolithic age. A Jewish chronicler David Solomon Ganz, citing Cyriacus Spangenberg, claimed that the city was founded as Boihaem in c. 1306 BC by an ancient king, Boyya. Around the fifth and fourth century BC, a Celts tribe appeared in the area establishing settlements including an oppidum in Závist, a present-day suburb of Prague, naming the region of Bohemia, which means "home of the Boii people". In the last century BC, the Celts were driven away by Germanic tribes, leading some to place the seat of the Marcomanni king, Maroboduus, in southern Prague in the suburb now called Závist. Around the area where present-day Prague stands, the 2nd century map drawn by Ptolemaios mentioned a Germanic city called Casurgis. In the late 5th century AD, during the great Migration Period following the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, the Germanic tribes living in Bohemia moved westwards and in the 6th century, the Slavic tribes settled the Central Bohemian Region.
In the following three centuries, the Czech tribes built several fortified settlements in the area, most notably in the Šárka valley and Levý Hradec. The construction of what came to be known as Prague Castle began near the end of the 9th century, growing a fortified settlement that existed on the site since the year 800; the first masonry under Prague Castle dates from the year 885 at the latest. The other prominent Prague fort, the Přemyslid fort Vyšehrad, was founded in the 10th century, some 70 years than Prague Castle. Prague Castle is dominated by the cathedral, which began construction in 1344, but wasn't completed until the 20th century; the legendary origins of Prague attribute its foundation to the 8th century Czech duchess and prophetess Libuše and her husband, Přemysl, founder of the Přemyslid dynasty. Legend says that Libuše came out on a rocky cliff high above the Vltava and prophesied: "I see a great city whose glory will touch the stars." She ordered a town called Praha to be built on the site.
The region became the seat of the dukes, kings of Bohemia. Under Holy Roman Emperor Otto II the area became a bishopric in 973; until Prague was elevated to archbishopric in 1344, it was under the jurisdiction of the Archbishopric of Mainz. Prague was an important seat for trading where merchants from all of Europe settled, including many Jews, as recalled in 965 by the Hispano-Jewish merchant and traveller Ibrahim ibn Ya'qub; the Old New Synagogue of 1270 still stands in the city. Prague was once home to an important slave market. At the site of the ford in the Vltava river, King Vladislaus I had the first bridge built in 1170, the Judith Bridge, named in honour of his wife Judith of Thuringia; this bridge was destroyed by a flood in 1342, but some of the original foundation stones of that bridge remain in the river. It was named the Charles Bridge. In 1257, under King Ottokar II, Malá Strana was founded in Prague on the site of an older village in what would become the Hradčany area; this was the district of the German people, who had the right to administer the law autonomously, pursuant to Magdeburg rights.
The new district was on the bank opposite of the Staré Město, which had borough status and was bordered by a line of walls and fortifications. Prague flourished dur
The Decadent movement was a late-19th-century artistic and literary movement, centered in Western Europe, that followed an aesthetic ideology of excess and artificiality. The visual artist Félicien Rops's body of work and Joris-Karl Huysmans's novel Against Nature are considered the prime examples of the decadent movement, it first flourished in France and spread throughout Europe and to the United States. The movement was characterized by self-disgust, sickness at the world, general skepticism, delight in perversion and employment of crude humor and a belief in the superiority of human creativity over logic and the natural world; the concept of decadence dates from the eighteenth century from the writings of Montesquieu, the Enlightenment philosopher who suggested that the decline of the Roman Empire was in large part due to their moral decay and loss of cultural standards. When Latin scholar Désiré Nisard turned toward French literature, he compared Victor Hugo and Romanticism in general to the Roman decadence, men sacrificing their craft and their cultural values for the sake of pleasure.
The trends that he identified, such as an interest in description, a lack of adherence to the conventional rules of literature and art, a love for extravagant language were the seeds of the Decadent Movement. The first major development in French decadence would come when writers Théophile Gautier and Charles Baudelaire used the word proudly, to represent a rejection of what they considered banal "progress." Baudelaire referred to himself as decadent in his 1857 edition of Les Fleurs du Mal and exalted the Roman decline as a model for modern poets to express their passion. He would use the term decadence to include the subversion of traditional categories in pursuit of full, sensual expression. In his lengthy introduction to Baudelaire in the front of the 1868 Les Fleurs du Mal, Gautier at first rejects the application of the term decadent, as meant by the critic, but works his way to an admission of decadence on Baudelaire's own terms: a preference for what is beautiful and what is exotic, an ease with surrendering to fantasy, a maturity of skill with manipulating language.
Though he was Belgian, Félicien Rops was instrumental in the development of this early stage of the Decadent Movement. A friend of Baudelaire, he was a frequent illustrator of Baudelaire's writing, at the request of the author himself. Rops delighted in breaking artistic convention and shocking the public with gruesome, fantastical horror, he was explicitly interested in the Satanic, he sought to portray the double-threat of Satan and Woman. At times, his only goal was the portrayal of a woman he'd observed debasing herself in the pursuit of her own pleasure, it has been suggested that, no matter how horrific and perverse his images could be, Rops' invocation of supernatural elements was sufficient to keep Baudelaire situated in a spiritually-aware universe that maintained a cynical kind of hope if the poetry "requires a strong stomach." Their work was the worship of beauty disguised as the worship of evil. For both of them and all manner of corruptions were always on their mind; the ability of Rops to see and portray the same world as they did, made him a popular illustrator for other decadent authors.
The concept of decadence lingered after that, but it wasn't until 1884 that Maurice Barrès referred to a particular group of writers as Decadents. He defined this group as those, influenced by Baudelaire, though they were influenced by Gothic novels and the poetry and fiction of Edgar Allan Poe. Many were associated with others with Aestheticism; the pursuit of these authors, according to Arthur Symons, was "a desperate endeavor to give sensation, to flash the impression of the moment, to preserve the heat and motion of life," and their achievement, as he saw it, was "to be a disembodied voice, yet the voice of a human soul."In his 1884 decadent novel À Rebours, Joris-Karl Huysmans overthrew the past, subordinated nature to the human creative will, suggested the primacy of, but inherent disillusion in, pleasure. He identified candidates for the core of the Decadent Movement, which he seemed to view Baudelaire as sitting above: Paul Verlaine, Tristan Corbière, Theodore Hannon, Stéphane Mallarmé.
His character Des Esseintes hailed these writers for their creativity and their craftsmanship, suggesting that they filled him with "insidious delight" as they used a "secret language" to explore "twisted and precious ideas."Not only did Against Nature define an ideology and a literature, but it created an influential perspective on visual art. The character of Des Esseintes explicitly heralded the work of Gustave Moreau, Jan Luyken, Odilon Redon. None of these artists would have identified themselves as part of this movement; the choice of these three established a decadent perspective on art which favored madness and irrationality, graphic violence, frank pessimism about cultural institutions, a disregard for visual logic of the natural world. It has been suggested that a dream vision that Des Esseintes describes is based on the series of satanic encounters painted by Félicien Rops. Capitalizing on the momentum of Huysmans' work, Anatole Baju founded the magazine Le Décadent in 1886, an effort to define and organize the Decadent Movement in a formal way.
This group of writers did not only look to escape the boredom of the banal, but they sought to shock and subvert the expectations and values of society, believing that such freedom and creative experimentation would better humanity. Not everyone was comfortable with Baju and Le Décadent including some who had
Czech literature is the literature written in the Czech language. The earliest literary works written in Czech date to the 14th century. Modern literature may be divided into the periods of national awakening in the 19th century. In another meaning of the term, "Czech literature" may refer to "literature written by Czechs" regardless of language, including works in Old Church Slavonic, Middle Latin or German. Bohemia was Christianized in the late 9th to 10th centuries, the earliest written works associated with the kingdom of Bohemia are Middle Latin works written in the 12th to 13th centuries; the majority of works from this period are hagiographies. Bohemian hagiographies focus on Bohemian saints, although numerous legends about Bohemian saints were written by foreign authors; the most important chronicle of the period is the Chronica Boemorum by Cosmas, though it does approach its topics with then-contemporary politics in mind, attempts to legitimize the ruling dynasty. Cosmas' work was updated and extended by several authors in the latter part of the 12th and during the 13th centuries.
During the first part of the 13th century, the Přemyslid rulers of Bohemia expanded their political and economic influence westward and came into contact with the political and cultural kingdoms of Western Europe. This cultural exchange was evident in literature through the introduction of German courtly poetry, or Minnesang, in the latter part of the 13th century. After the murder of Wenceslas III and the subsequent upheavals in the kingdom in 1306, the Bohemian nobles distanced themselves from German culture and looked for literature in their native language. Despite this, German remained an important literary language in Bohemia until the 19th century; this new literature in Czech consisted of epic poetry of two types: the legend and the knightly epic, both based on apocryphal tales from the Bible, as well as hagiographic legends of earlier periods. Prose was first developed during this period: administrative and instructional texts, which necessitated the development of a more extensive and specialized vocabulary.
Extensive chronicles, of which the Chronicle of Dalimil and Chronicon Aulae Regiae are the most striking examples, artistic prose were written. The Hussite revolution of the 15th century created a definite break in the literary evolution of Czech literature and forms its own separate history within Czech literature; the main aim of this literature was to communicate and argue for a specific religious doctrine and its form was prose. Jan Hus' theological writing first appears at the beginning of the 15th century. Hus' writings center on theological questions. Only fragments remain of the literary works of the radical Taborite faction - these were Latin apologia defending the Taborite doctrine. In general, Hussite writings differed from the preceding era by their focus on social questions - their audience consisted of the lower and lower middle classes. Works defending Catholicism and attacking the Hussite utraquists were written, one example being Jan Rokycana's works; the Hussite period developed the genre of Czech religious songs as a replacement for Latin hymns and liturgy, e.g. the Jistebnický kancionál, the Jistebnice Hymnal.
After the election of George of Poděbrady to the Czech throne following the Hussite wars, a new cultural wave swept into Bohemia. Humanism saw in the classics of antiquity an ideal for culture; the main feature of the literature of this period is the competition between Catholics writing in Latin, e.g. Bohuslav Hasištejnský z Lobkovic and Jan Dubravius) and Protestants writing in Czech, e.g. Viktorin Kornel of Všehrdy and Václav Hájek. New literary devices incited scholars, e.g. Veleslavín, to construct a more complex grammatical structure, based on Latin, as well as an influx of loan words. Gutenberg's printing press rendered books and pamphlets more accessible, which changed literature's status in society; the demise of the Czech Protestants after the Battle of the White Mountain decidedly affected Czech literary development. The forceful re-Catholicization and Germanization of Bohemia and the ensuing confiscations and expulsions eliminated the Protestant middle classes and split the literature into two parts: the domestic Catholic and the émigré Protestant branches.
Unlike in other European countries of the time, the nobility in Bohemia was not a part of the literary audience and thus this split of literary effort led to a certain lack of development and stagnation of Czech baroque literature in comparison to other European countries of the time in genres that were written for noble courts. The largest personality of Czech evangelical baroque writing is John Comenius, who spent his youth in Bohemia but was forced into exile in life, he was a pedagogue
Louny is a town in the Ústí nad Labem Region of the Czech Republic. It is situated on the River Ohře; the city was founded in the 12th century. The Church of St Peter stands on the site of the original fort; the original name was Luna, retained in the name of a local park, Pramen Luna, accounts for the Moon as part of the town's emblem. The town developed and expanded during the reign of Ottokar I of Bohemia, although the Thirty Years' War depopulated the city; the second half of the 19th century witnessed the economic growth of the area. Until 1918, LAUN - LOUNY was part of the Austrian monarchy, in the district of the same name, one of the 94 Bezirkshauptmannschaften in Bohemia; the town lies on a railway junction and a factory for overhauling railway engines and rolling stock was established in 1873 which became a major employer and contributed to the town's expansion during the early 20th century. The former state company has now been privatized, but remains the town's largest employer with a workforce of 750.
Other industries include a brewery and a factory making porcelain electrical insulators for power cables, etc. The town's architecture was formed in the 19th and 20th centuries when many old buildings were torn down; the most important architectural feature is Roman Catholic St. Nicholas Church, erected between 1517 and 1537 in the late Gothic style. One of the architects was Benedikt Rejt, it incorporates a tower from an earlier church, otherwise destroyed along with most of the town by a major fire in 1517. Parts of the city ramparts remain, as does the Žatec gate which dates from 1500 but was reconstructed in 1872. An Open-Air Museum of Archeology is located in nearby Březno. Václav Hlavatý, mathematician; the Gymnázium V. Hlavatého is named after him. Jaroslav Vrchlický, poet. Zdeněk Sýkora, painter. Milan Kymlicka, arranger and conductor, Kristýna Plíšková, tennis player Karolína Plíšková, tennis player Zdeněk Sýkora, abstract painter, Ordre des Arts et des Lettres award Otakar Jaroš, Czech officer in the Czechoslovak forces in the Soviet Union Božena Kacerovská, opera singer and died in Louny.
Official website Louny Information centre History of the Louny Parish
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC