The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood was a group of English painters and art critics, founded in 1848 by William Holman Hunt, John Everett Millais and Dante Gabriel Rossetti. The three founders were joined by William Michael Rossetti, James Collinson, Frederic George Stephens and Thomas Woolner to form the seven-member "brotherhood", their principles were shared by other artists, including Ford Madox Brown, Arthur Hughes and Marie Spartali Stillman. A medievalising strain inspired by Rossetti included Edward Burne-Jones and extended into the twentieth century with artists such as John William Waterhouse; the group's intention was to reform art by rejecting what it considered the mechanistic approach first adopted by Mannerist artists who succeeded Raphael and Michelangelo. Its members believed the Classical poses and elegant compositions of Raphael in particular had been a corrupting influence on the academic teaching of art, hence the name "Pre-Raphaelite". In particular, the group objected to the influence of Sir Joshua Reynolds, founder of the English Royal Academy of Arts, whom they called "Sir Sloshua".
To the Pre-Raphaelites, according to William Michael Rossetti, "sloshy" meant "anything lax or scamped in the process of painting... and hence... any thing or person of a commonplace or conventional kind". The brotherhood sought a return to the abundant detail, intense colours and complex compositions of Quattrocento Italian art; the group associated their work with John Ruskin, an English critic whose influences were driven by his religious background. The group continued to accept the concepts of history painting and mimesis, imitation of nature, as central to the purpose of art; the Pre-Raphaelites defined themselves as a reform movement, created a distinct name for their form of art, published a periodical, The Germ, to promote their ideas. The group's debates were recorded in the Pre-Raphaelite Journal; the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood was founded in John Millais's parents' house on Gower Street, London in 1848. At the first meeting, the painters John Everett Millais, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, William Holman Hunt were present.
Hunt and Millais were students at the Royal Academy of Arts and had met in another loose association, the Cyclographic Club, a sketching society. At his own request Rossetti became a pupil of Ford Madox Brown in 1848. At that date and Hunt shared lodgings in Cleveland Street, Central London. Hunt had started painting The Eve of St. Agnes based on Keats's poem of the same name, but it was not completed until 1867; as an aspiring poet, Rossetti wished to develop the links between Romantic art. By autumn, four more members, painters James Collinson and Frederic George Stephens, Rossetti's brother and critic William Michael Rossetti, sculptor Thomas Woolner, had joined to form a seven-member-strong brotherhood. Ford Madox Brown was invited to join, but the more senior artist remained independent but supported the group throughout the PRB period of Pre-Raphaelitism and contributed to The Germ. Other young painters and sculptors became close associates, including Charles Allston Collins, Alexander Munro.
The PRB intended to keep the existence of the brotherhood secret from members of the Royal Academy. The brotherhood's early doctrines, as defined by William Michael Rossetti, were expressed in four declarations: to have genuine ideas to express; the principles were deliberately non-dogmatic, since the brotherhood wished to emphasise the personal responsibility of individual artists to determine their own ideas and methods of depiction. Influenced by Romanticism, the members thought responsibility were inseparable, they were fascinated by medieval culture, believing it to possess a spiritual and creative integrity, lost in eras. The emphasis on medieval culture clashed with principles of realism which stress the independent observation of nature. In its early stages, the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood believed its two interests were consistent with one another, but in years the movement divided and moved in two directions; the realists were led by Hunt and Millais, while the medievalists were led by Rossetti and his followers, Edward Burne-Jones and William Morris.
The split was never absolute, since both factions believed that art was spiritual in character, opposing their idealism to the materialist realism associated with Courbet and Impressionism. The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood was influenced by nature and its members used great detail to show the natural world using bright and sharp focus techniques on a white canvas. In attempts to revive the brilliance of colour found in Quattrocento art and Millais developed a technique of painting in thin glazes of pigment over a wet white ground in the hope that the colours would retain jewel-like transparency and clarity, their emphasis on brilliance of colour was a reaction to the excessive use of bitumen by earlier British artists, such as Reynolds, David Wilkie and Benjamin Robert Haydon. Bitumen produces unstable areas of an effect the Pre-Raphaelites despised. In 1848, Rossetti and Hunt made a list of "Immortals", artistic heroes whom they admired from literature, some of whose work would form subjects for PRB paintings, notably including Keats and Tennyson.
The first exhibitions of Pre-Raphaelite work occurred in 1849. Both Millais's Isabella and Holman Hunt's Rienzi were exhibited at
Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema, was a Dutch painter of special British denizenship. Born in Dronrijp, the Netherlands, trained at the Royal Academy of Antwerp, Belgium, he settled in England in 1870 and spent the rest of his life there. A classical-subject painter, he became famous for his depictions of the luxury and decadence of the Roman Empire, with languorous figures set in fabulous marbled interiors or against a backdrop of dazzling blue Mediterranean Sea and sky. Though admired during his lifetime for his draftsmanship and depictions of Classical antiquity, his work fell into disrepute after his death, only since the 1960s has it been re-evaluated for its importance within nineteenth-century British art. Lourens Alma Tadema was born on 8 January 1836 in the village of Dronrijp in the province of Friesland in the north of the Netherlands; the surname Tadema is an old Frisian patronymic, meaning'son of Tade', while the names Lourens and Alma came from his godfather. He was the sixth child of Pieter Jiltes Tadema, the village notary, the third child of Hinke Dirks Brouwer.
His father had three sons from a previous marriage. His parents' first child died young, the second was Atje, Lourens' sister, for whom he had great affection; the Tadema family moved in 1838 to the nearby city of Leeuwarden, where Pieter's position as a notary would be more lucrative. His father died when Lourens was four, leaving his mother with five children: Lourens, his sister, three boys from his father's first marriage, his mother had artistic leanings, decided that drawing lessons should be incorporated into the children's education. He received his first art training with a local drawing master hired to teach his older half-brothers, it was intended. Diagnosed as consumptive and given only a short time to live, he was allowed to spend his remaining days at his leisure and painting. Left to his own devices he decided to pursue a career as an artist. In 1852 he entered the Royal Academy of Antwerp in Belgium where he studied early Dutch and Flemish art, under Gustaf Wappers. During Alma-Tadema's four years as a registered student at the Academy, he won several respectable awards.
Before leaving school, towards the end of 1855, he became assistant to the painter and professor Louis Jan de Taeye, whose courses in history and historical costume he had enjoyed at the Academy. Although de Taeye was not an outstanding painter, Alma-Tadema respected him and became his studio assistant, working with him for three years. De Taeye introduced him to books that influenced his desire to portray Merovingian subjects early in his career, he was encouraged to depict historical accuracy in his paintings, a trait for which the artist became known. Alma-Tadema left Taeye's studio in November 1858 returning to Leeuwarden before settling in Antwerp, where he began working with the painter Baron Jan August Hendrik Leys, whose studio was one of the most regarded in Belgium. Under his guidance Alma-Tadema painted his first major work: The Education of the children of Clovis; this painting created a sensation among critics and artists when it was exhibited that year at the Artistic Congress in Antwerp.
It is said to have laid the foundation of his reputation. Alma-Tadema related that although Leys thought the completed painting better than he had expected, he was critical of the treatment of marble, which he compared to cheese. Alma-Tadema took this criticism seriously, it led him to improve his technique and to become the world's foremost painter of marble and variegated granite. Despite any reproaches from his master, The Education of the Children of Clovis was honorably received by critics and artists alike and was purchased and subsequently given to King Leopold of Belgium. In 1860 he befriended the Anglo-Dutch Dommersen family of artists in Utrecht In 1862 he made pencil drawings of Mrs. Cornelia Dommershuizen and one of her sons Thomas Hendrik, whose brothers were the painters Pieter Cornelis Dommersen and Cornelis Christiaan Dommersen. Merovingian themes were the painter's favourite subject up to the mid-1860s, it is in this series that we find the artist moved by the deepest feeling and the strongest spirit of romance.
However Merovingian subjects did not have a wide international appeal, so he switched to themes of life in ancient Egypt that were more popular. On these scenes of Frankish and Egyptian life Alma-Tadema spent much research. In 1862 Alma-Tadema left Leys's studio and started his own career, establishing himself as a significant classical-subject European artist. 1863 was to alter the course of Alma-Tadema's personal and professional life: on 3 January his invalid mother died, on 24 September he was married, in Antwerp City Hall, to Marie-Pauline Gressin Dumoulin, the daughter of Eugène Gressin Dumoulin, a French journalist living near Brussels. Nothing is known of their meeting and little of Pauline herself, as Alma-Tadema never spoke about her after her death in 1869, her image appears in a number of oils, though he painted her portrait only three times, the most notable appearing in My studio. The couple had three children, their eldest and only son lived only a few months dying of smallpox.
Their two daughters and Anna, both had artistic leanings: the former in literature, the latter in art. Neither would marry. Alma-Tadema and his wife spent their honeymoon in Florence, Rome and Pompeii. This, his first visit to Italy, developed his interest in depicting t
The Eve of St. Agnes
The Eve of St. Agnes is a Romantic narrative poem of 42 Spenserian stanzas set in the Middle Ages, it was written by John Keats in 1819 and published in 1820. The poem was considered by many of Keats' contemporaries and the succeeding Victorians to be one of his finest and was influential in 19th century literature; the title comes from the day before the feast of Saint Agnes. St. Agnes, the patron saint of virgins, died a martyr in 4th century Rome; the eve falls on 20 January. The divinations referred to by Keats in this poem are referred to by John Aubrey in his Miscellanies as being associated with St. Agnes' night. Keats based his poem on the folk belief that a girl could see her future husband in a dream if she performed certain rites on the eve of St. Agnes; the proposed husband would appear in her dream, kiss her, feast with her. A Scottish version of the ritual would involve young women meeting together on St. Agnes's Eve at midnight, they would go one by one, into a remote field and throw in some grain, after which they repeated the following rhyme in a prayer to St. Agnes: “Agnes sweet, Agnes fair, hither, now repair.
In the original version of his poem, Keats emphasized the young lovers' sexuality, but his publishers, who feared public reaction, forced him to tone down the eroticism. On a bitterly chill night, an ancient beadsman performs his penances in the chapel next to the castle of Madeline's warlike family. Meanwhile, in the castle, an alcohol-fueled revelry has begun among the family. Madeline pines for the love of sworn enemy to her kin, she has heard'old dames full many times declare' that she may receive sweet dreams of love from her lover Porphyro if, on this night, St. Agnes' Eve, she retires to bed under the proper ritual of silence and supine receptiveness; that night, Porphyro makes his way to the castle and braves entry, seeking out Angela, an elderly woman friendly to his family, importuning her to lead him to Madeline's room at night, where he may but gaze upon her sleeping form. Angela is persuaded only with difficulty, saying she fears damnation if Porphyro does not afterward marry the girl.
Concealed in an ornate, carven closet in Madeline's room, Porphyro watches as Madeline makes ready for bed. Beholding her full beauty in the moonlight, he creeps forth as she sleeps, to prepare a feast of rare delicacies. Madeline wakes and sees before her the same image she has seen in her dream and, thinking Porphyro part of it, receives him into her bed. Waking in full and realizing her mistake, she tells Porphyro she cannot hate him for his deception since her heart is so much in his, but that if he goes now he leaves behind "A dove forlorn and lost / With sick unpruned wing". Porphyro promises her a home with him over the southern moors, they flee from the castle, passing drunken revellers and rush into the night. Angela's death is revealed in the poem's final stanza and the beadsman, "after thousand aves told, / For aye unsought for slept among his ashes cold". Rudyard Kipling's short story "Wireless" has the narrator witnessing a recreation of the poem by a man in a trance who, by virtue of the similarities of his situation to that of Keats, becomes "tuned" to the poet.
Four lines from the final stanza of Keats' poem form the motto of H. P. Lovecraft's 1926 story "The Outsider".'St. Agnes Eve', Text of'St. Agnes' Eve' by Keats from Bartleby; the Eve of St. Agnes at Internet Archive. Notable editions: The Eve of St. Agnes calligraphy by Ralph Fletcher Seymour, "Introduction" by Edmund Gosse The Eve of St. Agnes illus. by Edmund H. Garrett The Theme of The Eve of St. Agnes in the Pre-Raphaelite Movement, An analysis of the poem at Victorianweb CUNY Brooklyn page on the Eve of St Agnes The Eve of St. Agnes public domain audiobook at LibriVox
Edward Robert Hughes
Edward Robert Hughes was an English painter who worked prominently in watercolours, but produced a number of significant oil paintings. He was influenced by his uncle and eminent artist, Arthur Hughes, associated with the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, worked with one of the Brotherhood's founders, William Holman Hunt. Having settled on his career choice, Edward Robert Hughes attended Heatherley's in London to prepare himself for the chance of auditioning for the Royal Academy School. Hughes became a student at the Royal Academy School in 1868. While Pre-Raphaelitism played an influential part in shaping Hughes work, Aestheticism is seen in his paintings. E. R. Hughes is known for his works Midsummer Eve and Night With Her Train of Stars yet he built a career as a portrait painter to the upper classes. In addition to being an accomplished artist himself, E. R. Hughes was a studio assistant to the elder artist and Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood founding member William Holman Hunt. In life Hunt suffered from glaucoma and Hughes made a substantial contribution to a number of Hunt's paintings.
Two of the paintings that Hughes worked on with Hunt were The Light of the World, displayed in St Paul's Cathedral, The Lady of Shalott, exhibited at the Wadsworth Atheneum. On his own he was a perfectionist. Hughes held several important offices within the artistic community over his lifetime such as becoming a member of the Art Workers Guild in 1888, was on their committee from 1895 to 1897, he was elected to Associate Membership of The Royal Water Colour Society on 18 February 1891, he chose as his diploma work for election to full membership a mystical piece inspired by a verse by Christina Rossetti entitled Amor Mundi. His painting A Witch was given by the Royal Watercolour Society to King Edward VII and Queen Alexandra to mark the coronation in 1902; this work is based on his illustration entitled The Demon transporting Isabella to Ortodosia in W. G. Waters The Italian Novelists published in 1901. In years Hughes served as the Vice-President of the RWS before leaving in 1903. Throughout his career, E.
R. Hughes exhibited his works in several galleries around London: Dudley Gallery, Grosvenor Gallery, New Gallery, The Royal Academy, toward the end of his career he exhibited with The Royal Society of Painters in Water Colours, his works can be seen in public collections including Cartwright Hall, Cambridge & County Folk Museum, Maidstone Museum & Art Gallery, Bruce Castle Museum, Kensington Central Library, Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery, the Ashmolean Museum, the Harris Museum & Art Gallery and the National Trust for Scotland. Birmingham Museums Trust staged a retrospective exhibition, Enchanted Dreams: The Pre-Raphaelite Art of E. R. Hughes, from 17 October 2015 to 21 February 2016 at Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery. E. R. Hughes was born in Clerkenwell, London in 1851 to Edward Hughes Snr. and Harriet Foord. He had one brother, William Arthur Hughes, two years younger than him, became a frame maker and by 1891 a photographer. During the 1860's he lived for a time with his uncle Arthur Hughes and his family which included his son Arthur Foord Hughes,also an artist.
In 1874 Hughes became engaged to the daughter of the writer George MacDonald. Mary died four years later. In 1883 Hughes married Emily Eliza Davies. In 1913 they moved to St Albans, where he was stricken with appendicitis, he died after surgery on 23 April 1914 in his home. The marriage did not produce any offspring; the Spinet, Watercolour Evensong, Private Collection, Watercolour Hushed Music, Oil A rainy Sunday, Private Collection, Watercolour Sabbath Morn, Private Collection, Oil Caroline Hill Bruce Castle Museum, Oil Mrs Cecelia Bowen-Summers Gray Hill Bruce Castle Museum, Oil The Picture Book aka A Brother and Sister seated before a Hearth, Private Collection, Oil A Young Beauty, Private Collection, Oil A Basket of Oranges aka George Mackay Macdonald, Philadelphia Museum of Art, USA, Watercolour Landscape with Trees, Kensington Central Library, Oil Miss Frances Georgina Mitford, Watercolour Portrait of a Lady, Chalk Mildred, Chalk Robert, Chalk Henriette Imrie Beausire, Chalk drawing Nora Janet Beausire, Chalk drawing Bell and Dorothy Freeman, Geffrye Museum, Watercolour Pack Clouds Away and Welcome Day, Watercolour In the Corner Chair, Private Collection, Chalk The careless Shepherd Dealing with the Fairies, Private Collection Mrs Douglas Arden The Poet Gringoire Fra Lippo Lippi, Watercolour Study for a Picture aka Fra Lippo Lippi, Williamson Art Gallery and Museum, Drawing Biancabella e Samaritana aka Biancabella and Samaritana, her Snake Sister Portrait of a Child with a Chair, Chalk William Holman Hunt, Private Collection Betruccio's Bride, Private Collection Oh, What's That in the Hollow?, Royal Watercolour Society, Watercolour The Shrew Katherina, Private Collection Hilda Virtue Tebbs Margaret Webster, Chalk Men in the Park Diana's Maidens aka A Coward, Private Collection, Watercolour Lewis F.
Day Twixt Hope and Fear, Oil Woman walking her Dog aka The Transformation of Callisto, Watercolour Gwendolen Freeman The Princess out of School, National
Frederic George Stephens
Frederic George Stephens was a British art critic, one of the two'non-artistic' members of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. Stephens was born to Septimus Stephens of Aberdeen and Ann in Walworth and grew up in nearby Lambeth; because of an accident in 1837, he was educated privately. He attended University College School, London. In 1844 he entered the Royal Academy Schools where he first met John Everett Millais and William Holman Hunt, he joined their Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood in 1848 modelling for them in pictures including Millais's Ferdinand Lured by Ariel and Ford Madox Brown's Jesus Washing Peter's Feet. There is a pencil portrait of Stephens by Millais dated 1853 in the collection of the National Portrait Gallery, he was so disappointed by his own artistic talent that he took up art criticism and stopped painting. In life he claimed to have destroyed all his paintings, but three of them are now in the Tate Gallery, London: The Proposal, Morte d'Arthur, Mother and Child, along with a pencil drawing of his stepmother Dorothy, a study for an oil portrait he exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1852.
He exhibited a portrait of his father at the Academy in 1854. A large pen-and-ink drawing illustrating a subject from Geoffrey Chaucer's The Pardoner's Tale and the Riotours, which he gave to Dante Gabriel Rossetti in 1854, is now in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, he communicated the aims of the Brotherhood to the public. He became the art critic and the art editor of the Athenaeum from 1860–1901, while writing freelance for other art-history periodicals including The Art Journal and The Portfolio, he wrote for journals on the continent and the United States – notably, the pro-Pre-Raphaelite journal The Crayon, from 1856–9. His contributions to the Brotherhood's magazine The Germ were made under the pseudonyms Laura Savage and John Seward. During this time he was influenced by Dante Gabriel Rossetti, whom he allowed to write reviews of his own work under Stephens's name. Stephen's first work of art history, Normandy: its Gothic Architecture and History was published in 1865, Flemish Relics, a history of Netherlandish art, appeared in 1866.
Monographs on William Mulready and on Edwin Landseer followed. In 1873 he started writing series of 100 articles on British collecting for the Athenaeum, he was Keeper of the Prints and Drawings in the British Museum and wrote most entries in the first volumes of the Catalogue of Prints and Drawings in the British Museum, Division I: Political and Personal Satires, from 1870 onward. In 1875, Stephens began to characterise himself as an art historian rather than a critic and in 1877 he started to write contributions for the Grosvenor Gallery catalogues, which he continued to do until 1890; when Rossetti died Stephens co-wrote his obituary for the Athenaeum published on 15 April 1882. Stephens was loyal supporter of his former tutor Holman Hunt over many years, but the two fell out over Hunt's painting The Triumph of the Innocents, which Hunt had asked Stephens to box and transport for him, and, lost for some time in transit and damaged. Hunt became paranoid, interpreted a money gift from Stephens for his newborn son to be a slight, sending it back.
The friendship between the two was broken when Stephens reviewed The Triumph of the Innocents and criticised it for its mixing of hyper-realism and fantasy. Twenty years Hunt retaliated by launching a scathing attack on Stephens in the second edition of his Pre-Raphaelitism and the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. In 1894, Stephens published a Portfolio monograph on Rossetti, he contributed essays on art to Henry Duff Traill's Social England: a Record of the Progress of the People placing Pre-Raphaelitism in a continuing tradition of British art. This contradicted the Brotherhood's view. In 1895 he published a book on Lawrence Alma-Tadema and his review of the posthumous exhibition of Millais in 1898 took the painter to task for poorly thought-out works. Other artists about whom he wrote include Thomas Bewick, Edward Burne-Jones, George Cruikshank, Thomas Gainsborough, William Hogarth, Edwin Landseer, William Mulready, Samuel Palmer, Joshua Reynolds, Thomas Rowlandson, Sir Anthony van Dyck, Thomas Woolner.
Stephens' conservative views on modern art and his strong dislike of Impressionism ended his forty-year association with the Athenaeum. Stephens married the artist Rebecca Clara Dalton in 1866. From 1866 -- 1905, the couple lived at Hammersmith, their son was the railway engineer Holman Fred Stephens. Stephens is buried in Brompton Cemetery. Much of his collection of art and books was auctioned at Fosters in 1916, after his widow's death, but his son bequeathed several works of art to the Tate Gallery, he is sometimes cited as the great exponent of writer's block: He started to write a political sonnet for the first number of The Germ magazine. On 13 October 1849 he had completed 11½ lines, which he showed to James Collinson, who said they were "the best of all." By 12 November it had "attained the length of 12 lines, with the reservation of a tremendous idea for the final two." The magazine appeared in January 1850 but the poem was never published. English school of painting Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood Works written by or about Frederic George Stephens at Wikisource Media related
James Collinson was a Victorian painter, a member of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood from 1848 to 1850. He was born at Mansfield and was the son of a bookseller, he entered the Royal Academy Schools, was a fellow-student with Holman Hunt, Dante Gabriel Rossetti. Collinson was a devout Christian, attracted to the devotional and high church aspects of Pre-Raphaelitism. A convert to Catholicism, Collinson reverted to high Anglicanism in order to marry Christina Rossetti, but his conscience forced his return to Catholicism and the break-up of the engagement; when Millais' painting Christ in the House of his Parents was accused of blasphemy, Collinson resigned from the Brotherhood in the belief that it was bringing the Christian religion into disrepute. During his period as a Pre-Raphaelite, Collinson contributed a long devotional poem to The Germ and produced a number of religious works, most The Renunciation of St. Elizabeth of Hungary. After his resignation Collinson trained for the priesthood at a Jesuit college, but did not complete his studies.
In 1858, he married Eliza Wheeler, one of the sister in law of the painter John Rogers Herbert, the early influences on the Pre-Raphaelites. Returning to his artistic career he painted a number of secular genre paintings, the best-known of which are To Let and For Sale, both of which lightheartedly depict pretty women in situations that suggest moral temptation, he was secretary of the Society of British Artists from 1861 to 1870. In the latter part of his life he lived in Brittany, he died in April 1881. List of Pre-Raphaelite paintings - including the work of James Collinson. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Cust, Lionel Henry. "Collinson, James". In Stephen, Leslie. Dictionary of National Biography. 11. London: Smith, Elder & Co. pp. 381–382. Media related to James Collinson at Wikimedia Commons