New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. It is located on a peninsula, bordered on the north and east by the state of New York along the extent of the length of New York City on its western edge. New Jersey is the fourth-smallest state by area but the 11th-most populous, with 9 million residents as of 2017, the most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. New Jersey lies within the combined statistical areas of New York City and Philadelphia. New Jersey was the second-wealthiest U. S. state by median household income as of 2017. New Jersey was inhabited by Native Americans for more than 2,800 years, with historical tribes such as the Lenape along the coast. In the early 17th century, the Dutch and the Swedes founded the first European settlements in the state; the English seized control of the region, naming it the Province of New Jersey after the largest of the Channel Islands and granting it as a colony to Sir George Carteret and John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton.
New Jersey was the site of several decisive battles during the American Revolutionary War in the 18th century. In the 19th century, factories in cities, Paterson, Trenton, Jersey City, Elizabeth helped to drive the Industrial Revolution. New Jersey's geographic location at the center of the Northeast megalopolis, between Boston and New York City to the northeast, Philadelphia and Washington, D. C. to the southwest, fueled its rapid growth through the process of suburbanization in the second half of the 20th century. In the first decades of the 21st century, this suburbanization began reverting with the consolidation of New Jersey's culturally diverse populace toward more urban settings within the state, with towns home to commuter rail stations outpacing the population growth of more automobile-oriented suburbs since 2008. Around 180 million years ago, during the Jurassic Period, New Jersey bordered North Africa; the pressure of the collision between North America and Africa gave rise to the Appalachian Mountains.
Around 18,000 years ago, the Ice Age resulted in glaciers. As the glaciers retreated, they left behind Lake Passaic, as well as many rivers and gorges. New Jersey was settled by Native Americans, with the Lenni-Lenape being dominant at the time of contact. Scheyichbi is the Lenape name for the land, now New Jersey; the Lenape were several autonomous groups that practiced maize agriculture in order to supplement their hunting and gathering in the region surrounding the Delaware River, the lower Hudson River, western Long Island Sound. The Lenape society was divided into matrilinear clans; these clans were organized into three distinct phratries identified by their animal sign: Turtle and Wolf. They first encountered the Dutch in the early 17th century, their primary relationship with the Europeans was through fur trade; the Dutch became the first Europeans to lay claim to lands in New Jersey. The Dutch colony of New Netherland consisted of parts of modern Middle Atlantic states. Although the European principle of land ownership was not recognized by the Lenape, Dutch West India Company policy required its colonists to purchase the land that they settled.
The first to do so was Michiel Pauw who established a patronship called Pavonia in 1630 along the North River which became the Bergen. Peter Minuit's purchase of lands along the Delaware River established the colony of New Sweden; the entire region became a territory of England on June 24, 1664, after an English fleet under the command of Colonel Richard Nicolls sailed into what is now New York Harbor and took control of Fort Amsterdam, annexing the entire province. During the English Civil War, the Channel Island of Jersey remained loyal to the British Crown and gave sanctuary to the King, it was from the Royal Square in Saint Helier that Charles II of England was proclaimed King in 1649, following the execution of his father, Charles I. The North American lands were divided by Charles II, who gave his brother, the Duke of York, the region between New England and Maryland as a proprietary colony. James granted the land between the Hudson River and the Delaware River to two friends who had remained loyal through the English Civil War: Sir George Carteret and Lord Berkeley of Stratton.
The area was named the Province of New Jersey. Since the state's inception, New Jersey has been characterized by religious diversity. New England Congregationalists settled alongside Scots Presbyterians and Dutch Reformed migrants. While the majority of residents lived in towns with individual landholdings of 100 acres, a few rich proprietors owned vast estates. English Quakers and Anglicans owned large landholdings. Unlike Plymouth Colony and other colonies, New Jersey was populated by a secondary wave of immigrants who came from other colonies instead of those who migrated directly from Europe. New Jersey remained agrarian and rural throughout the colonial era, commercial farming developed sporadically; some townships, such as Burlington on the Delaware River and Perth Amboy, emerged as important ports for shipping to New York City and Philadelphia. The colony's fertile lands and tolerant religious policy drew more settlers, New Jersey's population had increased to 120,000 by 1775. Settlement for the first 10 years of English rule took place along Hackensack River and Arthur Kill –
Wallkill Correctional Facility
The Wallkill Correctional Facility is a medium security prison in New York state in the United States. The prison is located just north in the Town of Shawangunk; the prison opened in the form of a collegiate campus with no surrounding wall or fence. The architect was Alfred Hopkins, an east-coast estate architect with a sideline in prisons such as Lewisburg Federal Penitentiary in Pennsylvania. Connected three-story English Gothic buildings of gray stone "self-consciously embraced an idealistic notion of the rural idyll and an old-fashioned sense of place". Hopkins designed Woodbourne Correctional Facility and Coxsackie Correctional Facility for the state. Wallkill was once only used to house "Good Behavior/White Collar" inmates. Due to changing times, the inmate population has changed and first-time offenders now begin and end their sentences at Wallkill CF; the one-time "Prison without a Wall," is no more -- in the 21st century chain-link fencing and razor wire was constructed around the perimeter -- but it remains a free-movement facility.
The facility has a long-running optical laboratory to produce eyeglasses. Inmates may learn to serve retired racehorses through the Thoroughbred Retirement Foundation's Second Chances program. Wallkill's grounds contain the historic Walstein Childs House, circa 1763; the state's Shawangunk Correctional Facility is nearby. N. Y. prison information 2003 New York Times article about the horse-care program correctionhistory.org historical essay on Wallkill
Attica Correctional Facility
The Attica Correctional Facility is a maximum security/supermax New York State prison in the town of Attica, New York, operated by the New York State Department of Corrections and Community Supervision. After it was constructed in the 1930s, it held many of the most dangerous criminals of the time. A CS gas system installed in the mess hall and industry areas has been used to quell conflicts in these areas; the prison now holds many inmates who are serving various types of sentences, who are sent to the facility because of disciplinary problems in other facilities. Attica was the site of a prison riot in 1971 which resulted in 43 deaths, of which 33 were convicts and ten were correctional officers and civilian employees. David Berkowitz, better known as Son of Sam, serial killer who confessed to killing six people and wounding several others in New York City during the late 1970s. Since becoming a Christian, Berkowitz has stated he does not want to be paroled and should pay for the sins he has committed.
Berkowitz is now housed at Shawangunk Correctional Facility. H. Rap Brown, Black Panther Party leader, served a sentence in Attica from 1971 to 1976. Mark David Chapman, who pleaded guilty to murdering John Lennon in 1980. Chapman was sentenced to 20 years-to-life and has been denied parole ten times amid campaigns against his release. Chapman is now housed at Wende Correctional Facility. Edward Cummiskey, Westies hitman during the 1970s. Dean Faiello, unlicensed physician, charged in the manslaughter of Filipina-American banker Maria Cruz in 2003. Jimmy Caci, a captain in the Los Angeles crime family spent eight years in Attica during the 1970s. Colin Ferguson, who murdered six people on the Long Island Rail Road in 1993. Ferguson was sentenced to multiple life sentences. Ferguson is now housed at Upstate Correctional Facility. Kendall Francois, who murdered eight women, some of whom were prostitutes, stored their bodies in his home in Poughkeepsie, New York. Francois, serving a life sentence without parole, died in September 2014.
Frank P. Giffune, the Italian mob "fall guy" was sent to Attica in 1940 and sentenced to 12–25 years for grand larceny. Sam Melville, notorious as "mad bomber" in 1960s, a Weather Underground member killed by New York State Police troopers during the Attica Prison riot of September 13, 1971. El Sayyid Nosair, 1993 World Trade Center bombing terrorist was housed in Attica for a short duration related to a different assassination. Joseph'Mad Dog' Sullivan, the only man who has escaped the prison. Willie Sutton, who robbed 100 banks from the late 1920s to 1952. David Sweat, who killed a Broome County sheriff's deputy in 2002 and escaped from Clinton Correctional Facility in 2015 was rehoused in Attica in 2017. Valentino Dixon was found to be innocent and was released in 2018, after 26 years of incarceration, when another man confessed to the murder of which Dixon was accused. Thompson, Heather Ann. BLOOD in the WATER: The Attica Prison Uprising of 1971 and Its Legacy. New York: Pantheon Books. ISBN 9780375423222.
Robbins, Tom. "3 Attica Guards Resign in Deal to Avoid Jail". The New York Times. Retrieved March 22, 2018. NYS prison information
Woodbourne Correctional Facility
Woodbourne Correctional Facility is a medium security men's prison operated by the New York State Department of Corrections and Community Supervision in Woodbourne, New York of Sullivan County. It is located on the same tract of land as maximum security Sullivan Correctional Facility; the prison opened in 1933, designed by Alfred Hopkins, an estate architect with a sideline in prisons such as Lewisburg Federal Penitentiary in Pennsylvania. Hopkins designed Wallkill Correctional Facility and Coxsackie Correctional Facility for the state. Juvenile murderer Willie Bosket, serving three consecutive sentences of 25 years to life for offenses committed while in the Shawangunk Correctional Facility and at Woodbourne. Bosket was housed in a specially-constructed plexiglass-lined cell in complete isolation but is no longer at Woodbourne. Rapper Shyne of New York City served a 10-year sentence in The Woodbourne Facility after being convicted of first-degree assault and reckless endangerment The Sopranos actor Tony Sirico Birds eye view from Microsoft Virtual Earth @ Live.com
Eastern Correctional Facility
The Eastern Correctional Facility is a state prison for men in Napanoch, Ulster County, New York. Eastern is one of the oldest prison facilities in the state, it has been a maximum security prison for men since 1973. The site opened as the "Eastern New York Reformatory", its imposing main building, with medieval-style turrets and long green copper roof, was designed by architect John Rochester Thomas, who had designed Elmira. The site was chosen for its available stone, the transport provided by the adjacent Delaware and Hudson Canal. In 1906 the adult prisoners were returned, replaced with juvenile offenders, the reformatory began operation. Years it achieved its capacity of 500 beds. In 1921 Eastern became the first of the institutions for defective delinquents in the United States. At various times the facility was designated as the "Institute for Defective and Delinquent Men at Napanoch", "State Institution for Male Defective Delinquents", the "Catskill Reformatory"; the state's Ulster Correctional Facility was built on Eastern's grounds in 1990.
Description of the 1902 Ontario and Western Railway Station and Museum
A prison known as a correctional facility, gaol, detention center, remand center, or internment facility, is a facility in which inmates are forcibly confined and denied a variety of freedoms under the authority of the state. Prisons are most used within a criminal justice system: people charged with crimes may be imprisoned until their trial. In simplest terms, a prison can be described as a building in which people are held as a punishment for a crime they have committed. Prisons can be used as a tool of political repression by authoritarian regimes, their perceived opponents may be imprisoned for political crimes without trial or other legal due process. In times of war, prisoners of war or detainees may be detained in military prisons or prisoner of war camps, large groups of civilians might be imprisoned in internment camps. In American English and jail are treated as having separate definitions; the term prison or penitentiary tends to describe institutions that incarcerate people for longer periods of time, such as many years, are operated by the state or federal governments.
The term jail tends to describe institutions for confining people for shorter periods of time and are operated by local governments. Outside of North America and jail have the same meaning. Common slang terms for a prison include: "the pokey", "the slammer", "the can", "the clink", "the joint", "the calaboose", "the hoosegow" and "the big house". Slang terms for imprisonment include: "behind bars", "in stir" and "up the river"; the use of prisons can be traced back to the rise of the state as a form of social organization. Corresponding with the advent of the state was the development of written language, which enabled the creation of formalized legal codes as official guidelines for society; the best known of these early legal codes is the Code of Hammurabi, written in Babylon around 1750 BC. The penalties for violations of the laws in Hammurabi's Code were exclusively centered on the concept of lex talionis, whereby people were punished as a form of vengeance by the victims themselves; this notion of punishment as vengeance or retaliation can be found in many other legal codes from early civilizations, including the ancient Sumerian codes, the Indian Manusmriti, the Hermes Trismegistus of Egypt, the Israelite Mosaic Law.
Some Ancient Greek philosophers, such as Plato, began to develop ideas of using punishment to reform offenders instead of using it as retribution. Imprisonment as a penalty was used for those who could not afford to pay their fines. Since impoverished Athenians could not pay their fines, leading to indefinite periods of imprisonment, time limits were set instead; the prison in Ancient Athens was known as the desmoterion. The Romans were among the first to use prisons as a form of punishment, rather than for detention. A variety of existing structures were used to house prisoners, such as metal cages, basements of public buildings, quarries. One of the most notable Roman prisons was the Mamertine Prison, established around 640 B. C. by Ancus Marcius. The Mamertine Prison was located within a sewer system beneath ancient Rome and contained a large network of dungeons where prisoners were held in squalid conditions, contaminated with human waste. Forced labor on public works projects was a common form of punishment.
In many cases, citizens were sentenced to slavery in ergastula. During the Middle Ages in Europe, castles and the basements of public buildings were used as makeshift prisons; the possession of the right and the capability to imprison citizens, granted an air of legitimacy to officials at all levels of government, from kings to regional courts to city councils. Another common punishment was sentencing people to galley slavery, which involved chaining prisoners together in the bottoms of ships and forcing them to row on naval or merchant vessels. From the late 17th century and during the 18th century, popular resistance to public execution and torture became more widespread both in Europe and in the United States. Under the Bloody Code, with few sentencing alternatives, imposition of the death penalty for petty crimes, such as theft, was proving unpopular with the public. Rulers began looking for means to punish and control their subjects in a way that did not cause people to associate them with spectacles of tyrannical and sadistic violence.
They developed systems of mass incarceration with hard labor, as a solution. The prison reform movement that arose at this time was influenced by two somewhat contradictory philosophies; the first was based in Enlightenment ideas of utilitarianism and rationalism, suggested that prisons should be used as a more effective substitute for public corporal punishments such as whipping, etc. This theory, referred to as deterrence, claims tha
Mount McGregor Correctional Facility
Mt. McGregor Correctional Facility was a medium security prison for male inmates in the Town of Moreau, Saratoga County, New York, United States, it included 100 structures on over 1,000 acres. Before updating security, it was called "Camp Walkaway" due to the number of breakouts, it became a prison in 1976 and closed on July 26, 2014. The peak, Mt. McGregor, was called "Palmertown Mountain", named after a local native tribe, it was renamed after Duncan McGregor, who purchased the land in a tax sale and constructed a small resort along with a restaurant for summer visitors. The Saratoga, Mount McGregor and Lake George Railroad bought the property and opened a more sumptuous resort at the end of a rail line; when the Hotel Balmoral burned in 1897, the resort faded in popularity. The "Sanatorium on the Mountain" at Mount McGregor was opened in 1913 by the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company for the benefit of its employees suffering from tuberculosis; this sanatorium staffed by doctors and a nursing staff, had a goal of restoring the health of all the company's employees.
A labyrinth of underground passages still exist that were used to transport the bodies of patients who died to the church and crematorium. The sanitorium closed in 1945. After World War II, the sanatorium served as a facility for military veterans returning to civilian life. Local stories suggest Playboy magazine founder Hugh Hefner looked into purchasing the property in the 1960s or early 1970s. In 1960 the facility was taken over by the State of New York as a school for the developmentally disabled. At first the school was the Mount McGregor division of Rome State School and became Wilton State School; the New York State Department of Corrections assumed control in 1976. At first the complex was a minimum-security prison adding medium-security facilities, it consisted of 100 structures on over 1,000 acres, including dormitories, a 1915 Mission-style chapel with a pipe organ, a dining hall with large windows, a newly-built gymnasium, a lake. The buildings covered 550,000 square feet and ranged in age from 1913 to 2007.
The prison, which used only the central cluster of buildings, closed in 2014. Neighboring Moreau Lake State Park will incorporate 750 undeveloped acres of the former facility. In 2015, the state began considering proposals for the sale of an additional 325 acres, including all the buildings, for redevelopment; as of 2016 the prison has not been sold and the site is still closed to the public. Conspiracy theorists believe the prison is being retained by the federal government to be used as a secret detention center in case of "civil disturbances or plague outbreaks." Grant Cottage State Historic Site, where former U. S. president and army general Ulysses S. Grant spent the last six weeks of his life, was within the grounds of the correctional facility and visitors had to pass a checkpoint. Grant spent the last weeks of his life there; the historic site is not part of the area to be sold. List of New York state prisons Report for an Adaptive Re-Use Plan Mount McGregor Correctional Facility New York State Department of Economic Development