Tell Schirnding Berna was an American middle-distance and long-distance runner. His 1912 American record at two miles stood for twenty years, he competed for the United States in the 1912 Summer Olympics held in Stockholm, Sweden in the 3000 metre team where he won the gold medal with his team mates Norman Taber and George Bonhag. He finished fifth in the individual 5000 meters. Berna was a member of the Sphinx Head Society. After college, Berna had a career in the machine tool industry, he was serving as general manager of the organization in 1950 when he contributed an article to American Affairs
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Alexander Grant (athlete)
Alexander Grant was an American track and field athlete who competed at the 1900 Summer Olympics in Paris, France. Grant competed in the 800 metres, he did not advance to the final. He did not participate in the 4000 metre steeplechase, he graduated from the University of Pennsylvania in 1900. Grant dominated American distance running, as the national champion in the 1500 meter race from 1901 to 1903, the 5000 meter event in 1903 and 1904, the 10000 meter event in 1902 as well as the 3000 meter steeplechase in 1900, his record time in the 1500 meter event went unbroken in the U. S. for twenty years and in the world for ten years. He went on to become a teacher at the Berkley School in New York, Detroit University, The Hill School in Pottstown and from 1914 on, at Episcopal Academy. Grant, along with George Orton and Josiah MacCracken, founded Camp Tecumseh, an all-boys summer camp in Moultonboro, New Hampshire; the camp opened in 1903. Grant continued as director of Camp Tecumseh until his death in 1946.
After Grant's death, Camp Tecumseh became a not-for-profit organization run by a Board of Trustees. In 2003, Camp Tecumseh celebrated its 100th birthday; the camp continues to be successful, adhering to Grant's vision of "making good boys better." Grant died in Narbeth, PA. on October 13, 1946. He was the brother of Olympian Dick Grant. De Wael, Herman. "Herman's Full Olympians Athletics 1900". Retrieved 18 March 2006. Mallon, Bill; the 1900 Olympic Games, Results for All Competitors in All Events, with Commentary. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, Inc. Publishers. ISBN 0-7864-0378-0. Specific
Team races at the Olympics
Team races at the Summer Olympics were track running competitions contested at the multi-sport event from 1900 to 1924. The first such event was over 5000 metres at the 1900 Summer Olympics; this became a 4-mile race for the 1904 Summer Olympics a 3-mile race for the 1908 Summer Olympics. The most consistent format was over 3000 metres: this distance was contested on three consecutive occasions from 1912 to 1924, at which point track team races were removed from the Olympic athletics programme; the races permitted up to five athletes per nation, with a minimum of three required to form a team. Each team score was the sum of the finishing positions of that nation's top three athletes. For example, first and third places would create a team score of six. For 1900 and 1904 only two teams were entered: the point scoring format incorporated all five of each team's runners. On both occasions these were races between two major athletic clubs. In 1900 Racing Club de France competed against the Amateur Athletic Association of Great Britain.
In 1904 the New York Athletic Club took on the Chicago Athletic Association. Since the International Olympic Committee recognises only nations for medal table purposes, the AAA and Chicago teams are now designated as Mixed Olympic Teams as the presence of Australian Stan Rowley and Frenchman Albert Corey meant that the teams fielded were not British or American. Note: William Seagrove was a 1920 silver medallist and was part of the British team in 1924, but as he was not in the top three British runners he did form part of their silver medal-winning team. In addition to the main 1904 4-mile team race, a handicap competition was staged; this race, contested over one mile, saw Missouri Athletic Club take on fellow American sports club St. Louis Southwest Turnverein. Missouri won the race in a time of 3:52.2, with the St. Louis team finishing some 80 yards off the winners; this handicap race, along with numerous other handicap athletics events, is no longer considered part of the official Olympic history of the team race or the athletics programme in general.
Medals from these competitions have not been assigned to nations on the all-time medal tables. Athletics Men's 3,000 metres, Team Medalists. Sports Reference. Retrieved on 2014-03-22. Athletics Men's 3 mile, Team Medalists. Sports Reference. Retrieved on 2014-03-12. Athletics Men's Team Medalists. Sports Reference. Retrieved on 2014-03-12. Athletics Men's Team Medalists. Sports Reference. Retrieved on 2014-03-12. Specific Official Olympics website
Frank Verner was an American athlete and middle-distance runner who competed in the early twentieth century. He competed in Athletics at the 1904 Summer Olympics and won a silver medal in the 1500 metres in 4:06.8 behind James Lightbody, a silver medal with the US Chicago team in the four mile race. In the 2590 metre steeplechase competition he finished fourth and in the 800 metres event he finished sixth. Profile
John Daly (athlete)
John Joseph Daly was an Irish runner who won a silver medal in the steeplechase at the 1904 Summer Olympics. He competed for Ireland at the International Cross Country Championships of 1903–1906 and 1911 and won three silver team medals; when not competing for Ireland as a member of the Gaelic Athletic Association, Daly entered races as a member of the Irish American Athletic Club. Daly competed in the 2590 metre steeplechase at the 1904 Summer Olympics held in St Louis, United States and won the silver medal. Although representing Great Britain, Daly saw himself as an individual representing Ireland. After the Olympics Daily stayed in North America for two years, in 1904 won the Canadian mile and two-mile championships. In 1906 Daly and two other athletes, Con Leahy and Peter O'Connor, were entered for the Intercalated Games in Athens by the IAAA and GAA, representing Ireland, they were given green blazers and caps with a gold shamrock, an Irish flag. However, the rules of the games were changed so that only athletes nominated by National Olympic Committees were eligible.
Ireland did not have an Olympic Committee, the British Olympic Council claimed the three as their own. In what became the first political protest in modern Olympic history, O'Connor, who came second in the long jump, scaled the flagpole, removed the Union flag, replacing it with a green flag. Daly stood guard at the bottom of the pole, while Irish and American fans kept security guards at bay. At those Games Daly finished third in the 5 mile competition, but was disqualified for obstructing Edward Dahl, he abandoned his marathon race after 18 miles due to blisters and an ankle injury, which resulted in a three-day hospitalisation. After 1906 Daly raced in the United States, where he became a successful New York businessman, he was selected to compete for Great Britain and Ireland at the London 1908 Olympics, but did not compete. In 1907 he enjoyed his greatest successes, winning the 5 mile and 10 mile U. S. A. A. U. titles and the Canadian 3 mile title. In 1909, running for the Irish American Athletic Club, he came in second place in the Yonkers Marathon, in a time of 2 hours 55 minutes and 44 and 4/5 seconds.
Profile Winged Fist Organization
Worcester is a city in, the county seat of, Worcester County, United States. Named after Worcester, England, as of the 2010 Census the city's population was 181,045, making it the second most populous city in New England after Boston. Worcester is located 40 miles west of Boston, 50 miles east of Springfield and 40 miles north of Providence. Due to its location in Central Massachusetts, Worcester is known as the "Heart of the Commonwealth", thus, a heart is the official symbol of the city. However, the heart symbol may have its provenance in lore that the Valentine's Day card, although not invented in the city, was mass-produced and popularized by Esther Howland who resided in Worcester. Worcester was considered its own distinct region apart from Boston until the 1970s. Since Boston's suburbs have been moving out further westward after the construction of Interstate 495 and Interstate 290; the Worcester region now marks the western periphery of the Boston-Worcester-Providence U. S. Census Combined Greater Boston.
The city features many examples of Victorian-era mill architecture. The area was first inhabited by members of the Nipmuc tribe; the native people called the region built a settlement on Pakachoag Hill in Auburn. In 1673 English settlers John Eliot and Daniel Gookin led an expedition to Quinsigamond to establish a new Christian Indian "praying town" and identify a new location for an English settlement. On July 13, 1674, Gookin obtained a deed to eight square miles of land in Quinsigamond from the Nipmuc people and English traders and settlers began to inhabit the region. In 1675, King Philip's War broke out throughout New England with the Nipmuc Indians coming to the aid of Indian leader King Philip; the English settlers abandoned the Quinsigamond area and the empty buildings were burned by the Indian forces. The town was again abandoned during Queen Anne's War in 1702. In 1713, Worcester was permanently resettled for a third time by Jonas Rice. Named after the city of Worcester, the town was incorporated on June 14, 1722.
On April 2, 1731, Worcester was chosen as the county seat of the newly founded Worcester County government. Between 1755 and 1758, future U. S. president John Adams studied law in Worcester. In the 1770s, Worcester became a center of American revolutionary activity. British General Thomas Gage was given information of patriot ammunition stockpiled in Worcester in 1775. In 1775, Massachusetts Spy publisher Isaiah Thomas moved his radical newspaper out of British occupied Boston to Worcester. Thomas would continuously publish his paper throughout the American Revolutionary War. On July 14, 1776, Thomas performed the first public reading in Massachusetts of the Declaration of Independence from the porch of the Old South Church, where the 19th century Worcester City Hall stands today, he would go on to form the American Antiquarian Society in Worcester in 1812. During the turn of the 19th century Worcester's economy moved into manufacturing. Factories producing textiles and clothing opened along the nearby Blackstone River.
However, the manufacturing industry in Worcester would not begin to thrive until the opening of the Blackstone Canal in 1828 and the opening of the Worcester and Boston Railroad in 1835. The city transformed into a transportation hub and the manufacturing industry flourished. Worcester was chartered as a city on February 29, 1848; the city's industries soon attracted immigrants of Irish, French and Swedish descent in the mid-19th century and many immigrants of Lithuanian, Italian, Greek and Armenian descent. Immigrants moved into new three-decker houses which lined hundreds of Worcester's expanding streets and neighborhoods. In 1831 Ichabod Washburn opened the Moen Company; the company would become the largest wire manufacturing in the country and Washburn became one of the leading industrial and philanthropic figures in the city. Worcester would become a center of machinery, wire products and power looms and boasted large manufacturers, Washburn & Moen, Wyman-Gordon Company, American Steel & Wire, Morgan Construction and the Norton Company.
In 1908 the Royal Worcester Corset Company was the largest employer of women in the United States. Worcester would claim many inventions and firsts. New England Candlepin bowling was invented in Worcester by Justin White in 1879. Esther Howland began the first line of Valentine's Day cards from her Worcester home in 1847. Loring Coes invented the first monkey wrench and Russell Hawes created the first envelope folding machine. On June 12, 1880, Lee Richmond pitched the first perfect game in Major league baseball history for the Worcester Ruby Legs at the Worcester Agricultural Fairgrounds. On June 9, 1953 an F4 tornado touched down in Massachusetts northwest of Worcester; the tornado tore through 48 miles of Worcester County including a large area of the city of Worcester. The tornado killed 94 people; the Worcester Tornado would be the most deadly tornado to hit Massachusetts. Debris from the tornado landed as far away as Massachusetts. After World War II, Worcester began to fall into decline as the city lost its manufacturing base to cheaper alternatives across the country and overseas.
Worcester felt the national trends of movement away from historic urban centers. The city's population would drop over 20% from 1950 to 1980. In the mid-20th century large urban renewal projects were undertaken to try and reverse the city's decline. A huge area of downtown Worcester was demolished for new office towers and the 1,000,000 sq. ft. Wor