George W. Bush
George Walker Bush is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009. He was the 46th Governor of Texas from 1995 to 2000 and he is the eldest son of Barbara and George H. W. Bush. After graduating from Yale University in 1968 and Harvard Business School in 1975, Bush married Laura Welch in 1977 and ran unsuccessfully for the House of Representatives shortly thereafter. He co-owned the Texas Rangers baseball team before defeating Ann Richards in the 1994 Texas gubernatorial election and he is the second president to assume the nations highest office after his father, following the lead of John Quincy Adams. He is a brother of Jeb Bush, a former Governor of Florida who was a candidate for the Republican presidential nomination in the 2016 presidential election, the September 11 terrorist attacks occurred eight months into Bushs first term as president. Bush responded with what became known as the Bush Doctrine, launching a War on Terror, a military campaign that included the war in Afghanistan in 2001.
He promoted policies on the economy, health care, Social Security reform and his tenure included national debates on immigration, Social Security, electronic surveillance, and torture. In the 2004 Presidential race, Bush defeated Democratic Senator John Kerry in another close election. After his re-election, Bush received increasingly heated criticism from across the spectrum for his handling of the Iraq War, Hurricane Katrina. Amid this criticism, the Democratic Party regained control of Congress in the 2006 elections, Bush left office in 2009, returning to Texas where he purchased a home in Crawford. He wrote a memoir, Decision Points and his presidential library was opened in 2013. His presidency has been ranked among the worst in historians polls published in the late 2000s and 2010s. George Walker Bush was born on July 6,1946, at Grace-New Haven Hospital in New Haven, Connecticut, as the first child of George Herbert Walker Bush and his wife, the former Barbara Pierce. He was raised in Midland and Houston, with four siblings, Neil, another younger sister, died from leukemia at the age of three in 1953.
His grandfather, Prescott Bush, was a U. S and his father, George H. W. Bush, was Ronald Reagans Vice President from 1981 to 1989 and the 41st U. S. President from 1989 to 1993. Bush has English and some German ancestry, along with more distant Dutch, Irish, Bush attended public schools in Midland, until the family moved to Houston after he had completed seventh grade. He spent two years at The Kinkaid School, a school in Houston. Bush attended high school at Phillips Academy, a school in Andover, Massachusetts
Geoffrey Lamont Holder was a Trinidadian-American actor, voice actor, choreographer and director. He was known for his height, hearty laugh, and heavily accented bass voice combined with precise diction, from his film career, he is particularly remembered as the villain Baron Samedi in the 1973 Bond-movie Live and Let Die. Holder was born in Port of Spain and Tobago, One of four children, of parents who had emigrated to Trinidad from Barbados, Holder attended Tranquillity School and secondary school at Queens Royal College in Port-of-Spain. At the age of seven, he made his debut in the company of his elder brother Boscoe Holder. In 1952, choreographer Agnes de Mille saw Geoffrey Holder dance in St. Thomas and she invited him to New York, he would teach at the Katherine Dunham School of Dance for two years. Holder was a dancer with the Metropolitan Opera Ballet in New York City from 1955 to 1956. He made his Broadway debut in House of Flowers, a musical by Harold Arlen and he starred in an all-black production of Waiting for Godot in 1957.
Holder began his career in the 1962 British film All Night Long. He followed that with Doctor Dolittle as Willie Shakespeare, leader of the natives of Sea-Star Island, in 1972, he was cast as the Sorcerer in Everything You Always Wanted to Know About Sex*. The following year he was a henchman – Baron Samedi – in the Bond-movie Live and he contributed to the films choreography. In 1975, Holder won two Tony Awards for direction and costume design of The Wiz, the musical version of The Wizard of Oz. Holder was the first black man to be nominated in either category and he won the Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Costume Design. The show ran for 1672 performances, in 1978, Holder directed and choreographed the Broadway musical Timbuktu. Holders 1957 piece Bele is part of the Dance Theater of Harlem repertory, in the 1982 film Annie, Holder played the role of Punjab. He was in the 1992 film Boomerang with Eddie Murphy and he was the voice of Ray in Bear in the Big Blue House and provided narration for Tim Burtons version of Roald Dahls Charlie and the Chocolate Factory.
He reprised his role as the 7 Up Spokesman in the 2011 season finale of The Celebrity Apprentice, Holder was a prolific painter, ardent art collector, book author, and music composer. As a painter, he won a Guggenheim Fellowship in fine arts in 1956, a book of his photography, was published by Viking Press in 1986. In 1955, Holder married dancer Carmen de Lavallade, whom he met when both were in the cast of the musical House of Flowers and they lived in New York City and had one son, Léo
MacArthur Fellows Program
The MacArthur Fellows Program, MacArthur Fellowship, or Genius Grant, is a prize awarded annually by the John D. and Catherine T. According to the Foundations website, the fellowship is not a reward for past accomplishment, but rather an investment in a persons originality, the current prize is $625,000 paid over five years in quarterly installments. This figure was increased from $500,000 in 2013 with the release of a review of the MacArthur Fellows Program, since 1981,942 people have been named MacArthur Fellows, ranging in age from 18 to 82. The award has been called one of the most significant awards that is no strings attached. Anonymous and confidential nominations are invited by the Foundation and reviewed by an anonymous, the committee reviews all nominees and recommends recipients to the President and board of directors. Most new Fellows first learn of their nomination upon receiving a phone call. MacArthur Fellow Jim Collins described this experience in a column of The New York Times.
Cecilia Conrad is the Managing Director leading the MacArthur Fellows Program and she debunked several myths about the Fellowship in The Washington Post. Guggenheim Fellowship MacArthur Fellows Program website
Southern United States
The Southern United States, commonly referred to as the American South, Dixie, or simply the South, is a region of the United States of America. The South does not fully match the geographic south of the United States and New Mexico, which are geographically in the southern part of the country, are rarely considered part, while West Virginia, which separated from Virginia in 1863, commonly is. Some scholars have proposed definitions of the South that do not coincide neatly with state boundaries, while the states of Delaware and Maryland, as well as the District of Columbia permitted slavery prior to the start of the Civil War, they remained with the Union. However, the United States Census Bureau puts them in the South, the South is defined as including the southeastern and south-central United States. The region is known for its culture and history, having developed its own customs, musical styles, and cuisines, the Southern ethnic heritage is diverse and includes strong European and some Native American components.
Since the late 1960s, black people have many offices in Southern states, especially in the coastal states of Virginia. Historically, the South relied heavily on agriculture, and was rural until after 1945. It has since become more industrialized and urban and has attracted national and international migrants, the American South is now among the fastest-growing areas in the United States. Houston is the largest city in the Southern United States, sociological research indicates that Southern collective identity stems from political and cultural distinctiveness from the rest of the United States. The region contains almost all of the Bible Belt, an area of high Protestant church attendance and predominantly conservative, studies have shown that Southerners are more conservative than non-Southerners in several areas, including religion, international relations and race relations. Apart from its climate, the experience in the South increasingly resembles the rest of the nation. The arrival of millions of Northerners and millions of Hispanics meant the introduction of cultural values, the process has worked both ways, with aspects of Southern culture spreading throughout a greater portion of the rest of the United States in a process termed Southernization.
The question of how to define the subregions in the South has been the focus of research for nearly a century, as defined by the United States Census Bureau, the Southern region of the United States includes sixteen states. As of 2010, an estimated 114,555,744 people, or thirty-seven percent of all U. S. residents, lived in the South, the nations most populous region. Other terms related to the South include, The Old South, the New South, usually including the South Atlantic States. The Solid South, region largely controlled by the Democratic Party from 1877 to 1964, before that, blacks were elected to national office and many to local office through the 1880s, Populist-Republican coalitions gained victories for Fusionist candidates for governors in the 1890s. Includes at least all the 11 former Confederate States, Southeastern United States, usually including the Carolinas, the Virginias, Kentucky, Alabama and Florida. The Deep South, various definitions, usually including Louisiana, Mississippi, occasionally, parts of adjoining states are included
Assassination of Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr. was an American clergyman and civil rights leader who was fatally shot at the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tennessee, on April 4,1968. King was rushed to St. Josephs Hospital, where he was pronounced dead at 7,05 p. m. that evening and he was a prominent leader of the Civil Rights Movement and Nobel Peace Prize laureate who was known for his use of nonviolence and civil disobedience. James Earl Ray, a fugitive from the Missouri State Penitentiary, was arrested on June 8,1968, in London at Heathrow Airport, extradited to the United States, and charged with the crime. On March 10,1969, Ray entered a plea of guilty and was sentenced to 99 years in the Tennessee State Penitentiary. Ray made attempts to withdraw his guilty plea and be tried by a jury. The King family and others believe that the assassination was carried out by a conspiracy involving the U. S. government, as alleged by Loyd Jowers in 1993, in 1999 the King family filed a wrongful death lawsuit against Jowers for the sum of $10 million.
During closing arguments, the Kings attorney asked the jury to award damages of $100, during the trial both the family and Jowers presented evidence alleging a government conspiracy. The government agencies accused could not defend themselves or respond because they were not named as defendants, based on the evidence, the jury concluded that Jowers and others were part of a conspiracy to kill King and awarded the Kings $100. The allegations and the finding of the Memphis jury were rejected by the United States Department of Justice in 2000 due to lack of evidence, King received frequent death threats due to his prominence in the Civil Rights Movement. He had confronted the risk of death and made that part of his philosophy. He taught that murder could not stop the struggle for equal rights, after the assassination of President Kennedy in 1963, King told his wife Coretta, This is what is going to happen to me also. I keep telling you, this is a sick society, King traveled to Memphis, Tennessee, in support of striking African American city sanitation workers.
The workers had staged a walkout on February 11,1968, to protest unequal wages, at the time, Memphis paid black workers significantly lower wages than whites. Several sanitation workers had been killed on the job due to working conditions. In addition, unlike workers, black workers received no pay if they stayed home during bad weather, most blacks were compelled to work even in driving rain. On April 3, King returned to Memphis to address a gathering at the Mason Temple and his airline flight to Memphis was delayed by a bomb threat but he made his planned speech. King delivered the speech, now known as the Ive Been to the Mountaintop address, as he neared the close, he referred to the bomb threat, And I got to Memphis. And some began to say the threats, or talk about the threats that were out
Manhattan is the most densely populated borough of New York City, its economic and administrative center, and the citys historical birthplace. The borough is coextensive with New York County, founded on November 1,1683, Manhattan is often described as the cultural and financial capital of the world and hosts the United Nations Headquarters. Many multinational media conglomerates are based in the borough and it is historically documented to have been purchased by Dutch colonists from Native Americans in 1626 for 60 guilders which equals US$1062 today. New York County is the United States second-smallest county by land area, on business days, the influx of commuters increases that number to over 3.9 million, or more than 170,000 people per square mile. Manhattan has the third-largest population of New York Citys five boroughs, after Brooklyn and Queens, the City of New York was founded at the southern tip of Manhattan, and the borough houses New York City Hall, the seat of the citys government.
The name Manhattan derives from the word Manna-hata, as written in the 1609 logbook of Robert Juet, a 1610 map depicts the name as Manna-hata, twice, on both the west and east sides of the Mauritius River. The word Manhattan has been translated as island of hills from the Lenape language. The United States Postal Service prefers that mail addressed to Manhattan use New York, NY rather than Manhattan, the area that is now Manhattan was long inhabited by the Lenape Native Americans. In 1524, Florentine explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano – sailing in service of King Francis I of France – was the first European to visit the area that would become New York City. It was not until the voyage of Henry Hudson, an Englishman who worked for the Dutch East India Company, a permanent European presence in New Netherland began in 1624 with the founding of a Dutch fur trading settlement on Governors Island. In 1625, construction was started on the citadel of Fort Amsterdam on Manhattan Island, called New Amsterdam, the 1625 establishment of Fort Amsterdam at the southern tip of Manhattan Island is recognized as the birth of New York City.
In 1846, New York historian John Romeyn Brodhead converted the figure of Fl 60 to US$23, variable-rate myth being a contradiction in terms, the purchase price remains forever frozen at twenty-four dollars, as Edwin G. Burrows and Mike Wallace remarked in their history of New York. Sixty guilders in 1626 was valued at approximately $1,000 in 2006, based on the price of silver, Straight Dope author Cecil Adams calculated an equivalent of $72 in 1992. In 1647, Peter Stuyvesant was appointed as the last Dutch Director General of the colony, New Amsterdam was formally incorporated as a city on February 2,1653. In 1664, the English conquered New Netherland and renamed it New York after the English Duke of York and Albany, the Dutch Republic regained it in August 1673 with a fleet of 21 ships, renaming the city New Orange. Manhattan was at the heart of the New York Campaign, a series of battles in the early American Revolutionary War. The Continental Army was forced to abandon Manhattan after the Battle of Fort Washington on November 16,1776.
The city, greatly damaged by the Great Fire of New York during the campaign, became the British political, British occupation lasted until November 25,1783, when George Washington returned to Manhattan, as the last British forces left the city
The Heinz Awards are individual achievement honors given annually by the Heinz Family Foundation. The award was established in 1993 by Teresa Heinz, the chairwoman of the Heinz Family Foundation, in honor of her late husband, the Heinz Award is considered to be among the largest individual achievement prizes in the world. The five award recipients receive an unrestricted prize of US$250,000. In 2009 through 2011, the Awards instead did a Special Focus on the Environment, and widened the awards to 10 people, each winner receiving US$100,000 and a medallion. The Heinz Award medallion displays the likeness of Senator Heinz and the words Shared Ideals Realized on its front side, on the medallions reverse side the image of a globe being exchanged between two hands is displayed. Third, candidates should be working in the field in which they are nominated so that this award will enhance their potential for future societal contribution. Members of an anonymous Council of Nominators are chosen for their expertise in the relevant to the award for which they will be nominating.
After the nominators have chosen the candidates, the nominations are forwarded to a jury consisting of noted experts in each of the five categories, the jury chooses the final recipients and sends these to the program’s Board for final approval. In certain years, the Heinz Awards Board has chosen to honor the achievement of a particular individual. The award is a prize, and the honoree is presented with the Awards medallion at the same ceremony as the other laureates. In 2009, in honor of the awards 15th anniversary, an award for special focus on the environment was created in lieu of the five awards. A larger group of 10 individuals were awarded US$100,000 each, similarly, in 2010 and 2011 the Special Focus was continued, and in both years 10 individuals were again each awarded US$100,000 each. In 2012, the Awards returned to the five categories
Classical ballet is any of the traditional, formal styles of ballet that exclusively employ classical ballet technique. It is known for its aesthetics and rigorous technique, its flowing, precise movements, there are stylistic variations related to an area or origin, which are denoted by classifications such as Russian ballet, French ballet, British ballet and Italian ballet. For example, Russian ballet features high extensions and dynamic turns, whereas Italian ballet tends to be grounded, with a focus on fast. Many of the variations are associated with specific training methods that have been named after their originators. Despite these variations, the performance and vocabulary of classical ballet are largely consistent throughout the world, Ballet originated in the Italian Renaissance courts and was brought to France by Catherine de Medici in the 16th Century. During ballets infancy, court ballets were performed by amateurs rather than professional dancers. Most of ballets early movements evolved from social dances and prominently featured stage patterns rather than formal ballet technique.
In the 17th century, as ballets popularity in France increased, no longer performed by amateurs, ballet performances started to incorporate challenging acrobatic movements that could only be performed by highly skilled street entertainers. In response, the worlds first ballet school, the Académie Royale de Danse, was established by King Louis XIV in 1661. The Academies purpose was to improve the quality of training in France. Shortly after the Academie was formed, in 1672, King Louis XIV established a company called the Academie Royal de Musique de Dance. While at the Academie Royal, Beauchamp revolutionized ballet technique by inventing the five positions of ballet, Ballet technique is the foundational principles of body movement and form used in ballet. A distinctive feature of ballet technique is turnout, which is the rotation of the legs emanating from the hip. There are five positions of the feet in ballet, all performed with turnout. When performing jumps and leaps, classical ballet dancers strive to exhibit ballon, pointe technique is the part of ballet technique that concerns pointe work, in which a ballet dancer supports all body weight on the tips of fully extended feet.
Students typically learn ballet terminology and the pronunciation and precise body form, emphasis is placed on developing flexibility and strengthening the legs and body core as a strong core is essential for turns and many other ballet movements. Depending on the teacher and training system, students may progress through various stages or levels of training as their skills advance, female attire typically includes pink or flesh colored tights, a leotard, and sometimes a short wrap-skirt, or a skirted leotard. Males typically wear black or dark tights, a white, or black, shirt or leotard worn under the tights
Columbia University is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City. It was established in 1754 as Kings College by royal charter of George II of Great Britain, after the American Revolutionary War, Kings College briefly became a state entity, and was renamed Columbia College in 1784. Columbia is one of the fourteen founding members of the Association of American Universities and was the first school in the United States to grant the M. D. degree. The university has global research outposts in Amman, Istanbul, Mumbai, Rio de Janeiro, Asunción, Columbia administers annually the Pulitzer Prize. Additionally,100 Nobel laureates have been affiliated with Columbia as students, faculty, Columbia is second only to Harvard University in the number of Nobel Prize-winning affiliates, with over 100 recipients of the award as of 2016. In 1746 an act was passed by the assembly of New York to raise funds for the foundation of a new college. Classes were initially held in July 1754 and were presided over by the colleges first president, Dr.
Johnson was the only instructor of the colleges first class, which consisted of a mere eight students. Instruction was held in a new schoolhouse adjoining Trinity Church, located on what is now lower Broadway in Manhattan, in 1763, Dr. Johnson was succeeded in the presidency by Myles Cooper, a graduate of The Queens College, and an ardent Tory. In the charged political climate of the American Revolution, his opponent in discussions at the college was an undergraduate of the class of 1777. The suspension continued through the occupation of New York City by British troops until their departure in 1783. The colleges library was looted and its sole building requisitioned for use as a hospital first by American. Loyalists were forced to abandon their Kings College in New York, the Loyalists, led by Bishop Charles Inglis fled to Windsor, Nova Scotia, where they founded Kings Collegiate School. After the Revolution, the college turned to the State of New York in order to restore its vitality, the Legislature agreed to assist the college, and on May 1,1784, it passed an Act for granting certain privileges to the College heretofore called Kings College.
The Regents finally became aware of the colleges defective constitution in February 1787 and appointed a revision committee, in April of that same year, a new charter was adopted for the college, still in use today, granting power to a private board of 24 Trustees. On May 21,1787, William Samuel Johnson, the son of Dr. Samuel Johnson, was unanimously elected President of Columbia College, prior to serving at the university, Johnson had participated in the First Continental Congress and been chosen as a delegate to the Constitutional Convention. The colleges enrollment and academics stagnated for the majority of the 19th century, with many of the college presidents doing little to change the way that the college functioned. In 1857, the college moved from the Kings College campus at Park Place to a primarily Gothic Revival campus on 49th Street and Madison Avenue, during the last half of the 19th century, under the leadership of President F. A. P. Barnard, the institution assumed the shape of a modern university
Harold Arlen was an American composer of popular music, having written over 500 songs, a number of which have become known worldwide. In addition to composing the songs for the 1939 film The Wizard of Oz, including the classic Over the Rainbow, over the Rainbow was voted the twentieth centurys No.1 song by the Recording Industry Association of America and the National Endowment for the Arts. Arlen was born in Buffalo, New York, United States and his twin brother died the next day. He learned the piano as a youth and formed a band as a young man and he achieved some local success as a pianist and singer and moved to New York City in his early 20s. He worked as an accompanist in vaudeville, at this point, he changed his name to Harold Arlen. In 1929, Arlen composed his first well-known song, Get Happy, throughout the early and mid-1930s, Arlen and Koehler wrote shows for the Cotton Club, a popular Harlem night club, as well as for Broadway musicals and Hollywood films. Arlen and Koehlers partnership resulted in a number of hit songs, including the familiar standards Lets Fall in Love, Arlen continued to perform as a pianist and vocalist with some success, most notably on records with Leo Reismans society dance orchestra.
Arlens compositions have always been popular with jazz musicians because of his facility at incorporating a blues feeling into the idiom of the conventional American popular song, in the mid-1930s, Arlen married, and spent increasing time in California, writing for movie musicals. It was at time that he began working with lyricist E. Y. In 1938, the team was hired by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer to compose songs for The Wizard of Oz, the most famous of these is the song Over the Rainbow for which they won the Academy Award for Best Music, Original Song. They wrote Down with Love, Lydia the Tattooed Lady for Groucho Marx in At the Circus in 1939, Arlen was a longtime friend and former roommate of actor Ray Bolger, who starred in The Wizard of Oz. Arlen died of cancer at his Manhattan apartment, at the age of 81,1905 Arlen born in Buffalo, New York 1920 He formed his first professional band, Hyman Arlucks Snappy Trio. 1921 Against his parents wishes he left home,1923 With his new band – The Southbound Shufflers, performed on the Crystal Beach lake boat Canadiana during the summer of 1923.
1924 Performed at Lake Shore Manor during the summer of 1924,1924 Wrote his first song, collaborating with friend Hyman Cheiffetz to write My Gal, My Pal. Copyrighting the song as My Gal, Wont You Please Come Back to Me. and listed lyrics by Cheiffetz,1925 Makes his way to New York City with the group, The Buffalodians, with Arlen playing piano. 1926 Had first published song, collaborating with Dick George to compose Minor Gaff under the name Harold Arluck,1928 Chaim Arluck renames himself Harold Arlen, a name that combined his parents surnames. 1929 Landed a singing and acting role as Cokey Joe in the musical The Great Day,1929 Composed his first well known song – Get Happy – under the name Harold Arlen. 1929 Signed a yearlong song writing contract with the George and Arthur Piantadosi firm, 1930–1934 Wrote music for the Cotton Club
The Ford Foundation is a New York headquartered, globally oriented private foundation with the mission of advancing human welfare. Created in 1936 by Edsel Ford and Henry Ford, it was funded by a US$25,000 gift from Edsel Ford. By 1947, after the death of the two founders, the foundation owned 90 percent of the shares of the Ford Motor Company. Between 1955 and 1974, the foundation sold its Ford Motor Company holdings, the foundation makes grants through its headquarters and ten international field offices. For fiscal year 2014, it reported assets of US$12.4 billion, after the deaths of Edsel Ford in 1943 and Henry Ford in 1947, the presidency of the foundation fell to Edsels eldest son, Henry Ford II. It quickly became clear that the foundation would become the largest philanthropy in the world, the board of trustees commissioned the Gaither Study Committee to chart the foundations future. The committee, headed by California attorney H, the board embraced the recommendations in 1949. The board of directors decided to diversify the foundations portfolio and gradually divested itself of its substantial Ford Motor Company stock between 1955 and 1974 and this divestiture allowed Ford Motor to become a public company.
In 2012, stating that it is not a research library, in 1951, the foundation made its first grant to support the development of the public broadcasting system, known as National Educational Television, which went on the air in 1952. These grants continued, and in 1969 the foundation gave US$1 million to the Childrens Television Workshop to help create, the Corporation for Public Broadcasting replaced NET with the Public Broadcasting Service on October 5,1970. The foundations first international office opened in 1952 in New Delhi. In 1961, Kofi Annan received a grant from the foundation to finish his studies at Macalester College in St. Paul. In 1968, the foundation began disbursing $12 million to persuade law schools to make law school clinics part of their curriculum, clinics were intended to give practical experience in law practice while providing pro bono representation to the poor. In 1967 and 1968, the provided financial support for decentralization. Decentralization in Ocean Hill–Brownsville led to the firing of some teachers and administrators.
Beginning in the late 1960s and continuing through the 1970s, the foundation expanded into civil rights litigation, the Mexican American Legal Defense and Educational Fund was incorporated in 1967 with a US$2.2 million grant from the foundation. In the same year, the foundation funded the establishment of the Southwest Council of La Raza. In 1972, the foundation provided a three-year US$1.2 million grant to the Native American Rights Fund, the same year, the Puerto Rican Legal Defense and Education Fund opened with funding from numerous organizations, including the foundation