Beverley, Western Australia
Beverley is a town in the Wheatbelt region of Western Australia, 133 kilometres south-east of the state capital, between York and Brookton on the Great Southern Highway. It is on the Great Southern railway line; the town is believed to be named after Beverley in Yorkshire, from where some of the earliest explorers of the Avon valley originated, including Colonial Surgeon Charles Simmons, an early landowner in the district. Land at Beverley was set aside for a townsite in 1831, just two years after the Swan River Colony's foundation, after a glowing report to Governor James Stirling by Ensign Robert Dale, who made three trips to the York-Beverley area; the district was surveyed in 1843. While settlers arrived from the 1860s onwards, a town was established in 1868, it wasn't until the arrival of the Great Southern Railway in 1886 that the town started to grow, with the completion of the railway in 1889 to Albany, Beverley became an important centre. By early 1898 the population of the town was 93 males and 97 females.
In 1908, the Goldfields Water Supply Scheme was extended to supply the town with water, by World War I, the town had four hotels, four banks, two bakeries, two tailors, three tearooms, a jeweller and two hairdressers, amongst other businesses, in 1938, a new town hall opened. However, since the 1950s, with improved transport and farming methods, the population of the Shire of Beverley fell from 1,968 in 1954 to 1,433 in 1991, several banks and other town services closed; the population has started to grow again due to the popularity of rural residential estates and the town's proximity to Perth. Beverley is on Great Southern Highway, 133 kilometres southeast of Perth, provides commercial and industrial support to the surrounding agricultural area; each year in August the town hosts an agricultural show. A museum the Settlers Arms Hotel, offers local history exhibits. In addition, a town hall, district high school, shopping facilities, council offices, district hospital and medical centre, a Community Resource Centre, various sporting facilities are located within the town.
A wide range of building styles exist. 10 kilometres to the northwest of the town is the Avondale Agricultural Research Station. Avondale gets its name from the Dale rivers which join near the farm. For over 80 years, Avondale has been a major centre for agricultural research, since 1979 has been home to an extensive collection of historical farm machinery; the station hosts a number including the Ploughing Days in June. From a 2011 survey there was 1147 people living in Beverley. See statistic here; the town is a stop on the Transwa bus service to Albany. Beverley has a strong history of aviation; the Silver Centenary, Western Australia's oldest existing aircraft was built to commemorate the State's centenary in 1929, was constructed from chalk drawings sketched on the floor of the town powerhouse. The town airfield has been home for the last forty years to the Beverley Soaring Society, one of the biggest gliding clubs in Australia; the club was founded in 1973. As at December 2013, the club has three 2-seat training aircraft, two single seat sailplanes and two Piper Pawnee Tugs.
Additionally members own a further thirty five private gliders hangared at the airfield. Club members compete at club and national levels and hold several State and National gliding distance and speed records. Beverley Long-term Averages Beverley Daily Records Beverley hosts an annual Easter tennis tournament from the 25–28 March. Access to tournament information here. Beverley is home to the football team the Beverley Redbacks Football Club, they compete in the Avon valley league. For more information regarding the team click here. Electoral district of Beverley Silver Centenary Shire of Beverley Beverley Community Development Association includes early history Beverley Soaring Society
Division of O'Connor
The Division of O'Connor is an Australian electoral division in the state of Western Australia. It is one of Western Australia's three rural seats, one of the largest electoral constituencies in the world; the division was named after Charles Yelverton O'Connor, the Engineer-in-Chief of Western Australia who designed Fremantle Harbour and the Goldfields Pipeline. The division was proclaimed at the redistribution of 28 February 1980, was first contested at the 1980 federal election, it has always been a rural seat, was based in the Mid West and Great Southern regions of Western Australia with major population centres in Geraldton and Albany. The division was altered by a redistribution in 2008, taking effect at the 2010 election; the other large country seat in Western Australia, needed to expand in size, but it proved all but impossible to reconfigure Kalgoorlie in a way that would have left O'Connor with any rational basis. It was decided to abolish Kalgoorlie and push O'Connor well to the east to take in most of Kalgoorlie's former southern portion.
The northern portion of the old O'Connor was shifted to the new seat of Durack. It is now centred on the Great Southern and Goldfields-Esperance regions of the state, with major population centres in Albany and Esperance. Local government areas within the electorate as at the 2016 election include Albany, Boyup Brook, Bridgetown-Greenbushes, Broomehill-Tambellup, Bruce Rock, Coolgardie, Cranbrook, Denmark, Dundas, Gnowangerup, Kalgoorlie-Boulder, Kent, Kondinin, Lake Grace, Leonora, Menzies, Narrogin, Pingelly, Ravensthorpe, Wandering, West Arthur, Wickepin and Woodanilling; the seat has always been held by a conservative party. When it was created, its demographics suggested that it should have been held by the National Country Party, despite its large notional Liberal majority. However, severe conflict between rival branches of the state National Party allowed Liberal Wilson Tuckey to take the seat on Labor preferences. Tuckey held it without serious difficulty until his defeat at the 2010 election by Nationals WA candidate Tony Crook with a large swing.
However, the Liberals regained the seat at the 2013 election. Division of O'Connor - Australian Electoral Commission
Shire of West Arthur
The Shire of West Arthur is a local government area in the Wheatbelt region of Western Australia to the west of Albany Highway about 200 kilometres south-east of Perth, the state capital. The Shire covers an area of 2,834 square kilometres and its seat of government is the town of Darkan. Industries within the Shire, worth $45 million per year to the State's economy, are dominated by wool and sheep, include timber, forestry, pigs, cattle hide tanning and earthmoving; the West Arthur Road District was created on 10 January 1896. On 1 July 1961, it became the Shire of West Arthur under the Local Government Act 1960; the name relates to its position with respect to the former Arthur Road District, renamed to Wagin in 1905. The ward system was discontinued on 20 October 2007 and all nine councillors represent the entire shire; the shire was divided into four wards: North West North East South East South West Darkan Arthur River Bokal Boolading Bowelling Cordering Duranillin Moodiarrup Trigwell Official website West Arthur Telecentre includes community information
Wheatbelt (Western Australia)
The Wheatbelt is one of nine regions of Western Australia defined as administrative areas for the state's regional development, a vernacular term for the area converted to agriculture during colonisation. It surrounds the Perth metropolitan area, extending north from Perth to the Mid West region, east to the Goldfields-Esperance region, it is bordered to the south by the South West and Great Southern regions, to the west by the Indian Ocean, the Perth metropolitan area, the Peel region. Altogether, it has an area of 154,862 square kilometres; the region has 43 local government authorities, with an estimated population of 75,000 residents. The Wheatbelt accounts for three per cent of Western Australia's population; the area, once a diverse ecosystem, where clearing began in the 1890s with the removal of plant species such as eucalypt woodlands and mallee, is now home to around 11% of Australia's critically endangered plants. The Wheatbelt encompasses a range of ecosystems and, as a result, there are a range of industries operating in the region.
In the Interim Biogeographic Regionalisation for Australia there are a number of subdivisions such as the Avon Wheatbelt, a further breakdown of Avon Wheatbelt P1 and Avon Wheatbelt P2, Jarrah Forest, Geraldton Sandplains and Mallee regions. Near the coast, the region receives high rainfall and mild temperatures, its 150 kilometres of coastline is a significant tourist area. In contrast, the eastern fringe is arid, is used for pastoral farming of sheep. Mining of gold and iron ore occurs; the remainder of the region is suited to agriculture, is the source of nearly two thirds of the state's wheat production, half of its wool production, the majority of its lamb and mutton, honey, cut flowers and a range of other agricultural and pastoral products. With a range of climate and economic changes in the region, considerable effort is made by government at all levels to cope with the decline of some communities, create opportunities for ventures that keep population in the region; the Wheatbelt once had an extensive railway system.
It has been reduced in part. Six main highways radiating out from Perth serve the Wheatbelt: Brand Highway, Great Northern Highway, Great Eastern Highway, Great Southern Highway, Brookton Highway, Albany Highway. A network of main roads connects towns within the Wheatbelt to each other, the highways, neighbouring regions, with local roads providing additional links and access to smaller townsites. Roads are named after the towns they connect; the following list is those shires listed in the Wheatbelt as designated by the Wheatbelt Development Commission. Some shires in adjoining regions are traditionally considered part of the Wheatbelt – there are shires in the Great Southern, Goldfields-Esperance and Mid West regions that are dominantly grain growing areas. All but one of the region's local government areas are shires: There are numerous subdivisions of the Wheatbelt, in most cases the separation is by local government areas; the Wheatbelt Development Commission breaks the region up into five sub-regions with five offices: In some schemes, such as one of the Western Australian tourism regions, all of the Wheatbelt is included in the larger Australia's Golden Outback.
However the shires within the Wheatbelt are in tourist terms further divided into internal regions: The Wheatbelt is separated into other designations at various times as well: Wheatbelt North East Wheatbelt Central The Open Wheatbelt Wheatbelt Wheatbelt Development Commission
A railway town, or railroad town, is a settlement that originated or was developed because of a railway station or junction at its site. During the construction of the First Transcontinental Railroad in the 1860s, temporary, "Hell on wheels" towns, made of canvas tents, accompanied the Union Pacific Railroad as construction headed west. Most faded away but some became permanent settlements. In the 1870s successive boomtowns sprung up in Kansas, each prospering for a year or two as a railhead, withering when the rail line extended further west and created a new endpoint for the Chisholm Trail. Becoming rail hubs made Los Angeles grow from small towns to large cities. Sayre and Atlanta, Georgia were among the American company towns created by railroads in places where no settlement existed. In western Canada, railway towns became associated with brothels and prostitution, concerned railway companies started a series of YMCAs in the late nineteenth century in response. In some cases, a railroad town would be started by the railroad using a separate town or land company when another town existed nearby.
The population of the existing town would shift to the railroad town. This would create a boon for the town company and its railroad founder, which would sell off lots near the station at a substantial profit before the railroad arrived at the new townsite; such is the case with Colorado. In the spring of 1880, William Bell of the Denver & Rio Grande Railroad scoured the La Plata County area in the vicinity of Animas City, located on the Animas River; when negotiations to acquire land through the local homesteaders fell through, Bell acquired property downstream to the south under more favorable conditions in the name of the Durango Land and Coal Company. By the end of the year, a Durango newspaper reported all of "Animas City is coming to Durango as fast as accommodations can be secured." The population, at the time estimated between 2,500 and 3,000 people, crammed into the little "box town," where the only permanent structures were saloons, dance halls and stores. When the railroad arrived in August 1881, the train stopped in a jubilant Durango, not Animas City.
The railroad pushed on up the Animas River, reaching Silverton in July 1882, passing through Animas City without a stop. Animas City subsisted as a de facto suburb of the Durango area before annexation by Durango in 1948; the Durango and Silverton Narrow Gauge Railroad, a heritage railroad and successor to the Rio Grande in La Plata County, still passes by the townsite. In Denmark and Norway, a related concept is the stationsby or "station town". Stationsbyer are rural towns that grew up around railways, but they were based on agricultural co-operatives and artisan communities rather than on railway industries. In Victorian Britain, the spread of railways affected the fate of many small towns. Peterborough and Swindon became successful due to their status as railway towns; some new towns grew up around railway works. Middlesbrough was the first new town to be developed due to the railways, growing from a hamlet of 40 into an industrial port after the Stockton and Darlington Railway was extended in 1830.
Wolverton was fields before 1838 and had a population of 1,500 by 1844. Other examples of early railway towns include Ashford and Neasden. Crewe grew after the Grand Junction Railway Company moved there in 1843; the railway town of'New Swindon' displaced the neighbouring pre-existing town after the Great Western Railway moved there: a market town of 2,000 in 1840 became a railway town of 50,000 in 1905. Railways became major employers, with 6,000 people employed by them in Crewe in 1877, 14,000 in Swindon in 1905; the growth of railway towns was in the mould of the'paternalistic employer' providing housing, hospitals and civic buildings for their workers, similar to Cadbury's Bournville. Workforces were loyal and obedient: industrial action in railway towns was rare because the workforce depended on the company. Railwaymen dominated local politics in railway towns Francis Webb's'Independent Railway Company Party' in Crewe and George Leeman in York; the chief mechanical engineer of GWR, Daniel Gooch, was MP for Swindon for twenty years.
Crewe was a'company town' for its first few decades as workers moved in their thousands from other parts of the country. Most social amenities and organisations were sponsored by the railway, but moves such as the establishment of a town council in 1877 reduced company influence, the railway company began to consider spending on town amenities as a municipal concern. Workers organised their own institutions such as clubs, trade unions, co-operatives to gain independence from company control, they became the basis for political opposition in railway towns. Changchun in China was built by the Japanese occupying Manchuria, as a'model town' as part of Japan's imperialist modernisation; the first railway town at Changchun was begun by the Russians in 1898, but it excluded Chinese residents. A second major railway town was designed and built from 1905 by the South Manchuria Railway, inspired by Russian railway towns such as Dalian, it was based on a rectangular system that contrasted with the circular walled town of old Changchun, grid patterns became the standard for Chinese railway towns.
The SMR developed dozens of railway towns in north-east China from 1906-1936, such
Bencubbin, Western Australia
Bencubbin is a town in Western Australia in the North Eastern Wheatbelt, 275 km north-east of Perth. The town lies within the Shire of Mount Marshall and is home to 294 people as of 2011. Surveyor General John Septimus Roe first surveyed the region in 1836 and he was followed by sandalwood cutters and stockmen, but it was not until 1908 that the first permanent settlers arrived; the name "Bencubbin" comes from the Aboriginal word for "place of the snakes" and is now applied to the rock to the north of the town. The aboriginal word is spelt "Gnylbencubbing" and is not the rock known as Mount Marshall. Mount Marshall is south-east of Bencubbin, whereas the rock known as Gnylbencubbing is at the northern edge of the township. Mount Marshall is named after Captain Marshall MacDermott, the first manager of the Western Australian branch of the Bank of Australasia; these two rocks and Wiacubbing Hill are three of the largest outcrops around Bencubbin. The name was suggested for the railway station at terminus of the Wyalkatchem to Mount Marshall railway line, by J Hope, the Chief Draftsman, in 1913.
The townsite was gazetted in 1917. The first Bencubbin police station was founded in 1923. In 1932 the Wheat Pool of Western Australia announced that the town would have two grain elevators, each fitted with an engine, installed at the railway siding; the town supermarket was destroyed by a fire in 2006. The fire was brought under control in two hours causing no injuries and causing over A$100,000; the Police Station manned by two officers saw them assist to keep the town running. A makeshift store was set up to provide valuable supplies to the community The surrounding areas produce wheat and other cereal crops; the town is a receival site for Cooperative Bulk Handling. Bencubbin, along with the town Beacon make up the shire of Mt. Marshall which falls under the electorate of Durack; the Shire of Mt Marshall has 7 elected Councillors who are elected by the residents of the Shire on the third Saturday in October every second year. The Council meets to address the issues of the shire on the last Tuesday of every month.
According to the 2011 census conducted in Western Australia in 2011, 90.1% of the population of bencubbin were born in Australia. The predominant ethnicity of Bencubbin consists from immigrants of British and Irish heritage who settled in the region from the 1890s on wards. Due to such a large influx of immigrants from western Europe, the main religion today in Bencubbin are denominations of Christianity Anglican, Uniting Church and 21.3% state no religious affiliation. English is the most spoken language with 96.2% of the township speaking only English. The Bencubbin township participates in numerous sporting leagues including golf, hockey and the most popular being Australian football, a code of football indigenous to Australia http://www.bencubbin.com/pages/sporting-clubs.php. The Bencubbin football club, known colloquially as the demons, participates in the central Wheatbelt football league. An amateur sporting league that consists of six clubs from surrounding townships who have competed against each other since 1968, where Bencubbin was a founding member of the league.
Bencubbin have won five premiership titles in their history, third highest overall in the league. Making Bencubbin infamous in the field of geology was the discovery in 1930 of 58 kg, rare and unknown type of meteorite, aptly named "the Bencubbin", it was uncovered whilst ploughing on newly cleared land destined to be a wheat farm just 15 kilometers north-west of Bencubbin. Fragments of the meteorite reside in the Smithsonian Institution, Washington D. C
Badgingarra, Western Australia
Badgingarra is a small town in the Wheatbelt region of Western Australia, about 205 kilometres north of Perth in the Shire of Dandaragan. It lies on the Brand Highway adjacent to the Badgingarra National Park; the town takes its name from nearby Badgingarra Pool. "Badgingarra" is a Noongar word said to mean "water by the manna gums". The district was surveyed in the 1880s. Little settlement occurred until the 1950s, when the use of trace elements such as zinc and copper in fertilisers allowed for farming to occur on the sandy soils around Badgingarra. In 1955, sufficient population growth had occurred for the gazettal of a townsite to support the settlers. In 1959 the state government established the Badgingarra Research Station, to assist farmers in the development of their enterprises. In 1965 a primary school was established operated in the community hall before a new school was built and opened in 1968. Today, Badgingarra contains a primary school and post office and other businesses, it has several recreational facilities at its Community Centre including tennis courts, a bowling green, a football oval, a golf course and playgrounds.
The planned development of the Brand Highway 7 kilometres west of the Badgingarra townsite spurred the people of Badgingarra to resolve to shift the townsite so as to lie on the Brand Highway. A large bushfire swept through the area in 2010, burning out 19 farms and over 10,000 hectares of farm land. At least 1,700 head of cattle were lost along with crops, a sandalwood plantation and fences; the town was lashed by storms in 2012, receiving 50 millimetres of rain in less than an hour, accompanied by driving winds and a large amount of hail, which served to destroy crops and transform the area into a "winter wonderland". McConnell, Margaret. Plateau and coast: a history of Dandaragan. Shire of Dandaragan. ISBN 1875205020. Media related to Badgingarra, Western Australia at Wikimedia Commons