Austria national football team
The Austria national football team is the association football team that represents the country of Austria in international competition and is controlled by the Austrian Football Association. Austria has qualified for seven World Cups, most recently in 1998, the country played in the European Championship for the first time in 2008 when it co-hosted the event with Switzerland and most recently qualified in 2016. The Austrian Football Association was founded on 18 March 1904 in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the team enjoyed success in the 1930s under coach Hugo Meisl becoming a dominant side in Europe and earning the nickname Wunderteam. The teams star was Matthias Sindelar, on 16 May 1931, they were the first continental European side to defeat Scotland. In the 1934 FIFA World Cup, Austria finished fourth after losing 1–0 to Italy in the semi-finals and they were runners-up in the 1936 Olympics, again losing to Italy 2–1, despite having been beaten in quarter-finals by Peru, following the Peruvians withdrawal.
However, according to an investigation, the victory by Peru was deliberately annulled by Adolf Hitler to favour the Austrians. The team qualified for the 1938 FIFA World Cup finals, on 28 March, FIFA was notified that the Austrian FA had been abolished, resulting in the nations withdrawal from the World Cup. Instead the German team would represent the former Austrian territory, in a rematch, the Germans took revenge, winning 9–1. As a result, five players from Austria Wien, Rapid Wien and Vienna Wien were part of the team only managed a 1–1 draw in Round 1 against Switzerland. With Rapid Wiens forward Pesser having been sent off, and not satisfied with two others, Herberger had to alter the line-up on six positions to fulfill the 6,5 quota again, after World War II, Austria was again separated from Germany. Austrias best result came in 1954 with a team starring midfielder Ernst Ocwirk and they lost in the semi-finals 6–1 to eventual champions Germany, but finished third after beating defending champions Uruguay 3–1.
This remains their best result ever, and unfortunately the last time for decades that Austria reached the end round of a major tournament, over the years, a strong yet mainly lopsided rivalry with Germany developed. At the 1958 World Cup in Sweden, the Austrian team was a disappointment, defeats to the eventual champions Brazil, the emerging Soviet Union and a draw against a weakened England prevented the team to reach the next round. Still holding to the popularity in the country, under new coach Decker again made an international sensation in the era. In front of a crowd of over 90,000 spectators, made possible by the expansion of the Prater Stadium. Due to lack of money, Austria decided not to participate at the 1962 World Cup in Chile, and the team fell apart. Abrupt end of Austria’s success in the postwar period eventually formed the clear 0–6 loss against Czechoslovakia in 1962, of many players. After the end of Decker era, the team was unable for a time to connect to the old successes
1936 Summer Olympics
The 1936 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XI Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event that was held in 1936 in Berlin, Germany. Berlin won the bid to host the Games over Barcelona, Spain, on 26 April 1931 and it marked the second and final time the International Olympic Committee gathered to vote in a city that was bidding to host those Games. To outdo the Los Angeles games of 1932, Adolf Hitler had built a new 100, 000-seat track and field stadium, six gymnasiums, the games were the first to be televised, and radio broadcasts reached 41 countries. Filmmaker Leni Riefenstahl was commissioned by the German Olympic Committee to film the Games for $7 million and her film, titled Olympia, pioneered many of the techniques now common in the filming of sports. When threatened with a boycott of the Games by other nations, total ticket revenues were 7.5 million Reichsmark, generating a profit of over one million marks. The official budget did not include outlays by the city of Berlin or outlays of the German national government and these were the final Olympics under the presidency of Henri de Baillet-Latour and the final Olympic Games for 12 years because of World War II.
The next Olympic Games would be held in 1948, the bidding for these Olympic Games was the first to be contested by IOC members casting votes for their own favorite host cities. The vote occurred in 1931, during the Weimar Republic, before Adolf Hitler, many other cities around the world wanted to host the Summer Olympics for that year, but except for Barcelona they did not receive any IOC votes. The other cities competing to hold the games were Alexandria, Buenos Aires, Dublin, Helsinki, Nuremberg, Rio de Janeiro and Rome. The selection procedure marked the second and final time that the International Olympic Committee would gather to vote in a city which was bidding to host those Games, the only other time this occurred was at the inaugural IOC Session in Paris, France, on 24 April 1894. Then and Paris were chosen to host the 1896 and 1900 Games, after the Nazis took control and began instituting anti-Semitic policies, the IOC held private discussions among its delegates about changing the decision to hold the Games in Berlin.
However, Hitlers regime gave assurances that Jewish athletes would be allowed to compete on a German Olympic team, in September 1934, the US Olympic committee publicly accepted the invitation to go to the Berlin games, halting any further IOC attempts to quietly revise the decision. The next scheduled games in 1940 were awarded to Tokyo, the Japanese military even demanded that venues should be built from wood because metal was needed for its wars in Manchuria. The Olympic torch relay – itself pioneered as part of the 1936 Summer Games – was to fly the Olympic flame from Olympia to Tokyo in a specially-designed long-range aircraft. In 1938 the Japanese rejected hosting the games because they saw the Olympics and he promoted the idea that the use of sports would harden the German spirit and instill unity among German youth. At the same time he believed that sports was a way to weed out the weak, Jewish. Among Diems ideas for the Berlin Games was the introduction of the Olympic torch relay between Greece and the host nation, the 1936 Summer Olympics torch relay was the first of its kind, following on from the reintroduction of the Olympic Flame at the 1928 Games.
It pioneered the modern convention of moving the flame via a system from Greece to the Olympic venue
Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson, OM, FRS was a New Zealand-born British physicist who came to be known as the father of nuclear physics. Encyclopædia Britannica considers him to be the greatest experimentalist since Michael Faraday and this work was done at McGill University in Canada. Rutherford moved in 1907 to the Victoria University of Manchester in the UK, Rutherford performed his most famous work after he became a Nobel laureate. He conducted research that led to the first splitting of the atom in 1917 in a reaction between nitrogen and alpha particles, in which he discovered the proton. Rutherford became Director of the Cavendish Laboratory at the University of Cambridge in 1919, after his death in 1937, he was honoured by being interred with the greatest scientists of the United Kingdom, near Sir Isaac Newtons tomb in Westminster Abbey. The chemical element rutherfordium was named after him in 1997, Ernest Rutherford was the son of James Rutherford, a farmer, and his wife Martha Thompson, originally from Hornchurch, England.
James had emigrated to New Zealand from Perth, Scotland, to raise a little flax, Ernest was born at Brightwater, near Nelson, New Zealand. His first name was mistakenly spelled Earnest when his birth was registered, Rutherfords mother Martha Thompson was a schoolteacher. He studied at Havelock School and Nelson College and won a scholarship to study at Canterbury College, University of New Zealand, in 1898 Thomson recommended Rutherford for a position at McGill University in Montreal, Canada. He was to replace Hugh Longbourne Callendar who held the chair of Macdonald Professor of physics and was coming to Cambridge, in 1901 he gained a DSc from the University of New Zealand. In 1907 Rutherford returned to Britain to take the chair of physics at the Victoria University of Manchester, during World War I, he worked on a top secret project to solve the practical problems of submarine detection by sonar. In 1916 he was awarded the Hector Memorial Medal, in 1919 he returned to the Cavendish succeeding J. J.
Thomson as the Cavendish professor and Director. Between 1925 and 1930 he served as President of the Royal Society, in 1933, Rutherford was one of the two inaugural recipients of the T. K. Sidey Medal, set up by the Royal Society of New Zealand as an award for outstanding scientific research. For some time before his death, Rutherford had a hernia, which he had neglected to have fixed. Despite an emergency operation in London, he died four days afterwards of what physicians termed intestinal paralysis, after cremation at Golders Green Crematorium, he was given the high honour of burial in Westminster Abbey, near Isaac Newton and other illustrious British scientists. At Cambridge, Rutherford started to work with J. J. Thomson on the effects of X-rays on gases. Hearing of Becquerels experience with uranium, Rutherford started to explore its radioactivity, continuing his research in Canada, he coined the terms alpha ray and beta ray in 1899 to describe the two distinct types of radiation. He discovered that thorium gave off a gas which produced an emanation which was itself radioactive and he found that a sample of this radioactive material of any size invariably took the same amount of time for half the sample to decay – its half-life
University of London
The University of London is a collegiate research university located in London, consisting of 18 constituent colleges, nine research institutes and a number of central bodies. The university moved to a structure in 1900. The specialist colleges of the university include the London Business School, Imperial College London was formerly a member before leaving the university in 2007. City is the most recent constituent college, having joined on 1 September 2016, in post-nominals, the University of London is commonly abbreviated as Lond. or, more rarely, Londin. From the Latin Universitas Londiniensis, after its degree abbreviations, University College London was founded under the name London University in 1826 as a secular alternative to the religious universities of Oxford and Cambridge. In response to the controversy surrounding such educational establishment, Kings College London was founded and was the first to be granted a royal charter. Yet to receive a charter, UCL in 1834 renewed its application for a royal charter as a university.
In response to this, opposition to exclusive rights grew among the London medical schools, the idea of a general degree awarding body for the schools was discussed in the medical press. And in evidence taken by the Select Committee on Medical Education, in 1835, the government announced the response to UCLs petition for a charter. Following the issuing of its charter on 28 November 1836, the university started drawing up regulations for degrees in March 1837. The death of William IV in June, resulted in a problem – the charter had been granted during our Royal will and pleasure, queen Victoria issued a second charter on 5 December 1837, reincorporating the university. The university awarded its first degrees in 1839, all to students from UCL, the university established by the charters of 1836 and 1837 was essentially an examining board with the right to award degrees in arts and medicine. However, the university did not have the authority to grant degrees in theology, in medicine, the university was given the right to determine which medical schools provided sufficient medical training.
Beyond the right to students for examination, there was no other connection between the affiliated colleges and the university. In 1849 the university held its first graduation ceremony at Somerset House following a petition to the senate from the graduates, about 250 students graduated at this ceremony. The London academic robes of this period were distinguished by their rich velvet facings, the list of affiliated colleges grew by 1858 to include over 50 institutions, including all other British universities. In that year, a new charter effectively abolished the affiliated colleges system by opening up the examinations to everyone whether they attended a college or not. The expanded role meant the university needed more space, particularly with the number of students at the provincial university colleges
Nottingham High School
Nottingham High School is an independent fee-paying day school for boys and girls in Nottingham, comprising the Infant and Junior School and Senior School. Nottingham High School has 987 pupils, including approximately 717 in the Senior School, located on Waverley Mount, the schools main building is close to local amenities and public transport. The Junior School has its own buildings on the same campus, the playing fields are some 3 miles from the school and are located at Valley Road. In order to do this she enlisted the help of Sir Thomas Lovell, as a result of their combined efforts, King Henry VIII sealed the school’s foundation deed on the 22 November of that year. It is not clear whether this was a new institution or a refoundation or endowment of an existing school,19,940 boys are estimated to have attended the school since 1513. In 2007 the school introduced a new ‘logo’ for more use, a modified version of the shield which omits the lozenge. Whilst this breaches laws of English heraldry, action is taken in such matters.
The Latin inscription on the School Arms is Lauda Finem which translates as “Praise to the end”, more recently, the school has adopted the informal motto “T. E. A. M. ”. The formal procession is an important part of Founder’s Day and seeks to symbolise the ancient links the School has with the Crown, the City, any balance remaining is required to be given to the poorest scholar but now is given to a representative scholar of the school. An annual Remembrance Day service on November 11 is attended by the school with the Headmaster, President of the Old Nottinghamians. School members attend an assembly during the morning in the Player Hall. Representatives of the school’s Combined Cadet Force mark their respect with a parade around the school building. There has subsequently been a programme of building and development. The West Wing houses classrooms for mathematics and geography, the east wing contains, the old gymnasium, the Player assembly hall, and classrooms for modern languages and classics.
The front of the School and other features are Grade II listed, tower Overlooking the city centre is the school’s tower, which is used as a staff office. A School Standard and the Union Jack are raised on the tower on special occasions, such as Founders Day, additions To the west, the Founder Hall building was built in 1963 to commemorate the school’s 450th anniversary. This complex includes the swimming pool and the Founder Hall itself. It acts as an arts venue and supplements the Player Hall
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library, the National Library of France joined the project on October 5,2007. The project transitions to a service of the OCLC on April 4,2012, the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together, a VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary see and see records from the original records, and refers to the original authority records. The data are available online and are available for research and data exchange. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol, the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAFs clustering algorithm is run every month, as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records
Repton School is a co-educational independent school for day and boarding pupils in Repton, England. The school has around 660 pupils aged between 13 and 18, of whom 451 are boarders, Repton School taught only boys for its first 400 years, Repton started accepting girls in the sixth form early in the 1970s, and within 20 years became completely coeducational. Relations with the Thackers deteriorated such that, by 1650s, the school, in 1642, the school commenced an action against the Thacker family and in 1652 the family brought an action against the school which was settled out of court. The atmosphere around the dispute was aggressive and on occasions the Thackers diverted drains into the buildings by constructing dams. In 1670 a wall was built to keep the parties apart, pupil numbers seem to have oscillated between 80 and 200 in the first hundred years, but as the school was free until 1768 it is unclear how teaching was afforded. The headmaster was free to keep, and did keep, cattle in a room within the school in this period.
A pupils letter home in 1728 relates to his father that the headmaster, George Fletcher, the school declined in the 1700s and the 1800s. Pupil numbers were below 50 by 1833, and a former pupil recalled after leaving, even more than the paucity of its numbers, was the almost total absence of all those facilities. Football was played upon the gravel, between the Arch, and the broken pillars. No gymnasium, no court, no racquet court. No French, no German, no Music. No chapel, no masters house beyond the Arch, no bridge across the Trent, why did even 50 boys resort to Sir John Ports old School. Although by 1830s some of the reforms of Dr. Thomas Arnold were being implemented at the school, decline was finally arrested by headmaster Steuart Pears, who worked hard to raise the schools status and reputation. In 1884, a chapel was added to the schools buildings, harold Abrahams CBE, the Olympic champion in the Paris Olympics of 1924 in the 100m sprint, depicted in the 1981 film Chariots of Fire, joined Repton School in 1914.
Recalling his time at the school, Abrahams said he encountered anti-semitism often feeling bullied, in 1907 a gymnasium was added, this building is now listed at grade II. 1,912 former pupils of the served in the First World War. A war memorial was added to the site in 1921. When he died the school wrote that he was perhaps the best poet Repton has had, in the Second World War,188 former members of the school lost their lives serving their country. The school itself struggled before and during the War, the school owed £50,000 and, in 1941, one boarding house was closed in 1938 and a second was closed in 1942. The total number of pupils was 353 on the outbreak of war, the Cross was reopened in 1945 and Latham House in 1947
Geoffrey Francis Fisher, Baron Fisher of Lambeth, GCVO, PC was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1945 to 1961. Geoffrey Fisher was born in Nuneaton and grew up in Higham on the Hill and he was brought up an Anglican, being the son and great-grandson of rectors of Higham. He was educated at Marlborough and Exeter College, Oxford and he was an assistant master at Marlborough College when he decided to be ordained, becoming a priest in 1913. At this time, the English public schools had close ties with the Church of England and it was common for schoolmasters to be in Holy Orders, and headmasters were typically priests. In 1914 Fisher was appointed Headmaster of Repton School, succeeding William Temple, Fisher married Rosamond Forman, daughter of Arthur Forman, who was a Repton master and Derbyshire cricketer. Among his pupils at the school was Roald Dahl, who went on to be a highly acclaimed childrens author, in Boy, his autobiography of his childhood, Dahl wrote scathingly about Fishers use of corporal punishment, which was, in Dahls opinion, grossly overdone.
By the time Dahl became a pupil, Fisher had actually left Repton, and so apparently it was actually Fishers successor, J. T. Christie, in 1932 Fisher was appointed Bishop of Chester, and in 1939 he became Bishop of London. In 1942 Cosmo Gordon Lang was replaced by William Temple as Archbishop of Canterbury, Temple was a strong Christian Socialist, and both the Church and the general public foresaw great changes in the post-war period. Some considered that the best choice now would be George Bell, Bishop of Chichester, appointment of bishops in the Church of England is, ultimately, in the hands of the Prime Minister. Winston Churchill disliked Temples politics, but had accepted Langs advice that Temple was the outstanding figure and this time, the situation was less clear-cut. It has been widely assumed subsequently that Bell was passed over because of his criticism in the House of Lords of the strategy of bombing of German towns. While it is true that this greatly reduced any chance of Bell being appointed, it is not clear that Bell was likely to be appointed.
Temple had apparently regarded Fisher as his obvious successor, Fisher put considerable effort into the task of revising the Church of Englands canon law. The canons of 1604 were at that time still in force and he presided at the marriage of Princess Elizabeth and at her coronation in 1953 as Queen Elizabeth II. The event was carried on television for the first time and he is remembered for his visit to Pope John XXIII in 1960, the first meeting between an Archbishop of Canterbury and a Pope since the English Reformation, and an ecumenical milestone. Fisher was a committed Freemason, as were many Church of England bishops of his day, Fisher served as Grand Chaplain in the United Grand Lodge of England. For all I know it is within the providence of God that the race should destroy itself in this manner. He was quoted as saying, The very worst the Bomb can do is to sweep a vast number of People from this world into the next into which they must all go anyway
Arsenal Football Club is a professional football club based in Highbury, that plays in the Premier League, the top flight of English football. The club has won 13 League titles,12 FA Cups, Arsenal was the first club from the South of England to join The Football League, in 1893. They entered the First Division in 1904, and have accumulated the second most points. Relegated only once, in 1913, they continue the longest streak in the top division, in the 1930s, Arsenal won five League Championships and two FA Cups, and another FA Cup and two Championships after the war. In 1970–71, they won their first League and FA Cup Double, between 1989 and 2005, they won five League titles and five FA Cups, including two more Doubles. They completed the 20th century with the highest average league position, Herbert Chapman won Arsenals first national trophies, but died prematurely. He helped introduce the WM formation and shirt numbers, Arsène Wenger has been the longest-serving manager and has won the most trophies.
His teams set several English records, the longest win streak, the longest unbeaten run, in 1886, Woolwich munitions workers founded the club as Dial Square. In 1913, the crossed the city to Arsenal Stadium in Highbury. They became Tottenham Hotspurs nearest club, commencing the North London derby, in 2006, they moved down the road to the Emirates Stadium. Arsenal earned €435. 5m in 2014–15, with the Emirates Stadium generating the highest revenue in world football, based on social media activity from 2014–15, Arsenals fanbase is the fifth largest in the world. In 2016, Forbes estimated the club was the second most valuable in England, on 1 December 1886, munitions workers in Woolwich, now South East London, formed Arsenal as Dial Square, with David Danskin as their first captain. Named after the heart of the Royal Arsenal complex, they took the name of the complex a month later. Royal Arsenal F. C. s first home was Plumstead Common, though spent most of their time in South East London playing on the other side of Plumstead.
Royal Arsenal won Arsenals first trophies in 1890 and 1891, Royal Arsenal renamed themselves for a second time upon becoming a limited liability company in 1893. They registered their new name, Woolwich Arsenal, with The Football League when the club ascended that year, Woolwich Arsenal was the first southern member of The Football League, starting out in the Second Division and winning promotion to the First Division in 1904. Falling attendances, due to financial difficulties among the munitions workers, businessmen Henry Norris and William Hall took the club over, and sought to move them elsewhere. In 1913, soon after relegation back to the Second Division, Woolwich Arsenal moved to the new Arsenal Stadium in Highbury and this saw their third change of name, the following year, they reduced Woolwich Arsenal to simply The Arsenal
Trinity College, Cambridge
Trinity College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge in England. With around 600 undergraduates,300 graduates, and over 180 fellows, by combined student numbers, it is second to Homerton College, Cambridge. Members of Trinity have won 32 Nobel Prizes out of the 91 won by members of Cambridge University, five Fields Medals in mathematics were won by members of the college and one Abel Prize was won. Other royal family members have studied there without obtaining degrees, including King Edward VII, King George VI, along with Christs, Kings and St Johns colleges, it has provided several of the well known members of the Apostles, an intellectual secret society. In 1848, Trinity hosted the meeting at which Cambridge undergraduates representing private schools such as Westminster drew up the first formal rules of football, Trinitys sister college in Oxford is Christ Church. Like that college, Trinity has been linked with Westminster School since the schools re-foundation in 1560, the college was founded by Henry VIII in 1546, from the merger of two existing colleges and Kings Hall.
At the time, Henry had been seizing church lands from abbeys, the universities of Oxford and Cambridge, being both religious institutions and quite rich, expected to be next in line. The King duly passed an Act of Parliament that allowed him to any college he wished. The universities used their contacts to plead with his sixth wife, the Queen persuaded her husband not to close them down, but to create a new college. The king did not want to use royal funds, so he combined two colleges and seven hostels to form Trinity. Contrary to popular belief, the lands granted by Henry VIII were not on their own sufficient to ensure Trinitys eventual rise. In its infancy Trinity had owed a great deal to its college of St Johns. Its first four Masters were educated at St Johns, and it took until around 1575 for the two colleges application numbers to draw even, a position in which they have remained since the Civil War. Bentley himself was notorious for the construction of a hugely expensive staircase in the Masters Lodge, most of the Trinitys major buildings date from the 16th and 17th centuries.
Thomas Nevile, who became Master of Trinity in 1593, rebuilt and this work included the enlargement and completion of Great Court, and the construction of Neviles Court between Great Court and the river Cam. Neviles Court was completed in the late 17th century when the Wren Library, in the 20th century, Trinity College, St Johns College and Kings College were for decades the main recruiting grounds for the Cambridge Apostles, an elite, intellectual secret society. In 2011, the John Templeton Foundation awarded Trinity Colleges Master, Trinity is the richest Oxbridge college, with a landholding alone worth £800 million. Trinity is sometimes suggested to be the second, third or fourth wealthiest landowner in the UK – after the Crown Estate, the National Trust, in 2005, Trinitys annual rental income from its properties was reported to be in excess of £20 million
FA Cup Final
The FA Cup Final, commonly referred to in England as just the Cup Final, is the last match in the Football Association Challenge Cup. With an official attendance of 89,826 at the 2007 FA Cup Final, it is the fourth best attended club championship event in the world. The latest FA Cup Final was the final of the 2015–16 competition, early FA Cup Finals were held mainly in London at venues including Kennington Oval between 1874 and 1892 and Crystal Palace between 1895 and 1914. In the period from 1923 until 2000, the final was held at Wembley Stadium, from 2001–2005, the final was moved to the Millennium Stadium in Cardiff, due to the rebuilding of Wembley Stadium. The Millennium Stadium was used again in 2006 due to delays in opening the new Wembley Stadium. Until 1993, if the final could not be decided in a match, the match would be replayed. In 1993, the Football Association decided that all future finals would be decided on the day, only two FA Cup Finals have been decided by a penalty shootout, those of 2005 and 2006.
Also note that the Football League War Cup is not considered part of the official FA Cup competition, stan Mortensens hat-trick for Blackpool in 1953 remains the only hat trick ever scored at Wembley in the competitions final. Evertons Louis Saha scored a goal after 27.9 seconds in the 2009 FA Cup Final and it is currently the fastest goal in FA Cup Final history. Burys 6–0 victory over Derby County in the 1903 FA Cup Final is the largest winning margin, with his goal in the 2012 Final, Chelseas Didier Drogba became the first man to score a goal in four different Finals. The FA Cup Final is one of ten events reserved for live broadcast on UK terrestrial television under the Ofcom Code on Sports and Other Listed and Designated Events
A material containing such unstable nuclei is considered radioactive. Certain highly excited short-lived nuclear states can decay through neutron emission, or more rarely, for a collection of atoms, the collections expected decay rate is characterized in terms of their measured decay constants or half-lives. This is the basis of radiometric dating, the half-lives of radioactive atoms have no known upper limit, spanning a time range of over 55 orders of magnitude, from nearly instantaneous to far longer than the age of the universe. A radioactive nucleus with spin can have no defined orientation. If there are multiple particles produced during a single decay, as in decay, their relative angular distribution. Such a parent process could be a previous decay, or a nuclear reaction, the decaying nucleus is called the parent radionuclide, and the process produces at least one daughter nuclide. Except for gamma decay or internal conversion from an excited state. When the number of changes, an atom of a different chemical element is created.
The first decay processes to be discovered were alpha decay, beta decay, alpha decay occurs when the nucleus ejects an alpha particle. This is the most common process of emitting nucleons, but highly excited nuclei can eject single nucleons, or in the case of cluster decay, specific light nuclei of other elements. Beta decay occurs when the nucleus emits an electron or positron, the nucleus may capture an orbiting electron, causing a proton to convert into a neutron in a process called electron capture. All of these result in a well-defined nuclear transmutation. By contrast, there are radioactive decay processes that do not result in a nuclear transmutation, another type of radioactive decay results in products that vary, appearing as two or more fragments of the original nucleus with a range of possible masses. For a summary table showing the number of stable and radioactive nuclides in each category, there are 29 naturally occurring chemical elements on Earth that are radioactive. They are those that contain 34 radionuclides that date before the time of formation of the solar system, well-known examples are uranium and thorium, but included are naturally occurring long-lived radioisotopes, such as potassium-40.
Radioactivity was discovered in 1896 by the French scientist Henri Becquerel and these materials glow in the dark after exposure to light, and he suspected that the glow produced in cathode ray tubes by X-rays might be associated with phosphorescence. He wrapped a photographic plate in black paper and placed various phosphorescent salts on it, all results were negative until he used uranium salts. The uranium salts caused a blackening of the plate in spite of the plate being wrapped in black paper and these radiations were given the name Becquerel Rays