Mary Harvey Tannahill was an American painter, printmaker and batik maker. She studied in the United States and Europe and spent 30 summers in Provincetown, Massachusetts with the artist colony there, she was assumed the style of the Provincetown Printers. She exhibited her works through a number of artist organizations. A native of North Carolina, she spent much of her career based in New York. Tannahill was born on January 11, 1863 on "Kinderhook", the family estate in Warren County, North Carolina, her parents were Sallie Jones Sims and Robert Tannahill, a Confederate soldier and businessman, active in Petersburg and New York City. He moved the family to New York in 1865 and they lived at 44 East 65th Street, her father worked as a cotton factor and between 1880 and 1882 was president of the New York Cotton Exchange. The family had a home on Lake Mahopac that they visited in the summer and a house in Englewood, New Jersey, they visited Petersburg and Warrenton, North Carolina, where other family members lived.
Tannahill and her siblings were educated privately. She early displayed an interest in art, fostered and encouraged by her parents and due to the family's wealth, she was comfortable pursuing her interest; the family was close-knit. Robert Tannahill died in 1883, she studied with various teachers, including Kenyon Cox, John Henry Twachtman, Harry Siddons Mowbray, J. Alden Weir, Arthur Wesley Dow. From late May to early October in 1895, she studied under Theodore Robinson in Vermont, he had just returned from his studies with Claude Monet in France. Over 50 paintings were exhibited by his ten students at the Wheelock House, she studied art in Europe before World War I, including Germany, where she was harassed because she was assumed to be English. She returned to the New York and began to spend the summers on Cape Cod and in Provincetown, where she studied with Blanche Lazzell, she came to be known first for her miniatures painted with watercolor on ivory, a medium in which she met with some success.
The Philadelphia Society of Miniature Painters exhibited her works early in her career and she was a member of the Pennsylvania Society of Miniature Painters. She had an early interest in photography and submitted a photograph to the Competition for Women Photographers in 1912, she painted with tempera and oils, explored creating works of art with embroidery and woodblock printing, in the white-line style of the Provincetown Printers. In 1916, she exhibited at the second annual show of the Provincetown Art Association and spent more than 30 summers at the artist’s colony in Provincetown, she continued showing with the Provincetown Art Association yearly until 1938, displaying woodblock prints at various exhibits. She soon became a close friend of William and Marguerite Zorach and Robert Henri as well, through them becoming introduced to the work of the Art Students League of New York. In 1917, the Society of Independent Artists held their first show, in which two of her pieces were displayed.
She exhibited more of her work with the Society two more times. By 1921, she exhibited her work An American Batik at the American Museum of Natural History in New York, it was an example in the book First Lessons in Batik published in 1921. Stylistically, Tannahill's work derived some of its influence from folk art, combined with modernism, she evinced interest in continued artistic growth throughout her career, absorbing influences such as Cubism and Precisionism in some of her works. A Raleigh newspaper critic, writing in The News & Observer in 1937, called her an "unusual painter of familiar objects in the modern manner", she was sometimes described as an "artist's artist"; the "Eight Southern Women" exhibit, held in 1986 at the Museum of Art in Greenville County, South Carolina and the Gibbes Art Gallery in Charleston, included her works. Her work was displayed over her career at the Panama–Pacific International Exposition in San Francisco and at shows by the National Association of Women Painters and Sculptors.
Pieces appeared in exhibits at the Brooklyn Museum, the Art Students League of New York, the Knoedler Galleries, the American Society of Miniature Painters, the American and New York Watercolor Clubs. She was an early member of the National Association of Women Painters and sculptors, was active in a variety of North Carolina artists' organizations as well, including the North Carolina Professional Artists' Club, of which she served as vice-president. Tannahill's paintings and fabrics can be found in the Newark Museum, Greenville County Museum of Art, South Carolina, Zimmerli Art Museum at Rutgers University, in many private collections, her work is at the Bibliothèque nationale de France. A collection of her work is on display in Warrenton, at the Green-Polk-McAuslan House within the Warrenton Historic District. Tannahill, described as having been tall and striking in appearance in her youth, never married, she was a Christian Scientist. She lived in New York by 1914. Beginning in 1916, she spent her summers in Massachusetts a tradition that she continued for 30 summers.
She died in Warrenton. She was buried in Petersburg at Blandford Cemetery. Since her death, Tannahill's work has continued to be included in exhibitions, such as Eight Southern Women at the Greenville County Museum of Ar
Gustave Clarence Rodolphe Boulanger was a French figure painter known for his classical and Orientalist subjects. Boulanger was born at Paris in 1824, he was orphaned at age 14, his uncle and guardian subsequently sent him to the studio of Pierre-Jules Jollivet and to Delaroche in 1840. In 1849 took the Prix de Rome with his painting, Ulysses, a work which combined a classical approach with Orientalist overtones. In 1845, he first visited Algeria and this gave him an interest in Orientalist themes, taken up by his friend Jean-Léon Gérome. Boulanger's knowledge of Pompeii, which he visited while studying at the École de Rome gave him ideas for many future pictures, his paintings are prime examples of academic art of the time history painting. Boulanger had visited Italy and North Africa, his paintings reflect his attention to culturally correct details and skill in rendering the female form, his works include a Moorish Cafe, Cæsar at the Rubicon, the Promenade in the Street of Tombs and The Slave Market.
The recipient of many medals, he became a member of the Institut de France in 1882. He began teaching at the Institut de France in 1882 and was an influential teacher, noted for his dislike of the Impressionism. Boulanger taught at Académie Julian, among his students were: List of Orientalist artists Orientalism This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Gilman, D. C.. "article name needed". New International Encyclopedia. New York: Dodd, Mead
Ella Sophonisba Hergesheimer
Ella Sophonisba Hergesheimer was an American illustrator and printmaker known for her portrayals of Tennessee society women and their children. As a printmaker, she pioneered the white-line woodcut. Hergesheimer was born in Allentown, Pennsylvania on January 7, 1873, her parents were Ellamanda Ritter Hergesheimer. She was encouraged to create art in her childhood. Hergesheimer was the great-great granddaughter of Philadelphia artist Charles Willson Peale, who named one of his daughters Sophonisba after the Italian artist, Sofonisba Anguissola. Hergesheimer chose to use Sophonisba as her first name, she studied at the Philadelphia School of Design for Women for two years, went on to study at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts for four years. At the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, she studied with Cecilia Beaux, Hugh Breckenridge, William Merritt Chase, she was considered by Chase to be one of his finest students, spent the summer of 1900 studying at Chase's Shinnecock Hills Summer School of Art on Long Island.
As a senior at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, she was judged the best pupil in her class and was awarded the Cresson Traveling Scholarship. This allowed her to study abroad in Europe for three years, where she trained at the Académie Colarossi and exhibited at the Paris Salon, she is listed among the students of Blanche Lazzell, known for her white-line color woodcuts. As a result of having her work including in a 1905 traveling exhibition organized by the Nashville Art Association, she received a commission in 1907 to paint the portrait of Holland Nimmons McTyeire, the Methodist bishop who convinced Cornelius Vanderbilt to endow Vanderbilt University. To work on the commission, she relocated to Nashville, where she remained the rest of her life - first occupying a studio on Church Street, one at Eighth Avenue and Broadway, she conducted art classes in Bowling Green, where her circle of friends included fellow artists Frances Fowler, Sarah Peyton, Wickliffe Covington. She maintained a lifelong friendship with landscape painter Orlando Gray Wales, raised in Allentown and studied at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts.
Hergesheimer's most notable portraits are those of Speaker of the House Joseph W. Byrns, Sr. which hangs in the United States Capitol building, of Commodore Matthew Fontaine Maury, which hangs in Maury Hall at the United States Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland. Hergesheimer died on June 1943 in Davidson, Tennessee. Gold medal, Appalachian Exposition Gold medal, Tennessee State Exposition American Artists Professional League Art Institute of Chicago Corcoran Gallery of Art National Academy of Design New Orleans Art Association Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts Salons of America Sesquicentennial Exposition, Pennsylvania Society of Independent Artists American Artists Professional League American Federation of Arts National Arts Club New Orleans Art Association Salons of America Society of Independent Artists Southern States Art League Washington, D. C. Watercolor Club Some of the major collectors of Hergesheimer's work are: Heckscher Museum of Art, New York Morris Museum of Art, Georgia Reading Public Museum, Pennsylvania Tennessee State Museum, Tennessee United States Capitol, Washington, D.
C. Vanderbilt University, Tennessee Two Red Roses Foundation, Palm Harbor, Florida Burton, Vincent. "Some Portraits by Ella S. Hergesheimer." International Studio 37: 32-33. Kelly, James C. "Ella Sophonisba Hergesheimer 1873-1943." Tennessee Historical Quarterly 44: 112-13. Knowles, Susan. "Ella Sophonisba Hergesheimer." Distinctive Women of Nashville. Nashville: Tennessee Historical Society, 1985. Media related to Ella Sophonisba Hergesheimer at Wikimedia Commons
Ipswich is a coastal town in Essex County, United States. The population was 13,175 at the 2010 census. Home to Willowdale State Forest and Sandy Point State Reservation, Ipswich includes the southern part of Plum Island. A residential community with a vibrant tourism industry, the town is famous for its clams, celebrated annually at the Ipswich Chowderfest, for Crane Beach, a barrier beach near the Crane estate. Ipswich was incorporated as a town in 1634. Ipswich was founded by John Winthrop the Younger, son of John Winthrop, one of the founders of the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1630 and its first governor, elected in England in 1629. Several hundred colonists sailed from England in 1630 in a fleet of 11 ships, including Winthrop's flagship, the Arbella. Investigating the region of Salem and Cape Ann, they entertained aboard the Arbella for a day, June 12, 1630, a native chief of the lands to the north, Chief Masconomet; the event was recorded in Winthrop's journal on the 13th, but Winthrop did not say how they overcame the language barrier.
The name they heard from Masconomet concerning the country over which he ruled has been reconstructed as Wonnesquamsauke, which the English promptly rendered into the anglicized "Agawam". The colonists, sailed to the south where some buildings had been prepared for them at a place newly named Charlestown; that winter they lost a few hundred colonists from disease. They experienced their first nor'easter, which cost them some fingers and toes, as well as houses destroyed by the fires they kept burning day and night. Just as Winthrop was handing out the last handful of grain, the supply ship Lyon entered Boston Harbor. John now sent for his family in England, but his wife, her children, his eldest son, whose mother was the elder John's first wife, Mary Forth, did not arrive until November, on the Lyon. John the Younger resided with his father and stepmother until 1633, when he resolved to settle in Agawam, with the permission of the General Court of Massachusetts. Captain John Smith had written about the Angoam or Aggawom region in 1614, referring to it as "an excellent habitation, being a good and safe harbour."
There is no record of any native resistance to the colonization either at Charlestown or at Agawam though estimates of the earlier populations run into the thousands. A plague of 1616–1618 and again in the early 1630s smallpox brought from abroad, had devastated the once populous Indian tribes; the fields stood vacant. The colonists encountered but few natives. John the Younger and 12 men aboard a shallop took up residence there. Two men continued up the river to a large meadow. Agawam was incorporated on August 5, 1634, as Ipswich, after Ipswich in the county of Suffolk, England; the name "Ipswich" was taken "in acknowledgment of the great honor and kindness done to our people which took shipping there." Nathaniel Ward, an assistant pastor in town from 1634 to 1636, wrote the first code of laws for Massachusetts and published the religious/political work, The Simple Cobbler of Aggawam in America in England. Pioneers would become farmers, shipbuilders or traders; the tidal Ipswich River provided water power for mills, salt marshes supplied hay for livestock.
A cottage industry in lace-making developed. But in 1687, Ipswich residents, led by the Reverend John Wise, protested a tax imposed by the governor, Sir Edmund Andros; as Englishmen, they argued, taxation without representation was unacceptable. Citizens were jailed, but Andros was recalled to England in 1689, the new British sovereigns, William III and Mary II, issued colonists another charter; the rebellion is the reason the town calls itself the "Birthplace of American Independence". Great clipper ships of the 19th century, bypassed Ipswich in favor of the deep-water seaports at Salem, Newburyport and Boston; the town remained a fishing and farming community, its residents living in older homes they could not afford to replace—leaving Ipswich with a considerable inventory of early architecture. In 1822, a stocking manufacturing machine, smuggled out of England arrived at Ipswich, violating a British ban on exporting such technology, the community developed as a mill town. In 1828, the Ipswich Female Seminary was founded.
In 1868, Amos A. Lawrence established the Ipswich Hosiery Mills beside the river, it would expand into the largest stocking mill in the country by the turn of the 20th century. What may be the last witchcraft trial in North America was held in Ipswich in 1878. In the Ipswich witchcraft trial, a member of the Christian Science religion was accused of using his mental powers to harm others, including a spinster living in the town; the town government was reformed in 1950 with the acceptance of the Town Manager Charter. This charter was rescinded by the voters, lost again, the present Town Manager-Selectmen Charter was adopted by the voters in 1967. In 2012 Ipswich hired its first female Town Manager, Robin Crosbie, who served until her retirement in 2018. In 1910, Richard T. Crane, Jr. of Chicago, the business magnate owner of Crane Plumbing, bought Castle Hill, a drumlin on Ipswich Bay. He hired Olmsted Brothers, successors to Frederick Law Olmsted, to landscape his 3,500-acre estate, engaged the Boston architectural firm of Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge to design an Italian Renaissance-Revival style villa on the summit.
A grande allée, 160 feet wide and lined with statuary, would run the half mile from house to sea. But his wife, loathed the building. Crane promised. True
Grove Art Online
Grove Art Online is the online edition of The Dictionary of Art referred to as the Grove Dictionary of Art, part of Oxford Art Online, an internet gateway to online art reference publications of Oxford University Press, which includes the online version of the Benezit Dictionary of Artists. It is a large encyclopedia of art a 34-volume printed encyclopedia first published by Grove in 1996 and reprinted with minor corrections in 1998. A new edition was published in 2003 by Oxford University Press. Written by 6,700 experts from around the world, its 32,600 pages cover over 45,000 topics about art, art critics, art collectors, or anything else connected to the world of art. According to The New York Times Book Review it is the "most ambitious art-publishing venture of the late 20th century". Half the content covers non-Western subjects, contributors hail from 120 countries. Topics range from Julia Margaret Cameron to Shoji Hamada, Korea to Timbuktu, the Enlightenment to Marxism, Yoruba masks to Abstract Expressionism.
Entries include a vast number of images. The dictionary is still available in a standard hardcover edition, though the leather-bound version appears to be out of print. Various smaller specialized redactions have been published, such as The Grove Encyclopedia of Decorative Arts,The Grove Dictionary of Materials and Techniques in Art, From David to Ingres: Early 19th-Century French Artists and so on; the Grove Dictionary of Art is published by Oxford University Press, who acquired it from Macmillan Publishers in 2003. The Dictionary of Art was first offered online on 12 November 1998 by Grove Dictionaries under the title The Grove Dictionary of Art Online; the online version is now published by Oxford University Press, is updated three times a year, is available by subscription and includes some extra content. In the UK, many public libraries offer it free to their online users using their library membership number and a PIN to log in. An umbrella site, Oxford Art Online includes the Benezit Dictionary of Artists and other art reference works: The Oxford Companion to Western Art, the Encyclopedia of Aesthetics, The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Art Terms.
The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians References SourcesJane Turner. The Dictionary of Art. 1996. ISBN 1-884446-00-0 Official website
The Brooklyn Museum is an art museum located in the New York City borough of Brooklyn. At 560,000 square feet, the museum is New York City's third largest in physical size and holds an art collection with 1.5 million works. Located near the Prospect Heights, Crown Heights and Park Slope neighborhoods of Brooklyn and founded in 1895, the Beaux-Arts building, designed by McKim and White, was planned to be the largest art museum in the world; the museum struggled to maintain its building and collection, only to be revitalized in the late 20th century, thanks to major renovations. Significant areas of the collection include antiquities their collection of Egyptian antiquities spanning over 3,000 years. European, African and Japanese art make for notable antiquities collections as well. American art is represented, starting at the Colonial period. Artists represented in the collection include Mark Rothko, Edward Hopper, Norman Rockwell, Winslow Homer, Edgar Degas, Georgia O'Keeffe, Max Weber; the museum has a "Memorial Sculpture Garden" which features salvaged architectural elements from throughout New York City.
The roots of the Brooklyn Museum extend back to the 1823 founding by Augustus Graham of the Brooklyn Apprentices' Library in Brooklyn Heights. The Library moved into the Brooklyn Lyceum building on Washington Street in 1841. Two years the institutions merged to form the Brooklyn Institute, which offered exhibitions of painting and sculpture and lectures on diverse subjects. In 1890, under its director Franklin Hooper, Institute leaders reorganized as the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences and began planning the Brooklyn Museum; the museum remained a subdivision of the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences, along with the Brooklyn Academy of Music, the Brooklyn Botanic Garden, the Brooklyn Children's Museum until the 1970s when all became independent. Opened in 1897, the Brooklyn Museum building is a steel frame structure encased in classical masonry, designed by the famous architectural firm of McKim and White and built by the Carlin Construction Company; the initial design for the Brooklyn Museum was four times as large as the actualized version.
Daniel Chester French, the noted sculptor of the Lincoln Memorial, was the principal designer of the pediment sculptures and the monolithic 12.5-foot figures along the cornice. The figures were carved by the Piccirilli Brothers. French designed the two allegorical figures Brooklyn and Manhattan flanking the museum's entrance, created in 1916 for the Brooklyn approach to the Manhattan Bridge, relocated to the museum in 1963. By 1920, the New York City Subway reached the museum with a subway station; the Brooklyn Institute's director Franklin Hooper was the museum's first director, succeeded by William Henry Fox who served from 1914 to 1934. He was followed by Philip Newell Youtz, Laurance Page Roberts, Isabel Spaulding Roberts, Charles Nagel, Jr. and Edgar Craig Schenck. Thomas S. Buechner became the museum's director in 1960, making him one of the youngest directors in the country. Buechner oversaw a major transformation in the way the museum displayed art and brought some one thousand works that had languished in the museum's archives and put them on display.
Buechner played a pivotal role in rescuing the Daniel Chester French sculptures from destruction due to an expansion project at the Manhattan Bridge in the 1960s. Duncan F. Cameron held the post from 1971 to 1973, with Michael Botwinick succeeding him and Linda S. Ferber acting director for part of 1983 until Robert T. Buck became director in 1983 and served until 1996; the Brooklyn Museum changed its name to Brooklyn Museum of Art in 1997, shortly before the start of Arnold L. Lehman's term as director. On March 12, 2004, the museum announced. In April 2004, the museum opened the James Polshek-designed entrance pavilion on the Eastern Parkway façade. In September 2014, Lehman announced that he was planning to retire around June 2015. In May 2015, Creative Time president and artistic director Anne Pasternak was named the museum's next director; the Brooklyn Museum, along with numerous other New York institutions, including the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the American Museum of Natural History, the Brooklyn Botanic Garden, is part of the Cultural Institutions Group.
Member institutions occupy land or buildings owned by the City of New York and derive part of their yearly funding from the City. The Brooklyn Museum supplements its earned income with funding from Federal and State governments, as well as with donations by individuals and organizations. In 1999, the museum hosted the Charles Saatchi exhibition Sensation, resulting in a court battle over New York City's municipal funding of institutions exhibiting controversial art decided in favor of the museum on First Amendment grounds. In 2005, the museum was among 406 New York City arts and social service institutions to receive part of a $20 million grant from the Carnegie Corporation, made possible through a donation by New York City mayor Michael Bloomberg. Major benefactors include Frank Lusk Babbott; the museum is the site of the annual Brooklyn Artists Ball which has included celebrity hosts such as Sarah Jessica Parker and Liv Tyler. The Brooklyn Museum exhibits collections that seek to embody the rich artistic heritage of world cultures.
The museum is well known for its expansive collections of E
The Académie Julian was a private art school for painting and sculpture founded in Paris, France, in 1867 by French painter and teacher Rodolphe Julian, active from 1868 through 1968. It remained famous for the number and quality of artists who attended during the great period of effervescence in the arts in the early twentieth century. After 1968, it integrated with ESAG Penninghen. Rodolphe Julian established the Académie Julian in 1868 at the Passage des Panoramas, as a private studio school for art students; the Académie Julian not only prepared students to the exams at the prestigious École des Beaux-Arts, but offered independent alternative education and training in arts. "Founded at a time when art was about to undergo a long series of crucial mutations, the Academie Julian played host to painters and sculptors of every kind and persuasion and never tried to make them hew to any one particular line". In 1880, women who were not allowed to enroll for study to the École des Beaux-Arts, were accepted by the new Académie Julian.
Foreign applicants, deterred from entering the Ecole des Beaux Arts by a vicious French language examination were welcome at the Académie Julian. Men and women were trained separately, women participated in the same studies as men, including drawing and painting of nude models. "Human exchange went forward in an atmosphere, collegial and mutually supportive. It nurtured some of the best artists of the day". Académie Julian became popular as fertile ground with French as well as foreign students from diverse backgrounds from all over the world, from the United Kingdom, Canada and the United States. In 1989, on the occasion of the exhibition at the Shepherd Gallery, in Manhattan, devoted to the Academie Julian in Paris as it existed between 1868 and 1939, John Russell wrote: By my count, more than 50 nationalities were represented at the school during its glory years. To be at the Academie Julian was to be exposed to a kind of white magic that seems to have worked in every case. What was learned there stayed forever with alumnus and alumna, it related as much to the conduct of life as to the uses of brush and chisel. – in The New York Times, John Russell: "An Art School That Also Taught Life", March 19, 1989.
The early success of the Académie was secured by the famous and respected artists whom Rodolphe Julian employed as instructors: Adolphe William Bouguereau, Henri Royer, Jean-Paul Laurens, Gabriel Ferrier, Tony Robert-Fleury, Jules Lefebvre and other leading artists of that time trained in Academic art. Académie Julian students were granted the right to compete for the Prix de Rome, a prize awarded to promising young artists, and participate in the major "Salons" or art exhibitions. In the late 19th century the term L'art pompier had entered the scene as a derisive term for the traditional academic art espoused by the Académie's instructors; as a result the Académie Julian embraced a more liberal regime pushing a less conservative, more sincere approach to art which corresponded to the Secessionist art movement in Germany and the Vienna Secession in Austria. It was followed and articulated by the Nabis, avant-garde movement, that participated in paving the way to modern art in 1888–1889. Over time, Académie Julian opened schools in other locations.
In addition to the original school at Passage des Panoramas, studios were at no. 28 Boulevard St-Jacques in the 6th arrondissement of Paris, no. 5 Rue de Berri in the 8th arrondissement, no. 31 Rue du Dragon in the 6th arrondissement, no. 51, rue Vivienne in the 2nd arrondissement for female student artists, overseen by painter Amélie Beaury-Saurel, Julian's spouse. And subsequent faculty were made up like Edgar Chahine for example. Académie Julian remained open during World War I, albeit with a lesser number of students. By contrast during World War II, after the 1941 exhibition Vingt jeunes peintres de tradition française considerations on "degenerate art" by the German military administration forced the school to close. In 1946 some of the studios were sold. For his services to the arts, Rodolphe Julian, described by the Anglo-Irish novelist and critic George Moore as a kind of Hercules, dark-haired, with broad shoulders, short legs, a soft voice and all the charm of the Midi was awarded the Legion of Honour.
The artist records still extant are those of the men's section, covering the 1870–1932 period, those of the women's section, covering the 1880–1907 period. In 1968, an important year in France's history with the May events in relation to education, the Académie Julian integrated with ESAG Penninghen. Martine Hérold, L’Académie Julian a cent ans, 1968 Catherine Fehrer, "New Light on the Académie Julian and its founder", in La Gazette des Beaux-Arts, mai-juin 1984. Catherine Fehrer, The Julian Academy, Paris, 1868-1939: spring exhibition, 1989, essays by Catherine Fehrer. Y.: Shepherd Gallery, vers 1989. Larcher, Revivons nos belles années à l'Académie Julian 1919-1925, chez l'auteur, Auxerre, 1982. "Women at the Académie Julian in Paris" in The Burlington Magazine, Londres, CXXXVI, novembre 1994. Gabriel P. Weisberg and Jane R. Becker, Overcoming All Obstacles: The Women of the Académie Julian, Dahesh Museum, New Brunswick, Rutgers University Press, New Jersey, 1999. Reid, Dennis R