Knights of the Round Table
The Knights of the Round Table were the knightly members of the legendary fellowship of the King Arthur in the literary cycle of the Matter of Britain, in which the first written record of them appears in the Roman de Brut written by the Norman poet Wace in 1155. In the legend, the Knights are an order in the service of Arthur, tasked with ensuring the peace of the kingdom and sometimes charged with leading the quest for the Holy Grail; the Round Table at which they met was created to have no head or foot, representing the equality of all the members. Different stories presented different numbers of the Knights, ranging from only 12 to as many as 150 or more, their total number and the names vary depending on the text. The first sources state 24, 36 or 72. For Robert de Boron, for whom the Round Table is a replica of the table of the Last Supper, they are fifty. In some versions, including Le Morte d'Arthur by Thomas Malory, they are 150. Bedivere and Kay are the oldest characters associated with Arthur.
Those most popular and best known today may include: There have been many others more or less obscure. For instance, Malory's account in Le Morte d'Arthur lists the following in the episode "The Healing of Sir Urry": Sir Aglovale de Galis is the eldest legitimate son of King Pellinore. Like his brothers Sir Tor, Sir Lamorak, Sir Dornar and Sir Percival, he is a Knight of the Round Table. In chivalric romances, Aglovale never cuts as impressive a figure as his brothers Lamorak and Percival, but his valor is unquestioned. According to the Post Vulgate cycle and Malory's Le Morte d'Arthur, it is he who first brings Percival to Camelot to be knighted. In the Vulgate Cycle, Aglovale dies accidentally at Gawain's hand during the Quest for the Holy Grail. However, in Malory he and his brother Tor are among the knights charged with defending the execution of Guinevere and are both killed when Lancelot and his men rescue the queen. Aglovale appears prominently in the Dutch romance Morien. In a situation similar to Gahmuret's begetting of Feirefiz in Wolfram von Eschenbach's Parzival, Aglovale visits Moorish lands where he meets a beautiful black Christian princess and conceives a child with her.
He returns to his own lands, thirteen years his son Morien comes to find him. After a number of adventures and son are reunited and both return to Morien's country to take back their rightful lands. In modern works, Aglovale is the eponymous protagonist of Clemence Housman's 1905 novel The Life of Sir Aglovale de Galis. T. H. White's book The Once and Future King gives a endearing portrait of the knight. Sir Calogrenant, sometimes known in English as Colgrevance, is a cousin to Sir Yvain, his courtesy and eloquence were known throughout the kingdom, his character has been derived from of the Welsh mythological hero Cynon ap Clydno the lover of Owain's sister Morvydd, although in Owain, or the Lady of the Fountain Cynon is stated to be the son of Clydno connected to Clyddno Eiddin. Calogrenant first appears in the Knight of the Lion. After a good meal, Calogrenant tells a story to a group of knights and Queen Guinevere about an adventure he had in the forest of Brocéliande, he had heard of a magic spring in those woods which could create a huge storm whenever someone poured its water into a nearby basin.
With directions from a local family and a gruesomely depicted giant, Calogrenant reached the spring and summoned the storm. After the storm, a knight named Esclados attacked him for causing such havoc; the knight soundly did not kill him. Calogrenant's cousin Yvain is upset that Calogrenant never told him of this defeat, sets out to avenge him, embarking on the adventure that sets up the remainder of events in the romance. Roger Sherman Loomis and others speculated that Calogrenant was used as a foil for Sir Kay in some lost early version of the Yvain story. In Chrétien's romance he is presented as everything Kay is not: polite and well-mannered. By this theory, his name can be deconstructed to "Cai lo grenant", or "Cai the grumbler", which would represent another opposite characteristic of Kay, famous for his acid tongue. Calogrenant appears in the Lancelot-Grail Cycle as an excellent knight, though his kinship to Yvain is not as clear as in Chrétien, he dies during the Grail Quest while trying to keep Sir Lionel from killing Bors.
Bors had faced a dilemma over whom to rescue between Lionel, getting beaten with thorns by two rogue knights, a maiden who had just been abducted, chose the maiden over his brother. Lionel was not pleased by this, attacked Bors the next time he saw him. A religious hermit tried to intervene, but was killed accidentally in the process, Calogrenant stepped in. Bors would not fight his brother, Lionel slays Calogrenant and goes after Bors until God steps in and renders him immobile. Thomas Malory recounts Calogrenant's death scene in his Le Morte d'Arthur, but includes another one in the narrative. Despite dying on the Grail quest, he turns up as one of the twelve knights who help Agravaine and Mordred trap Lancelot and Guinevere together. Lancelot has no armor or weapons, but he pulls Calogrenant into the room and kills him, uses his sword to defeat the rest of the company. Prince Claudin known as Claudin the Younger or Claudine, is the son of the Frankish King Claudas, he appears in the Old French Lancelot-Grail and Thomas Malory's 15th-century Middle English work Le Morte d'Arthur, in sections based on the French cycle.
In Arthurian legend, Sir Kay is King Arthur's foster brother and seneschal, as well as one of the first Knights of the Round Table. In literature he is known for his acid tongue and bullying, boorish behavior, but in earlier accounts he was one of Arthur's premier warriors. Along with Bedivere, with whom he is associated, Kay is one of the earliest characters associated with Arthur. Kay's father is called Ector in literature, but the Welsh accounts name him as Cynyr Ceinfarfog. Cai or Cei is one of the earliest characters to be associated with the Arthurian mythology, appearing in a number of early Welsh texts, including Culhwch ac Olwen, Geraint fab Erbin, Iarlles y Ffynnon, Peredur fab Efrawg, Breuddwyd Rhonabwy, Pa Gur yv y Porthaur and the Welsh Triads, his father is given as his son as Garanwyn and his daughter as Kelemon. Before Cai's birth, Cynyr prophesied that his son's heart would be eternally cold, that he would be exceptionally stubborn and that no one would be able to brave fire or water like him.
Cai is attributed with a number of further superhuman abilities, including the ability to go nine days and nine nights without the need to breathe or to sleep, the ability to grow as "tall as the tallest tree in the forest if he pleased" and the ability to radiate supernatural heat from his hands. Furthermore, it is impossible to cure a wound from Cai's sword. Cai is killed by Gwyddawg fab Menestyr, in turn killed in vengeance by Arthur. One of the earliest direct reference to Cai can be found in the 10th-century poem Pa Gur, in which Arthur recounts the feats and achievements of his knights so as to gain entrance to a fortress guarded by Glewlwyd Gafaelfawr, the titular porter; the poem concerns itself with Cai's exploits: Culhwch's father, King Cilydd son of Celyddon, loses his wife Goleuddydd after a difficult childbirth. When he remarries, the young Culhwch rejects his stepmother's attempt to pair him with his new stepsister. Offended, the new queen puts a curse on him so that he can marry no one besides the beautiful Olwen, daughter of the giant Ysbaddaden.
Though he has never seen her, Culhwch becomes infatuated with her, but his father warns him that he will never find her without the aid of his famous cousin Arthur. The young man sets off to seek his kinsman, he asks for support and assistance. Cai is the first knight to volunteer to assist Culhwch in his quest, promising to stand by his side until Olwen is found. A further five knights join them in their mission, they travel onwards until they come across the "fairest of the castles of the world", meet Ysbaddaden's shepherd brother, Custennin. They learn that the castle belongs to Ysbaddaden, that he stripped Custennin of his lands and murdered the shepherd's twenty-three children out of cruelty. Custennin set up a meeting between Culhwch and Olwen, the maiden agrees to lead Culhwch and his companions to Ysbadadden's castle. Cai pledges to protect Goreu with his life; the knights attack the castle by stealth, killing the nine porters and the nine watchdogs, enter the giant's hall. Upon their arrival, Ysbaddaden attempts to kill Culhwch with a poison dart, but is outwitted and wounded, first by Bedwyr by the enchanter Menw, by Culhwch himself.
Ysbaddaden relents, agrees to give Culhwch his daughter on the condition that he completes a number of impossible tasks, including hunting the Twrch Trwyth and recovering the exalted prisoner Mabon ap Modron. Cai is a prominent character throughout the tale and is responsible for completing a number of the tasks. However, when Arthur makes a satirical englyn about Cai, he grows angry and hostile towards the king abandoning the quest and his companions; the narrative tells us that Cai would "have nothing to do with Arthur from on, not when the latter was waning in strength or when his men were being killed." As a result, he did not take part in the hunt for Twrch Trwyth. In the Life of St. Cadoc Bedwyr is alongside Arthur and Cai in dealing with King Gwynllyw of Gwynllwg's abduction of St. Gwladys from her father's court in Brycheiniog. Cai appears prominently in the early Welsh version of Tristan and Isolde, in which he assists the two lovers and is himself infatuated with a maiden named Golwg Hafddydd, in the early dialogue poems relating to Melwas' abduction of Gwenhwyfar.
The context suggests that Cai is rescuing the queen from the otherwordly suitor, may imply a romantic relationship between Cai and Gwenhwyfar. The Welsh Triads name Cai as one of the "Three Battle-Diademed Men of the Island of Britain" alongside Drystan mab Tallwch and Hueil mab Caw. In the Triads of the Horses, his horse is named as Gwyneu gwddf hir. According to tradition, Cai is intimately associated with the old Roman fort of Caer Gai. In the Welsh Romances, Cai assumes the same boorish role. However, manuscripts for these romances date to well after Chrétien de Troyes, meaning that Cai as he appears there may owe more to Chrétien's version of the character than to the indigenous Welsh representation. Kay and Bedivere appear in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, aid Arthur in defeating the Giant of Mont Saint-Michel. Geoffrey makes Kay the count of Anjou and Arthur's steward, an office he holds in most literature. In Erec and Enide, Chrétien de Troyes mentions he had a son
Geraint is a character from Welsh folklore and Arthurian legend, a king of Dumnonia and a valiant warrior. He may have lived during or shortly prior to the reign of the historical Arthur, but some scholars doubt he existed; the name of Geraint is a Welsh form of the Latin Gerontius. Geraint's father was said to be Erbin, a herder of sheep, according to Culhwch and Olwen, he had brothers named Ermind and Dywel. A "Geraint of the South" appears at the Battle of Catraeth in the 14th-century poem Y Gododdin, attributed to Aneirin. Geraint was one of the "Three Seafarers of the Isle of Britain" according to the Welsh Triads; the Elegy for Geraint is a sixth century poem found in the Black Book of Carmarthen, in praise of Geraint, a Dumnonian king, who fell during the conflict with the Saxons. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle says: "Port and his two sons and Maegla, came to Britain at the place called Portsmouth, slew a young Welshman, a noble man." Scholars believe that the Llongborth mentioned in the poem is, in fact, the Portsmouth of the Chronicle entry and that Geraint is the "young Welshman", killed there.
However, other locations have been suggested. Hypotheses about the location of the battle range from Somerset, bordering Dumnonia, to as far north as Kingdom of Strathclyde; the early poem Y Gododdin mentions a "Geraint before the South", conceivably a reference to Geraint mab Erbin. His deeds at the Battle of Llongborth are celebrated in the poem "Geraint son of Erbin", written in the 10th or 11th century, traditionally attributed to Llywarch Hen. However, Derek Bryce, following other scholars, suggests that the historical Geraint of Dumnonia may be identified as the real warrior eulogized in connection with the Battle of Llongborth in the poem, despite its title. Bryce identifies Llongborth with the 710 battle between that Saxon leader Ine of Wessex. Strathclyde had rulers named Geraint and Erbin/Elfin in the same era, was known as Damnonia, after the Dumnonii tribe of the area in Romano-British times, thus confused with Dumnonia/Devon, he is most famous as the protagonist in the Welsh tale Geraint and Enid, where he becomes the lover of Enid.
Geraint and Enid is one of the three Welsh Romances associated with the Mabinogion. Its story parallels the French writer Chrétien de Troyes's Erec and Enide; some scholars feel both works derived from a common lost source, but most believe the Welsh version derives directly or indirectly from Chrétien. In this case, the renowned figure of Geraint would have been added to the story to suit Welsh audiences unfamiliar with Chrétien's protagonist, Erec. Geraint and Enid was reworked by Alfred Tennyson into the poems The Marriage of Geraint and Geraint and Enid, part of his Idylls of the King; the Arthurian character in works is referred to as Sir Geraint. According to the vita of Saint Teilo", in 549, in order to avoid the yellow plague sweeping through Britain, with a small group of monks, left Llandaff to join Samson of Dol in Brittany. Passing through Dumnonia, they were received hospitably by King Geraint at Din Gerrein. In gratitude, Teilo promised the King his spiritual assistance at the hour of death.
Seven years Teilo returned to give the King the last rites. Because of the relationships that bound him to Teilo, he too was proclaimed holy. There are local legends of the folk saint King Geraint, patron saint of Gerrans, near Falmouth, being buried on Carne Beacon near Veryan. Gerrans celebrates his festival on the second Sunday in August, his feast day is 10 August
Sir Balin le Savage known as the Knight with the Two Swords, is a character in the Arthurian legend. Like Sir Galahad, Sir Balin is a late addition to the medieval Arthurian world, his story, as told by Thomas Malory in Le Morte d'Arthur, is based upon that told in the continuation of the second book of the Post-Vulgate cycle of legend, the Suite du Merlin. A knight before the Round Table was formed, Sir Balin lives only for a few weeks following his release from King Arthur's prison and his subsequent slaying of the Lady of the Lake. Just prior to his departure, his destiny is sealed by the arrival of a mysterious damsel bearing a sword that only the “most virtuous” knight in Arthur's court will be able to draw, so it’s claimed. Balin draws this sword and his adventures end when Balin and his brother Balan destroy each other in single combat, fulfilling an earlier prophecy about the destiny of the bearer of the damsel's sword. Prior to his tragic end, this ill-fated knight contrives to inflict a "Dolorous Stroke" with the spear that pierced Christ upon the Cross, thus setting the scene for the Post-Vulgate version of the search for the Holy Grail.
Merlin tells. The story of Sir Balin and his brother Balan is found in Thomas Malory's epic retelling of the Arthurian legend, Le Morte d'Arthur. Malory based his tale on the continuation of the second book of the Old French Post-Vulgate cycle of Arthurian Grail legend, the Suite du Merlin, dating to the mid-13th century; the Suite du Merlin survives in only two copies: British Museum Add. 38117 and Cambridge Add. 7071, both dating to the 14th century. This account of the life and adventures of Sir Balin is taken from the story Balin or the Knight with the Two Swords told by Malory in Le Morte d'Arthur. King Arthur is strong, near the beginning of his reign. Balin is a poor knight, in Arthur's prison for six months. Having been imprisoned for "half a year" for the death of a cousin of Arthur's, Balin is released at about the same time that a damsel sent from the lady Lily of Avalon comes to court wearing a sword that she reveals she is wearing when she lets her fur mantle fall to the floor; this sword can only be drawn from its scabbard by a virtuous knight, or so she claims.
After many, including Arthur himself, have attempted to pull this sword out, Balin asks for a chance to try. However, it was a trap; the damsel is at first reluctant to allow a knight who has just been released from prison to attempt the trial. But she does and Balin succeeds in drawing the sword and claiming it as his own; the damsel regrets her initial presumptuousness, but further chastises Balin when he refuses to return the sword to her. She is not angry but concerned for him, because if he does not return the sword to her, he will suffer for it; the damsel leaves, but not before warning Balin that he will kill, with this sword, his greatest friend, the one whom he loves the best, it will cause his own destruction. Shortly thereafter, the Lady of the Lake, in pursuit of a feud between her family and Balin's, arrives to ask King Arthur for Balin's head, she demands it as payment for the sword that she has given to Arthur. King Arthur agrees to pay her for the sword, but not to her demand for the head of Balin, whom she claims has killed her brother, or the head of the damsel, whom she claims caused her father’s death.
Balin, upon hearing that the woman, the cause of his mother's wrongful execution is in court, impetuously strikes off the lady’s head with the cry: "You wanted my head and so I shall take yours!" Balin justifies his swift action by making known his claim that the lady caused his own mother to be burned to death. Arthur is unimpressed by this plea and insists that were the claim true, Balin ought to have withheld his sword in the royal court, against such a lady. Arthur banishes Balin from his court. Merlin arrives and explains that the damsel with the sword was a false traitor, angry with her own brother, a good knight who slew her lover. With the help of the lady Lily of Avalon, this damsel had sought revenge for her lover's death through that sword, whose holder is destined to slay his own brother. Although logic may suggest that Balin and this damsel might therefore share a brother, there is no indication from Malory that this is the case. Merlin explains this all to the court; this explanation that Merlin gives may have evolved through re-tellings of the story and through inconsistencies in the legend, but it is clear from Merlin that this sword that Balin has taken from the damsel bears a curse of some kind.
Tragedy soon begins to haunt Balin. One of Arthur's knights, Sir Lanceor of Ireland, jealous that he was not the one to pull the accursed sword free of its scabbard, with the approval of King Arthur, sets out in pursuit of Balin to slay him. Sir Balin kills him; this knight's damsel Colombe, appears and, overcome with grief, commits suicide by falling upon her lover's own sword. Balin meets his brother Balan in disfavour of King Arthur, who has come to Arthur's country looking for him, they agree to set off together to do battle with King Rience, who has refused to acknowledge King Arthur as his sovereign and is making war against him. Balin wants to do this as a way of winning back King Arthur's love, but before they can leave on this mission, a dwarf appears, lamenting the death of the knight whom Balin has just killed and the woman who committed suicide beside him; the dwarf declares. King Mark of Cornwall appe
Gawain known as Gawaine or Gauwaine, among various other forms and spellings, is King Arthur's nephew and a Knight of the Round Table in the Arthurian legend. Under the name Gwalchmei, he appears early in the legend's development, being mentioned in some of the earliest Welsh Arthurian sources; as Gawain, he appears in Latin, English, Dutch and Italian literature, notably as the protagonist of the story of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. Other tales of Gawain include Historia Regum Britanniae, Roman de Brut, De Ortu Waluuanii, Diu Crône, The Awntyrs off Arthure, Le Chevalier à l'épée, The Weddynge of Syr Gawen and Dame Ragnell, as well as the works of Chrétien de Troyes and the prose cycle Lancelot-Grail. Gawain is one of a select number of Round Table members to be referred to as one of the greatest knights and closest companions of King Arthur, he is the son of Arthur's sister Morgause and King Lot of Orkney and Lothian, his brothers or half-brothers are Agravain, Gaheris and Mordred. He is portrayed as a formidable, a compassionate warrior, fiercely loyal to his king and family.
As such he is a friend to young knights, a defender of the poor, as "the Maidens' Knight", a defender of women as well. He has a horse named Gringolet, uses the sword Excalibur, his sons may include the "Fair Unknown", Gingalain. One recurring theme of versions of Gawain's legend is him being a friend of Lancelot turned his bitter enemy. Gawain's glowing portrayals are diminished in the Lancelot-Grail Cycle in favor of Lancelot and Galahad, his character turns markedly ignoble in the Post-Vulgate Cycle. Gawain is known by different variants in different languages; the character corresponds to the Welsh Gwalchmei ap Gwyar, is known in Latin as Walwen, Waluanus, etc.. The forms are assumed to derive from the Welsh Gwalchmei; the element Gwalch means hawk, is a typical epithet in medieval Welsh poetry. The meaning of mei is uncertain, it has been suggested that it refers to the month of May, rendering "Hawk of May", Rachel Bromwich considers this unlikely. Kenneth Jackson suggests the name evolved from an early Common Brittonic name *Ualcos Magesos, meaning "Hawk of the Plain".
The Gwyar in Gwalchmei ap Gwyar is the name of Gwalchmei's mother, rather than his father as is the standard in the Welsh Triads. Matronyms were sometimes used in Wales, as in the case of Math fab Mathonwy and Gwydion fab Dôn, were fairly common in early Ireland. Gwyar appears as a daughter of Amlawdd Wledig in one version of the hagiographical genealogy Bonedd y Saint. Additionally, the 14th-century Birth of Arthur, a Welsh text adapting scenes from Geoffrey of Monmouth, substitutes Gwyar for "Anna", Geoffrey's name for Gawain's mother, named Morgause in the French-inspired tradition. Other sources do not follow this substitution, indicating that Gwyar and Anna originated independently. Not all scholars accept the gwalch derivation. John Koch suggests the name could be derived from a Brythonic original *Wolcos Magesos, "Wolf/Errant Warrior of the Plain." Others argue that the continental forms do not derive from Gwalchmei. Roger Sherman Loomis suggests a derivation from the epithet Gwallt Avwyn, found in the list of heroes in Culhwch and Olwen, which he translates as "hair like reins" or "bright hair".
Lauran Toorians proposes that the Dutch name Walewein was earliest, suggesting it entered Britain during the large settlement of Flemings in Wales in the early 12th century. However, most scholarship supports a derivation from Gwalchmei, variants of which are well attested in Wales and Brittany. Scholars such as Bromwich, Joseph Loth, Heinrich Zimmer trace the etymology of the continental versions to a corruption of the Breton form of the name, Walcmoei. Gwalchmei was a traditional hero of Welsh legend whose popularity increased after foreign versions those derived from Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, became known in Wales. An early Welsh romance Culhwch and Olwen, written in the 11th century and associated with the Mabinogion, ascribes to Gwalchmei the same relationship with Arthur that Gawain is given: he is a son of Arthur's sister and one of his leading warriors. However, he is mentioned only twice in the text. Unlike the other helpers he takes no further part in the action, suggesting he was added to the romance likely under the influence of the Welsh versions of Geoffrey's Historia.
He appears in Peredur fab Efrawg part of the Mabinogion, where he aids the hero Peredur in the final battle against the nine witches of Caer Loyw. A tale recorded by 16th-century Welsh scholar Sion Dafydd Rhys mentions how Gwalchmai destroyed three evil witch-sisters, wives of the giants slain by Arthur, killing them within their castles through his cunning as they could not be defeated otherwise due to their powers. Still, Gwalchmei was a traditional figure.
Constantine was a 6th-century king of Dumnonia in sub-Roman Britain, remembered in British tradition as a legendary King of Britain. The only contemporary information about him comes from Gildas, who castigated him for various sins, including the murder of two "royal youths" inside a church; the historical Constantine is known from the genealogies of the Dumnonian kings, inspired the tradition of Saint Constantine, a king-turned-monk venerated in Southwest Britain and elsewhere. In the 12th century, Geoffrey of Monmouth included Constantine in his pseudohistorical chronicle Historia Regum Britanniae, adding details to Gildas' account and making Constantine the successor to King Arthur as King of Britain. Under Geoffrey's influence, Constantine appeared as Arthur's heir in chronicles. Less he appeared in that role in medieval Arthurian romances and prose works, in some modern versions of the legend. Gildas mentions Constantine in chapters 28 and 29 of his 6th-century work De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae.
He is one of five Brittonic kings whom the author compares to Biblical beasts. Gildas calls Constantine the "tyrannical whelp of the unclean lioness of Damnonia", a reference to the books of Daniel and Revelation, also a slur directed at his mother; this Damnonia is identified as the kingdom of Dumnonia in Southwestern Britain. Scholars such as Lloyd Laing and Leslie Alcock note the possibility that Gildas may have instead intended the territory of the Damnonii, a tribe in present-day Scotland mentioned by Ptolemy in the 2nd century, but others such as Thomas D. O'Sullivan consider this unlikely. Gildas says that despite swearing an oath against deceit and tyranny, Constantine disguised himself in an abbot's robes and attacked two "royal youths" praying before a church altar, killing them and their companions. Gildas is clear that Constantine's sins were manifold before this, as he had committed "many adulteries" after casting off his lawfully wedded wife. Gildas encourages Constantine, whom he knows to still be alive at the time, to repent his sins lest he be damned.
Scholars identify Gildas' Constantine with the figure Custennin Gorneu or Custennin Corneu who appears in the genealogies of the kings of Dumnonia. Custennin is mentioned as the father of Erbin and the grandfather of the hero Geraint in the Bonedd y Saint, the prose romance Geraint and Enid, after emendation, the genealogies in Jesus College MS 20. Based on Custennin's placement in the genealogies, Thomas D. O'Sullivan suggests a floruit for Constantine of 520–523; the historical Constantine of Dumnonia may have influenced traditions, known in Southwestern Britain as well as in Wales and Scotland, about a Saint Constantine, said to have been a king who gave up his crown to become a monk. The Cornish and Welsh traditions may have been influenced by Gildas, in particular his adjuration for Constantine to repent; the two major centers for the cultus of Saint Constantine were the church in Constantine Parish and the Chapel of Saint Constantine in St Merryn Parish, both in Cornwall. The former was established by at least the 11th century, as it is mentioned in Rhygyfarch's 11th-century Life of Saint David.
At this time it may have supported a clerical community, but in centuries it was a parish church. The Chapel at Constantine Bay had a holy well, was the center of its own sub-parish; the Annales Cambriae and the Annals of Ulster record the conversion of a certain Constantine. Several subsequent religious texts refer to Constantine associating him with Cornwall specifically as its king; the Life of Saint David says that Constantine, King of Cornwall, gave up his crown and joined Saint David's monastery at Menevia. The Vitae Petroci includes an episode in which Saint Petroc protects a stag being hunted by a wealthy man named Constantine, who converts and becomes a monk. Here Constantine is not said to be king, but a 12th-century text referring to this story, the Miracula names him as such, further adding that upon his conversion he gave Petroc an ivory horn that became one of the saint's chief relics. A number of other traditions attested across Britain describe saints or kings named Constantine, suggesting a confusion and conflation of various figures.
Other sites in Southwestern Britain associated with figures named Constantine include the church of Milton Abbot, Devon. The two Devon sites may have been dedicated instead to Constantine the Great, as local churches were subject to Tavistock Abbey, dedicated to Constantine the Great's mother Helena. In Wales, two churches were dedicated to Constantine: Welsh Bicknor; the church in Govan, a parish in present-day Scotland, was dedicated to a Saint Constantine. Geoffrey of Monmouth includes Constantine in a section of his Historia Regum Britanniae adapted from Gildas; as he does throughout the work, Geoffrey alters his source material, recasting Gildas' reproved kings as successors, rather than contemporaries as in De Excidio. In addition to Gildas, Geoffrey evidently knew the Dumnonian genealogy as it appears in Geraint and Enid and similar sources, he further adds a number of other details not found in earlier sources, identifying Constantine as a son of Cador, a Cornish ruler known in Welsh tradition as Cadwy mab Geraint.
Notably, Geoffrey's Constantine is King Arthur's kinsman and succeeds him as King
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the