Census in Australia
The census in Australia, or the Census of Population and Housing, collects key characteristic data on every person in Australia, the place they are staying in, on a particular night. The census is the largest statistical collection compiled by the Australian Bureau of Statistics and is held every five years. Participation in the census is compulsory; the Australian Bureau of Statistics is legislated to collect and disseminate census data under the Australian Bureau of Statistics Act 1975, the Census and Statistics Act 1905. The first Australian census was held in 1911, on the night of 2 April and subsequent censuses were held in 1921, 1933, 1947, 1954 and 1961. In 1961 the five-year period was introduced. Censuses are held on the second Tuesday of August; the most recent was held on 9 August 2016 at a cost of $440 million. The census counts all people who are located within Australia and its external and internal territories, with the exception of foreign diplomats and their families, on census night.
For the first time, in 2016 Norfolk Island was included in the Australian census rather than being conducted by the Norfolk Island Government. The census examines data such as age, incomes, dwelling types and occupancy, transportation modes, languages spoken, religion; the census is collected and published against geographic areas defined by the Australian Standard Geographical Classification. The ASGC provides a set of geographic classifications for the dissemination of all ABS statistics. In 2007 the ABS published; the primary aim of mesh blocks is to provide a building block for constructing alternative and more relevant geographies. Only data on total persons and total dwellings is released at the mesh block level. Mesh blocks will form the basis of a new statistical geography, the Australian Statistical Geography Standard; the traditional concept of a Collection District is that it was the area that one census collector can cover in about a ten-day period. In the 2001 census, collectors may be allocated more than one urban collection district because of their size.
In urban areas collection districts average about 220 dwellings. In rural areas the number of dwellings per collection district reduces as population densities decrease. For the 2016 census there were 358,122'mesh blocks' and 57,523 spatial Statistical Area Level 1 regions defined throughout Australia; the Census and Statistics Act 1905 and Privacy Act 1988 guarantee that no personally-identifiable information is released from the ABS to other government organisations, or the public. However the ABS makes confidential census data available to researchers, who must make various legal commitments before being given access. In the 1970s there was public debate about the census. In 1979 the Law Reform Commission reported on the Census. One of the key elements under question was the inclusion of names, it was found. On 18 December 2015, the ABS announced that it will retain name and address data collected in the 2016 census for up to four years; this was an increase from 18 months in the 2011 censuses.
From 1971 to 1996 the ABS had a policy of destruction of the original census forms and their electronic representations, as well as field records. Prior to that it appears there was no explicit policy of destruction, but most material had been destroyed because of lack of storage facilities; however the 2001 census offered, for the first time, an option to have personal data archived by the National Archives of Australia and released to the public 99 years and in 2001 54% of Australians agreed to do so. Indigenous Australians in contact with the colonists were enumerated at many of the colonial censuses; when the Federation of Australia occurred in 1901, the new Constitution contained a provision, which said: "In reckoning the numbers of the people of the Commonwealth, or of a State or other part of the Commonwealth, aboriginal natives shall not be counted." In 1967, a referendum was held which approved two amendments to the Australian constitution relating to indigenous Australians. The second of the two amendments deleted Section 127 from the Constitution.
It was believed at the time of the referendum, is still said, that Section 127 meant that aboriginal people were not counted in Commonwealth censuses before 1967. In fact section 127 related to calculating the population of the states and territories for the purpose of allocating seats in Parliament and per capita Commonwealth grants, its purpose was to prevent Queensland and Western Australia using their large aboriginal populations to gain extra seats or extra funds. Thus the Commonwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics interpreted Section 127 as meaning that they may enumerate "aboriginal natives" but that they must be excluded from published tabulations of population. Aboriginal people living in settled areas were counted to a greater or lesser extent in all censuses before 1967; the first Commonwealth Statistician, George Handley Knibbs, obtained a legal opinion that "persons of the half blood" or less are not "aboriginal natives" for the purposes of the Constitution. At the first Australian census in 1911 only those "aboriginal natives" living near white settlements were enumerated, the main population tables included only those of half or less aboriginal descent.
Details of "half-caste" (but not "ful
Division of McEwen
The Division of McEwen is an Australian Electoral Division in the state of Victoria. Classed as a rural seat, the electorate is located in the centre of the state, north of the capital city of Melbourne, it includes the outer northern suburbs of Craigieburn, Mernda and Wollert, extends along the Hume Highway north of the metropolitan area to include the towns of Broadford, Kilmore, Seymour and Woodend as well as many other small towns. The Division was proclaimed at the redistribution of 14 September 1984, was first contested at the 1984 federal election, it was named after Sir John McEwen, leader of the Country Party of Australia, appointed caretaker Prime Minister of Australia after the disappearance of Harold Holt in 1967. For most of its history, the seat has been marginal. While classed as rural, it is a hybrid urban-rural seat; the urban portion is located in Labor's traditional heartland of north Melbourne, while the rural portion votes strongly for the Liberals and Nationals. The 2007 election resulted in McEwen becoming the most marginal seat in the country.
Incumbent Liberal MP Fran Bailey led throughout most of the initial count, was found to have lost to former Labor state MLC Rob Mitchell by six votes. Bailey subsequently requested and was granted a full recount, which overturned Mitchell's win and instead gave Bailey a twelve-vote victory; the result was challenged in the High Court of Australia in its capacity as the Court of Disputed Returns, was referred to the Federal Court of Australia. Over seven months after the election and a review of 643 individual votes, the court altered the formal status of several dozen declaring Bailey the winner by 27 votes amended to 31 votes. Following the resolution of the long-running dispute, Bailey called for a total overhaul of the voting system. Bailey retired at the 2010 election where Mitchell again stood as the Labor candidate and won amid a considerable swing to Labor in Victoria that allowed Julia Gillard to form a minority government. Ahead of the 2013 election, a redistribution pushed McEwen further into Melbourne, increasing Labor's notional majority from a marginal 5.3 percent to a safe 9.2 percent.
However, Mitchell retained the seat against former Liberal MLC Donna Petrovich with a majority of just 0.15 percent—a margin of just 313 votes—which made McEwen the most marginal seat in Australia. Mitchell won a third term in Australian federal election, 2016 on a swing of over seven percent, boosting his majority to 57 percent, the strongest result in the seat's history. Division of McEwen - Australian Electoral Commission
Humevale is a rural locality in Victoria, Australia between Whittlesea and Kinglake West, about 40 kilometres north-north-east of Melbourne, within the City of Whittlesea. At the 2016 Census, Humevale had a population of 307; the Post Office opened around 1902 as Scrubby Creek, was renamed Humevale in 1927 and closed in 1959. Humevale is referred to as Scrubby Creek, after a nearby watercourse. Gazetteer of Australia
Tasmania is an island state of Australia. It is located 240 km to the south of the Australian mainland, separated by Bass Strait; the state encompasses the main island of Tasmania, the 26th-largest island in the world, the surrounding 334 islands. The state has a population of around 526,700 as of March 2018. Just over forty percent of the population resides in the Greater Hobart precinct, which forms the metropolitan area of the state capital and largest city, Hobart. Tasmania's area is 68,401 km2, of which the main island covers 64,519 km2, it is promoted as a natural state, protected areas of Tasmania cover about 42% of its land area, which includes national parks and World Heritage Sites. Tasmania was the founding place of the first environmental political party in the world; the island is believed to have been occupied by indigenous peoples for 30,000 years before British colonisation. It is thought Aboriginal Tasmanians were separated from the mainland Aboriginal groups about 10,000 years ago when the sea rose to form Bass Strait.
The Aboriginal population is estimated to have been between 3,000 and 7,000 at the time of colonisation, but was wiped out within 30 years by a combination of violent guerrilla conflict with settlers known as the "Black War", intertribal conflict, from the late 1820s, the spread of infectious diseases to which they had no immunity. The conflict, which peaked between 1825 and 1831, led to more than three years of martial law, cost the lives of 1,100 Aboriginals and settlers; the island was permanently settled by Europeans in 1803 as a penal settlement of the British Empire to prevent claims to the land by the First French Empire during the Napoleonic Wars. The island was part of the Colony of New South Wales but became a separate, self-governing colony under the name Van Diemen's Land in 1825. 75,000 convicts were sent to Van Diemen's Land before transportation ceased in 1853. In 1854 the present Constitution of Tasmania was passed, the following year the colony received permission to change its name to Tasmania.
In 1901 it became a state through the process of the Federation of Australia. The state is named after Dutch explorer Abel Tasman, who made the first reported European sighting of the island on 24 November 1642. Tasman named the island Anthony van Diemen's Land after his sponsor Anthony van Diemen, the Governor of the Dutch East Indies; the name was shortened to Van Diemen's Land by the British. It was renamed Tasmania in honour of its first European discoverer on 1 January 1856. Tasmania was sometimes referred to as "Dervon," as mentioned in the Jerilderie Letter written by the notorious Australian bushranger Ned Kelly in 1879; the colloquial expression for the state is "Tassie". Tasmania is colloquially shortened to "Tas," when used in business names and website addresses. TAS is the Australia Post abbreviation for the state; the reconstructed Palawa kani language name for Tasmania is Lutriwita. The island was adjoined to the mainland of Australia until the end of the last glacial period about 10,000 years ago.
Much of the island is composed of Jurassic dolerite intrusions through other rock types, sometimes forming large columnar joints. Tasmania has the world's largest areas of dolerite, with many distinctive mountains and cliffs formed from this rock type; the central plateau and the southeast portions of the island are dolerites. Mount Wellington above Hobart is a good example. In the southern midlands as far south as Hobart, the dolerite is underlaid by sandstone and similar sedimentary stones. In the southwest, Precambrian quartzites were formed from ancient sea sediments and form strikingly sharp ridges and ranges, such as Federation Peak or Frenchmans Cap. In the northeast and east, continental granites can be seen, such as at Freycinet, similar to coastal granites on mainland Australia. In the northwest and west, mineral-rich volcanic rock can be seen at Mount Read near Rosebery, or at Mount Lyell near Queenstown. Present in the south and northwest is limestone with caves; the quartzite and dolerite areas in the higher mountains show evidence of glaciation, much of Australia's glaciated landscape is found on the Central Plateau and the Southwest.
Cradle Mountain, another dolerite peak, for example, was a nunatak. The combination of these different rock types contributes to scenery, distinct from any other region of the world. In the far southwest corner of the state, the geology is wholly quartzite, which gives the mountains the false impression of having snow-capped peaks year round. Evidence indicates the presence of Aborigines in Tasmania about 42,000 years ago. Rising sea levels cut Tasmania off from mainland Australia about 10,000 years ago and by the time of European contact, the Aboriginal people in Tasmania had nine major nations or ethnic groups. At the time of the British occupation and colonisation in 1803, the indigenous population was estimated at between 3,000 and 10,000. Historian Lyndall Ryan's analysis of population studies led her to conclude that there were about 7,000 spread throughout the island's nine nations. J. B. Plomley and Rhys Jones, settled on a figure of 3,000 to 4,000, they engaged in fire-stick farming, hunted game including kangaroo and wallabies, caught seals, mutton-birds and fish and lived as nine separate "nations" on the island, which they knew as "Trouwunna".
The first reported sighting of Tasmania by a European was on 24 November 1642 by Dutch explorer Abel Tasman, who landed at today's Blackman Bay. More than a century in 1772, a French expedition le
Kilmore East, Victoria
Kilmore East is a locality in the Australian state of Victoria, 90 kilometres north of Melbourne. At the 2016 census, Kilmore East had a population of 417. Kilmore East railway and telegraph station was established in 1872 to serve Kilmore; the Post Office at Kilmore East opened on 1 September 1872 as Gavan Duffy, named after Sir Charles Gavan Duffy the Premier of Victoria until June of that year. It was renamed Kilmore East two months and closed in 1976. Gavan Street and Duffy Street are reminders of the original township name. In 1976, a bluestone quarry was developed 3 km to the north of the station. A hilltop above Saunders Road was identified as the starting point of a major bushfire on 7 February 2009 that devastated many localities to the south-east including Wandong and Kinglake. An investigation put some of the blame on a recloser that tried to restore power to a "dangling" power line. October 2007 California wildfires Recloser
Kangaroo Ground, Victoria
Kangaroo Ground is a town in Victoria, Australia, 26 km north-east of Melbourne's Central Business District. Its local government area is the Shire of Nillumbik. At the 2016 Census, Kangaroo Ground had a population of 1,095. Kangaroo Ground Post Office opened on 4 October 1854. Kangaroo Ground contains the Kangaroo Ground Primary School, a tennis club, a general store, post office, a pony club, a fire station and Wellers Restaurant, its post office is reputed to be the only one in Australia, a winery. The Memorial Tower in the Kangaroo Ground War Memorial Park is one of the highest places in Melbourne, it was built as a World War I memorial, is now used to monitor bushfires during the bushfire season. The grounds around the tower feature a pine sapling planted on 11 November 2005. A mobile library operated by Yarra Plenty Regional Library visits the township. Shire of Eltham - Kangaroo Ground was within this former local government area
Research is a suburb of Melbourne, Australia, 24 kilometres north-east from Melbourne's Central Business District. Its Local Government Area is the Shire of Nillumbik. At the 2016 Census, Research had a population of 2,649. Settled in the 1850s, Research was the location of extensive orchards by the 1860s; the unusual name arose during the mid 19th century. Research was known as Swiper's Gully, but gold was found after the area was re-searched. Swiper's Gully became Research Gully, late in the 19th century, abbreviated to Research. Research Post Office opened on 20 October 1902. Much of Research today consists of 1 to 35 acre blocks This area has one of the highest bushfire risks in Australia, due to prolific Eucalyptus & Melaleuca Paperbark trees Consequently, a diverse variety of fauna and flora exist in this ecologically protected zone. Research has a variety of facilities including the Research Football Club, Scout Hall, Tennis Club, Research CFA, Eltham Little Theatre, Balance Gymnastics Club, Eltham Martial Arts Gym & Micky's Fitness Gym.
The nearest public library is Eltham Library operated by Yarra Plenty Regional Library. The schools in Research include Eltham College of Research Primary School. Eltham College of Education and Research Primary are both Situated on the same Main Road. Research is the home of the Research Junior Football Club, which competes in the Northern Football League, they play their home games at Research Park, located on Research. Research Cricket Club and Eltham Collegians Cricket Club were both Diamond Valley Cricket Association teams based in Research, until they merged in 2010 to form one club, their home games are played at Eltham College Oval. Research Baseball Club, which plays in the Melbourne Winter Baseball League, are based in Research, but play their home games in Lower Plenty. Research Tennis Club play their home games at the Research Park Tennis Courts. Shire of Eltham - Research was within this former local government area