The Richard Riot was a riot on March 17, 1955, in Montreal, Canada. The riot was named after Maurice Richard, the star ice hockey player for the Montreal Canadiens of the National Hockey League. Following a violent altercation on March 13 in which Richard hit a linesman, NHL president Clarence Campbell suspended him for the remainder of the 1954–55 NHL season, including the playoffs. Montreal fans protested. Outside of Montreal, the suspension was seen as justified and, if anything, too short. On March 17, Campbell appeared at the Montreal Forum for the Canadiens' first game after Richard's suspension, his presence provoked a riot at the Forum. The riot caused an estimated $100,000 in property damage, thirty-seven injuries, 100 arrests. Tensions eased after Richard made a personal plea accepting his punishment and promising to return the following year to help the team win the Stanley Cup; the incident cost Richard the 1954–55 scoring title and played a role in the off-season departure of longtime Canadiens head coach Dick Irvin.
Maurice Richard was the star player for the Montreal Canadiens, it was common for opponents to provoke him during games. Teams sent players onto the ice to purposefully annoy him by yelling ethnic slurs, hooking and holding him as much as possible. Throughout his career, Richard was fined and suspended several times for retaliatory assaults on players and officials, including a $250 fine for slapping a linesman in the face less than three months before the March 13, 1955 incident. Richard was considered the embodiment of French-Canadians and was a hero during a time when they were seen as second-class citizens, he was revered. In his book, The Rocket: A Cultural History of Maurice Richard, Benoît Melançon compares Richard to Major League Baseball's Jackie Robinson by stating that both players represented the possibility for their minority groups to succeed in North America. During the 1950s, Quebec's industries and natural resources were controlled by English Canadians or Americans. French-speaking Quebecers were the lowest-paid ethnic group in Quebec, which resulted in a sense that control rested with the Anglophone minority.
Because of this and other factors, there had been growing discontent in the years before the riot. In early 1954, Richard's teammate, Bernie Geoffrion, was suspended in a move seen as anti-Francophone. Following the suspension, who had a weekly column in the Samedi-Dimanche newspaper, called President Campbell a "dictator" in print; the League in turn forced Richard to discontinue his column. In his 1976 biography of Richard, Jean-Marie Pellerin wrote that his humiliation was shared by all Francophone Quebecers, who were sent running once more by the "English boot"; this was reflected in a Montreal newspaper's editorial cartoon, which portrayed Richard as an unruly schoolboy made to write lines by Campbell, shown as the teacher. On March 13, 1955, an on-ice episode sparked one of the worst incidents of hockey-related violence in history. On that date in Boston, Richard was part of a violent confrontation in a game between the Canadiens and their rival Boston Bruins; the Bruins' Hal Laycoe, who had played defence for the Canadiens, high-sticked Richard in the head during a Montreal power play.
Richard required five stitches to close a cut. Referee Frank Udvari signaled a delayed penalty, but allowed play to continue because the Canadiens had possession of the puck; when the play ended, Richard skated up to Laycoe, who had dropped his stick and gloves in anticipation of a fight, struck him in the face and shoulders with his stick. The linesmen attempted to restrain Richard, who broke away from them to continue his attack on Laycoe breaking a stick over his opponent's body before linesman Cliff Thompson corralled him. Richard punched Thompson twice in the face, knocking him unconscious. Richard left the ice with the Canadiens' trainer. According to Montreal Herald writer Vince Lunny, Richard's face resembled a "smashed tomato." Richard was given a match penalty and an automatic $100 fine, Laycoe a five-minute major penalty plus a ten-minute misconduct for the high stick. Boston police attempted to arrest Richard in the dressing room after the game ended, but were turned back by Canadiens players who barred the door, preventing any arrest.
Bruins management persuaded the officers to leave with a promise that the NHL would handle the issue. Richard was never arrested for the incident, he was instead sent to the hospital by team doctors after complaining of headaches and stomach pains. The Laycoe incident was Richard's second altercation with an official that season, after having slapped a linesman in the face in Toronto the previous December, for which he was fined $250. Upon hearing the referee's report, league president Clarence Campbell ordered all parties to appear at a March 16 hearing at his office in Montreal; the game's on-ice officials, Laycoe, Montreal assistant general manager Ken Reardon, Boston general manager Lynn Patrick, Montreal coach Dick Irvin, NHL referee-in-chief Carl Voss attended the March 16 hearing. In his defence, Richard contended that he was dazed and thought Thompson was one of Boston's players, he did not deny attacking Laycoe. After the
Pierre de Rigaud, marquis de Vaudreuil-Cavagnial
Pierre de Rigaud de Vaudreuil de Cavagnial, marquis de Vaudreuil was a Canadian-born colonial governor of Canada in North America. He in 1755 became the last Governor-General of New France. In 1759 and 1760 the British conquered the colony in the Seven Years' War, he was born to the Governor-General of New France, Philippe de Rigaud Vaudreuil and his wife Louise-Élisabeth, daughter of Pierre de Joybert de Soulanges et de Marson, in Quebec. He was the uncle of Louis-Philippe de Vaudreuil. Vaudreuil-Cavagnial rose through the New France military and civil service, in part owing to his father's patronage but due to his own innate ability. Commissioned an officer of the French army while still a youth, in 1733 he was appointed governor of Trois-Rivières, in 1742 of French Louisiana, serving there from to May 10, 1743 to February 9, 1753 and proving himself a skilled officer and capable administrator, he moved to France in 1753 before being appointed by King Louis XV as governor of New France in 1755.
The first governor of New France to be born in Canada, his leadership was questioned and some of his orders were ignored by officials of the French army such as Louis-Joseph de Montcalm, who judged him to be "too Canadian". Although Vaudreuil-Cavagnial held supreme civil authority in Canada and was technically commander-in-chief of all French forces there, he clashed with Montcalm, the military commander in the field, who resented his oversight role; the two men grew to detest one another, much to the detriment of the French war effort. Vaudreuil-Cavagnal had excellent relations with the Canadian militia and with the Native-Canadian tribes allied with France. After Montcalm lost to the British forces under Maj. Gen. James Wolfe at Quebec City in the Battle of the Plains of Abraham, Vaudreuil-Cavagnial tried to rally resistance to the British, but to no avail, he was forced to surrender Montreal on 8 September 1760 to Maj. Gen. Jeffrey Amherst. One of several scapegoats for France's losses in the New World, Vaudreuil was imprisoned in the Bastille on March 30, 1762 but released on May 18, 1762.
He was joined by Bigot, Pean, Varin, Le Mercier, Penisseault and Copron amongst others. Of the 21 men brought to trial, 10 were condemned, six were acquitted, three received an admonition and two were dismissed for want of evidence. Absent were 34, of whom seven were sentenced in default, judgement was reserved in the case of the rest. Exonerated in a military tribunal held in December 1763, he was awarded a pension and military decoration. After selling his Canadian seigneuries at Vaudreuil and Rigaud to his cousin, Michel Chartier de Lotbinière, Marquis de Lotbinière, he retired to his ancestral estate near Rouen, although the episode ruined his fortunes, he died in Paris on 4 August 1778. His nephew Louis-Philippe de Vaudreuil was the second in command of the French naval units supporting the Americans during the American Revolution, he was present at the defeat of the British fleet by the French at the pivotal Battle of the Chesapeake during the siege of Yorktown in 1781, although he was defeated by the Royal Navy at the Battle of the Saintes.
Canadian Hereditary Peers Articles of Capitulation of Montreal Timeline of Quebec history Philippe de Rigaud Vaudreuil Louis-Philippe de Vaudreuil Joseph Hyacinthe François de Paule de Rigaud, Comte de Vaudreuil Barron, Bill. The Vaudreuil Papers: A Calendar and Index of the Personal and Private Records of Pierre de Rigaud de Vaudreuil, Royal Governor of the French Province of Louisiana, 1743-1753, New Orleans: Polyanthos, 543 p. Frégault, Guy. Le Grand marquis: Pierre de Rigaud de Vaudreuil et la Louisiane, Montréal: Fides, 481 p. Frégault, Guy. La Guerre de la Conquête, Montréal: Fides, 514 p. Roy, Pierre-Georges. La Famille de Rigaud de Vaudreuil, Lévis, 216 p. Le Jeune, Louis, "Pierre de Cavagnal, marquis de Vaudreuil", in Dictionnaire général de biographie, littérature, commerce, industrie et des arts, sciences, mœurs, institutions politiques et religieuses du Canada, volume II, Ottawa: Université d’Ottawa, 1931, pp. 764–767. Casgrain, Henri-Raymond. Lettres du marquis 215 p. Casgrain, Henri-Raymond.
Extraits des archives des Ministères de la marine et de la guerre à Paris: Canada, Correspondance générale, MM. Duquesne et Vaudreuil, Gouverneurs-generaux, 1755-1760, Québec: L. J. Demers, 322 p. Vaudreuil, Pierre de Rigaud de. Mémoire pour le marquis de Vaudreuil, grand-croix de l'Ordre royale & militaire de Saint-Louis, ci-devant gouverneur & lieutenant général de la Nouvelle France, Imprimerie de Moreau, 46 p. CyberAcadie: Biographie: Pierre de Rigaud de Vaudreuil de Cavagnial, marquis de Vaudreuil. Canadian Military Heritage - Mutual Dislike Between Colonial and Metropolitan Officers. 1759 From the Warpath to the Plains of Abraham. National Battlefields Commission
Bank of Montreal
The Bank of Montreal, doing business as BMO Financial Group, is a Canadian multinational investment bank and financial services company headquartered in Toronto, Canada. One of the Big Five banks in Canada, it is the fourth-largest bank in Canada by market capitalization and assets, as well as one of the ten largest banks in North America, it is known by its acronym BMO, its stock symbol on both the Toronto Stock Exchange and the New York Stock Exchange. On June 23, 1817, John Richardson and eight merchants signed the Articles of Association to establish the Bank of Montreal in a rented house in Montreal, Quebec; the bank began conducting business on November 3, 1817, making it Canada's oldest bank. BMO's Institution Number is 001. In Canada, the bank operates as BMO Bank of Montreal and has more than 900 branches, serving over seven million customers; the company has substantial operations in the Chicago area and elsewhere in the United States, where it operates as BMO Harris Bank. BMO Capital Markets is BMO's investment and corporate banking division, while the wealth management division is branded as BMO Nesbitt Burns.
The company is ranked at number 131 on the Forbes Global 2000 list. The company has not missed a dividend payment since 1829, paying dividends through major world crises such as World War I, the Great Depression, World War II, the 2008 financial crisis; the Bank of Montreal was founded in 1817 as the first bank in Canada. The Bank of Montreal established branches in Newfoundland on January 31, 1895, following the collapse of the Newfoundland Commercial Bank and Union Bank of Newfoundland on December 10, 1894. In 1925, Bank of Montreal merged with the Molson Bank. BMO's operational head office moved to First Canadian Place on Bay Street in Toronto in 1977, while its legal headquarters remains at the historic Montreal structure it has occupied since 1847. Bank of Montreal, like the other Canadian chartered banks, issued its own paper money from 1817 until 1942. Though the last notes were issued during that year, they may have circulated for some time after. In 1944, the Bank of Canada became the sole issuer of currency in Canada, notes from private banks were withdrawn.
Today, the Bank of Montreal goes by the brand name BMO. It is a major international bank with subsidiaries operating in the United States and other countries around the world. BMO and Simplii Financial were the targets of hackers in May 2018, who claimed to have compromised the systems of both banks and stolen information on a combined 90,000 customers. An email sent from a Russian address and attributed to the hackers demanded a ransom of US$1 million from each company paid via Ripple by 11:59 pm on May 28, 2018 or the information would be released on "fraud forum and fraud community." A number of buildings in which Bank of Montreal operates branches are designated by various levels of government as being of historic importance. These include: The Bank of Montreal, 4896 Delta Street, British Columbia The Bank of Montreal, 511 Columbia Street, New Westminster, British Columbia The Bank of Montreal, 322 Curling Street, Corner Brook and Labrador The Bank of Montreal, 426 Portage Avenue, Manitoba The "Old Bank of Montreal", 100 Victoria Street East known as the "Heritage Court", Nova Scotia The Bank of Montreal, 1 Main Street West, Ontario The Bank of Montreal, 144 Wellington Street, Ontario built by Ernest Barott of Barott and Blackader, architects, of Montreal The Bank of Montreal, 3 King Street, Ontario known as the Molson's Bank, by architect Andrew Taylor A number of branches were designed by Andrew Taylor including: The Bank of Montreal in West End, Ste.
Catherine Street West at Mansfield Street, Montreal The Bank of Montreal in Notre Dame Street West Seigneurs Street, Montreal The Bank of Montreal in Point St. Charles Branch, Wellington Street at Magdalen Street, Montreal The Bank of Montreal, St. Catherine Street West at Papineau Street, Montreal The Bank of Montreal, Ontario The Bank of Montreal, Alberta, Stephen Avenue at Scarth Street Manager's residence for the Bank of Montreal, Quebec City, Grande Allee The Bank of Montreal in Sydney, Nova Scotia; the building was modelled after a Georgian townhouse with a small portico of Corinthian columns supporting a classical pediment and remains the bank's legal headquarters. The Bank of Montreal's operational head office is located at First Canadian Place in Toronto, designed by Edward Durrell Stone; the Bank of Montreal, Front & Yonge Streets, Ontario. The 1885 Beaux-Arts styled building designed by the Toronto firm of Darling & Curry has been the site of the Hockey Hall of Fame since 1993. During its history, Bank of Montreal has merged with or acquired several other Canadian banks: Commercial Bank of Canada of Kingston, Ontario – acquired through Merchants Bank Exchange Bank of Yarmouth People's Bank of Halifax People's Bank of New Brunswick Bank of British North America Merchants Bank of Canada, as well as several investment banking firms.
Molson Bank Nesbitt and Company - stock brokers Standard Chartered Bank of Canada 2 retail branches (1990
The Grey Nuns is the name given to 6 distinct Roman Catholic religious communities of women, which trace their origins to the original foundation, of the Sisters of Charity of the Hôpital Général, in Montréal. The Sisters of Charity of Montreal called The Sisters of Charity of the Hôpital Général of Montreal and more known as the Grey Nuns of Montreal, is a Canadian religious institute of Roman Catholic religious sisters, founded in 1737 by Saint Marguerite d'Youville, a young widow; the congregation was founded when Marguerite d'Youville and three of her friends formed a religious association to care for the poor. They rented a small house in Montreal on 30 October 1738, taking in a small number of destitute persons. On 3 June 1753 the society received royal sanction, which transferred to them the rights and privileges granted by letters patent in 1694 to the Frères Hospitaliers de la Croix et de Saint-Joseph, known after their founder as the Frères Charon. At that time they took over the work of the bankrupt Frères Charon at the Hôpital Général de Montréal located outside the city walls.
In 1755 the sisters cared for those stricken during a smallpox epidemic. As the sisters were not cloistered, they could go out to visit the sick; those assisted included the First Nations people in Oka, who were among the benefactors who helped rebuild the Hospital after a fire in 1765. After 1840, the order expanded, over the next 100 years became a major provider of health care and other social services throughout Quebec and Northern Canada, the northern United States. In 1855, the Grey Nuns were called to Ohio, to care for many suffering from cholera; the city residents mocked the nuns by calling them "les grises" – a phrase meaning both "the grey women" and "the drunken women", in reference to the color of their attire and d'Youville's late husband, François-Magdeleine You d’Youville, a notorious bootlegger. Marguerite d'Youville and her colleagues adopted the particular black and beige dress of their religious institute in 1755: despite a lack of grey colour, they kept the nickname; when a Grey Nun worked as a nurse in a hospital, she exchanged her taupe habit for a white one.
They wore a bonnet instead of a veil, as, more practical for everyday work. The rule given to Marguerite d'Youville and her companions by the Sulpician priest, Father Louis Normant de Faradon, P. S. S, in 1745 received episcopal sanction in 1754, when Monseigneur de Pontbriant formed the society into an official religious community; this rule forms the basis of the present constitution, approved by Pope Leo XIII on 30 July 1880. Besides the three vows of poverty and obedience, the sisters pledge themselves to devote their lives to the service of suffering humanity; the sisters undertook the first mission by a female religious institute to Western Canada in 1844, when a colony of Grey Nuns left their convent in Montreal and travelled to Saint Boniface, on the shore of the Red River. Several sister communities branched off from the Sisters of Charity of Montreal: In 1840 four Grey Nuns from Montreal founded a community in the rural farming community of Saint-Hyacinthe and soon established the Hotel-Dieu for their health care ministry.
They became a separate pontifical congregation in 1896. In response to increased industrialization of the area, in 1864 they founded the workhouse of Saint Geneviève to " procure work for the poor women when they are unable to find any on the outside." The workhouse produced woollen fabric and soap, provided employment for ten women, girls, one man, three boys. In 1888 the sisters founded the first hospital in Maine; the only American congregation of Grey Nuns, the Grey Nuns of the Sacred Heart branched off from the Ottawa congregation in 1921, to establish an independent English-speaking congregation to minister in the United States. They founded D'Youville College in New York. In 1966, the mother house moved to Pennsylvania; the sisters serve in a variety of ministries in the East Coast states New York and Massachusetts as well as in Georgia and Alaska. The Sisters of Charity of the Hôtel-Dieu of Nicolet, branched off from Saint-Hyacinthe, united with Montreal the Sisters of Charity of Ottawa the Grey Nuns of the Cross the Grey Sisters of the Immaculate Conception, branched off from Ottawa the Sisters of Charity of Quebec As of 2008 the various Grey Nun branches operate in Canada, the United States, Brazil, Haiti, Central African Republic, South Africa, Papua New Guinea, Argentina, Uruguay and the Dominican Republic.
They once operated a number of major hospitals in Canada. The Grey Nuns' Hospital building built in 1765 in Montreal was designated a National Historic Site of Canada in 1973 to commemorate the Grey Nuns. In 2011, Grey Nuns Motherhouse, the former motherhouse of the Grey Nuns in Montreal, now part of Concordia University, was designated a National Historic Site, they now operate shelters for battered women, shelters for women in need and food dispensaries, centres for the disabled, some health care facilities. St. Boniface General Hospital in Winnipeg is still owned by the Grey Nuns.
Jeffery Amherst, 1st Baron Amherst
Field Marshal Jeffery Amherst, 1st Baron Amherst, served as an officer in the British Army and as Commander-in-Chief of the Forces. Amherst is best known as the architect of Britain's successful campaign to conquer the territory of New France during the Seven Years' War. Under his command, British forces captured the cities of Louisbourg, Quebec City and Montreal, as well as several major fortresses, he was the first British Governor General in the territories that became Canada. Numerous places and streets are named in both Canada and the United States. Amherst's legacy is controversial due to his expressed desire to exterminate the race of indigenous people during Pontiac's War, his advocacy of biological warfare in the form of gifting blankets infected with smallpox as a weapon; this has led to a reconsideration of his legacy. In 2017, the City of Montreal removed his name from a street in the city; the city of Amherst, Nova Scotia is considering renaming in light of recent movements to reconsider the naming of "towns and monuments that celebrate past war heroes whom, seen through today's ethical lens are not people who behaved in ways that we respect today," as is the town of Amherstburg, Ontario.
Born the son of Jeffrey Amherst, a Kentish lawyer, Elizabeth Amherst, Jeffery Amherst was born in Sevenoaks, England, on 29 January 1717. His brothers included Lieutenant General William Amherst. At an early age, he became a page to the Duke of Dorset. Amherst became an ensign in the Grenadier Guards in 1735. Amherst served in the War of the Austrian Succession becoming an aide to General John Ligonier and participating in the Battle of Dettingen in June 1743 and the Battle of Fontenoy in May 1745. Promoted to lieutenant colonel on 25 December 1745, he saw action at the Battle of Rocoux in October 1746, he became an aide to the Duke of Cumberland, the commander of the British forces, saw further action at the Battle of Lauffeld in July 1747. In February 1756, Amherst was appointed commissar to the Hessian forces, assembled to defend Hanover as part of the Army of Observation: as it appeared a French invasion attempt against Britain itself was imminent, Amherst was ordered in April to arrange the transportation of thousands of the Germans to southern England to bolster Britain's defences.
He was made colonel of the 15th Regiment of Foot on 12 June 1756. By 1757 as the immediate danger to Britain had passed the troops were moved back to Hanover to join a growing army under the Duke of Cumberland and Amherst fought with the Hessians under Cumberland's command at the Battle of Hastenbeck in July 1757: the Allied defeat there forced the army into a steady retreat northwards to Stade on the North Sea coast. Amherst was left dispirited by the retreat and by the Convention of Klosterzeven by which Hanover agreed to withdraw from the war: he began to prepare to disband the Hessian troops under his command, only to receive word that the Convention had been repudiated and the Allied force was being reformed. Amherst gained fame during the Seven Years' War in the North American campaign known in the United States as the French and Indian War when he led the British attack on Louisbourg on Cape Breton Island in June 1758. In the wake of this action, he was appointed commander-in-chief of the British army in North America and colonel-in-chief of the 60th Regiment in September 1758.
Amherst led an army against French troops on Lake Champlain, where he captured Fort Ticonderoga in July 1759, while another army under William Johnson took Niagara in July 1759 and James Wolfe besieged and captured Quebec with a third army in September 1759. Amherst served as the nominal Crown Governor of Virginia from 12 September 1759. From July 1760, Amherst led an army down the Saint Lawrence River from Fort Oswego, joined with Brigadier Murray from Quebec and Brigadier Haviland from Ile-aux-Noix in a three-way pincer, captured Montreal, ending French rule in North America on 8 September, he infuriated the French commanders by refusing them the honours of war. Half the continent changed hands "at the scratch of a pen." The British settlers proclaimed a day of thanksgiving. Boston newspapers recount how the occasion was celebrated with a parade, a grand dinner in Faneuil Hall, music and firing of cannon. Rev. Thomas Foxcroft of the First Church in Boston offered thus: The Lord hath done great things for us, whereof we are glad...
Long had it been the common opinion, Delenda est Carthago, Canada must be conquered, or we could hope for no lasting quiet in these parts. We behold His Majesty's victorious troops treading upon the high places of the enemy, their last fortress delivered up, the whole country surrendered to the King of Britain in the person of his general, the intrepid, the serene, the successful Amherst. In recognition of this victory, Amherst was appointed Governor-General of British North America in September 1760 and promoted to major-general on 29 November 1760, he was appointed Knight of the Order of the Bath on 11 April 1761. From his base at New York, Amherst oversaw the dispatch of troops under Monckton and Haviland to take part in British expeditions in the West Indies that led to the British capture of Dominica in 1761 and Martinique and Cuba in 1762; the uprising of many Native American tribes in the Ohio Valley and Great Lakes region referred to as Pontiac's War after one of its most notable le
French Canadians are an ethnic group who trace their ancestry to French colonists who settled in Canada from the 17th century onward. Today, people of French heritage make up the majority of native speakers of French in Canada, who in turn account for about 22 per cent of the country's total population; the majority of French Canadians reside in Quebec, where they constitute the majority of the province's population, although French-Canadian and francophone minority communities exist in all other Canadian provinces and territories as well. Besides the Québécois, distinct French speaking ethnic groups in Canada include the Acadians of the Maritime Provinces, the Brayons of New Brunswick, the Métis of the Prairie Provinces, among other smaller groups. During the mid-18th century, Canadian colonists born in French Canada expanded across North America and colonized various regions and towns. Today, French Canadians live across North America. Most French Canadians reside in Quebec, are more referred to as Quebecers or Québécois, although smaller communities exist throughout Canada and in the United States.
Between 1840 and 1930 900,000 French Canadians emigrated to the United States to the New England region. Acadians, who reside in the Maritimes, may be included among the French Canadian group in linguistic contexts, but are considered a separate group from the French Canadians in a cultural sense due to their distinct history, much of which predates the admission of the Maritime Provinces to Canadian Confederation in 1867. French Canadians constitute the second largest ethnic group in Canada, behind those of English ancestry, ahead of those of Scottish and Irish heritage. In total, those whose ethnic origins are French Canadian, French, Québécois and Acadian number up to 11.9 million people or comprising 33.78% of the Canadian population. Not all francophone Canadians are of French-Canadian descent or heritage, as the body of French language speakers in Canada includes significant immigrant communities from other francophone countries such as Haiti, Algeria, Tunisia or Vietnam — and not all French Canadians are francophone, as a significant number of people who have French Canadian ethnic roots are native English speakers.
The French Canadians get their name from Canada, the most developed and densely populated region of New France during the period of French colonization in the 17th and 18th centuries. The original use of the term Canada referred to the land area along the St. Lawrence River, divided in three districts, as well as to the Pays d'en Haut, a vast and thinly settled territorial dependence north and west of Montreal which covered the whole of the Great Lakes area. From 1535 to the 1690s, the French word Canadien had referred to the First Nations the French had encountered in the St. Lawrence River valley at Stadacona and Hochelaga. At the end of the 17th century, Canadien became an ethnonym distinguishing the inhabitants of Canada from those of France. After World War I, English-Canadians appropriated the term "Canadian" and French-Canadians identified as Québécois instead. French Canadians living in Canada express their cultural identity using a number of terms; the Ethnic Diversity Survey of the 2006 Canadian census found that French-speaking Canadians identified their ethnicity most as French, French Canadians, Québécois, Acadian.
The latter three were grouped together by Jantzen as "French New World" ancestries because they originate in Canada. Jantzen distinguishes the English Canadian, meaning "someone whose family has been in Canada for multiple generations", the French Canadien, used to refer to descendants of the original settlers of New France in the 17th and 18th centuries. "Canadien" was used to refer to the French-speaking residents of New France beginning in the last half of the 17th century. The English-speaking residents who arrived from Great Britain were called "Anglais"; this usage continued until Canadian Confederation in 1867. Confederation united several former British colonies into the Dominion of Canada, from that time forward, the word "Canadian" has been used to describe both English-speaking and French-speaking citizens, wherever they live in the country; those reporting "French New World" ancestries overwhelmingly had ancestors that went back at least four generations in Canada. Fourth generation Canadiens and Québécois showed considerable attachment to their ethno-cultural group, with 70% and 61% reporting a strong sense of belonging.
The generational profile and strength of identity of French New World ancestries contrast with those of British or Canadian ancestries, which represent the largest ethnic identities in Canada. Although rooted Canadians express a deep attachment to their ethnic identity, most English-speaking Canadians of British or Canadian ancestry cannot trace their ancestry as far back in Canada as French-speakers; as a result, their identification with their ethnicity is weaker: for example, only 50% of third generation "Canadians" identify as such, bringing down the overall average. The survey report notes that 80% of Canadians whose families had been in Canada for three or more generations reported "Canadian and provincial or regional ethnic identities"; these identities include
The October Crisis occurred in October 1970 in the province of Quebec in Canada in the Montreal metropolitan area. Members of the Front de libération du Québec kidnapped the provincial Deputy Premier Pierre Laporte and British diplomat James Cross. In response, Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau invoked the only peacetime use of the War Measures Act; the kidnappers murdered Laporte and negotiations led to Cross's release and the kidnappers' exile to Cuba. The Premier of Quebec Robert Bourassa and the Mayor of Montreal Jean Drapeau supported Trudeau's invocation of the War Measures Act, which limited civil liberties; the police were enabled with far-reaching powers, they arrested and detained, without bail, 497 individuals, all but 62 of whom were released without charges. The Government of Quebec requested military aid to the civil power, Canadian Forces deployed throughout Quebec. At the time, opinion polls throughout Canada, including in Quebec, showed widespread support for the use of the War Measures Act.
The response, was criticized at the time by prominent politicians such as René Lévesque and Tommy Douglas. The events of October 1970 galvanized support against the use of violence in efforts to gain Quebec sovereignty and accelerated the movement towards electoral means of attaining greater autonomy and independence, including support for the sovereigntist Parti Québécois, which formed the provincial government in 1976. From 1963 to 1970 the Quebec nationalist group Front de libération du Québec detonated over 95 bombs. While mailboxes—particularly in the affluent and predominantly Anglophone city of Westmount—were common targets, the largest single bombing was of the Montreal Stock Exchange on February 13, 1969, which caused extensive damage and injured 27 people. Other targets included Montreal City Hall, Royal Canadian Mounted Police, armed forces recruiting offices, railway tracks, army installations. FLQ members, in a strategic move, had stolen several tons of dynamite from military and industrial sites, financed by bank robberies, they threatened through their official communication organ, known as La Cognée, that more attacks were to come.
By 1970, 23 members of the FLQ were including four convicted of murder. On February 26, 1970, two men in a panel truck – including Jacques Lanctôt – were arrested in Montreal when they were discovered with a sawed-off shotgun and a communique announcing the kidnapping of the Israeli consul. In June, police raided a home in the small community of Prévost, north of Montreal in the Laurentian Mountains, found firearms, ammunition, 300 pounds of dynamite and the draft of a ransom note to be used in the kidnapping of the United States consul. October 5: Montreal, Quebec: Two members of the "Liberation Cell" of the FLQ kidnap British diplomat James Cross from his home; the kidnappers are disguised as delivery men bringing a package for his recent birthday. Once the maid lets them in, they pull out a revolver and kidnap Cross; this is followed by a communique to the authorities containing the kidnappers' demands, which include the exchange of Cross for "political prisoners", a number of convicted or detained FLQ members, the CBC broadcast of the FLQ Manifesto.
The terms of the ransom note are the same as those found in June for the planned kidnapping of the U. S. consul. At this time, the police do not connect the two. October 8: Broadcast of the FLQ Manifesto in all French- and English-speaking media outlets in Quebec. October 10: Montreal, Quebec: Members of the Chenier Cell approach the home of the Deputy Premier of the province of Quebec, Pierre Laporte, while he is playing football with his nephew on his front lawn. Members of the "Chenier cell" of the FLQ kidnap Laporte. October 11: The CBC broadcasts a letter from captivity from Pierre Laporte to the Premier of Quebec, Robert Bourassa. October 12: General Gilles Turcot sends troops from the Royal 22e Régiment to guard federal property in the Montreal region, by request of the federal government. Lawyer Robert Lemieux is appointed by the FLQ to negotiate the release of James Cross and Pierre Laporte; the Quebec Government appoints Robert Demers. October 13: Prime Minister Trudeau is interviewed by the CBC with respect to the military presence.
In a combative interview, Trudeau asks Tim Ralfe, what he would do in his place. When Ralfe asks Trudeau how far he would go Trudeau replies, "Just watch me". October 14: Sixteen prominent Quebec personalities, including René Lévesque and Claude Ryan, call for negotiating "exchange of the two hostages for the political prisoners". FLQ's lawyer Robert Lemieux urges Université de Montréal students to boycott classes in support of FLQ. October 15: Quebec City: The negotiations between lawyers Lemieux and Demers are put to an end; the Government of Quebec formally requests the intervention of the Canadian army in "aid of the civil power" pursuant to the National Defence Act. All three opposition parties, including the Parti Québécois, rise in the National Assembly and agree with the decision. On the same day, separatist groups are permitted to speak at the Université de Montréal. Robert Lemieux organizes a 3,000 student rally in Paul Sauvé Arena to show support for the FLQ; the rally frightens many Canadians, who view it as a possible prelude to outright insurrection in Quebec.
October 16: Premier Bourassa formally requests that the government of Canada grant the government of Quebec "emergency powers" that allow them to "appr